Changes to This Summary (12/03/2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Added Hu et al. as reference 19 and level of evidence 3iiiA.
Added Gallia et al. as reference 34 and level of evidence 3iiiDii.
Added Galer et al. and Thariat et al. as references 131 and 132, respectively.
Added Thariat et al. as reference 132 and level of evidence 3iiiA.
Added text about NUT midline carcinoma to state that a retrospective series with clinicopathologic correlation found that the median age at diagnosis of 54 patients was 16 years (cited Bauer et al. as reference 159).
Added text to state that although gross complete resection and early radiation therapy may be of benefit, there is no proven benefit of chemotherapy (cited Bauer et al. as reference 159 and level of evidence 3iiiB).
Added Kocabaş et al. as reference 93.
Added Neri et al. as reference 96 and level of evidence 3iiiA.
Added Kutluk et al. as reference 102 and level of evidence 3iiDiii.
Added Sugalski et al. as reference 113.
Added Redlich et al. as reference 12.
Added Redlich et al. as reference 12 and level of evidence 3iiiA.
Added text to state that in the GPOH-MET 97 trial, mitotane levels greater than 14 mg/L correlated with better survival.
Added text to state that a series of 31 patients aged 4 to 18.7 years included 21 patients with solid pseudopapillary tumor, four with neuroendocrine tumor, four with pancreatoblastoma, and one with an unclassified spindle-cell tumor. Treatment was surgical removal in 29 patients; the 3-year survival rate for patients with pseudopapillary tumor was 100% (cited Rojas et al. as reference 69 and level of evidence 3iiA).
Added Belletrutti et al. as reference 73.
Revised text to state that in newborns and infants, juvenile granulosa cell and Sertoli cell tumors are the most common stromal cell tumor. Also added text to state that juvenile granulosa cell tumors usually present in infancy (median age, 6 days) and Sertoli cell tumors present later in infancy (median age, 7 months); the prognosis is usually excellent after orchiectomy (cited Hofmann et al. as reference 17).
Added text to state that in a retrospective study, 42 patients with sex cord–stromal tumors were identified; all tumors were confined to the testes. They were treated with surgery alone, according to specific germ cell tumor guidelines; there were no recurrences (cited Hofmann et al. as reference 17 and level of evidence 3iiiA).
Added text to state that ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms comprise a small subset of ovarian epithelial neoplasms; in children, most of the cases are of serous or mucinous histology and have a low malignant potential (cited Hazard et al. as reference 29).
Added text about a Chinese group that reported on 40 women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I or IC Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary, with an average age of 28 years (cited Gui et al. as reference 46 and level of evidence 3iiA).
Added Sarathi et al. as reference 54.
Added text to state that the incidence of pediatric melanoma increased by an average of 2% per year between 1973 and 2009; the increased incidence was especially notable in females between the ages of 15 and 19 years (cited Wong et al. as reference 72).
Added Han et al. as reference 91.
Added text to state that one retrospective study found that children aged 10 years or older were more likely to present with amelanotic lesions, bleeding, uniform color, variable diameter, and elevation (cited Cordoro et al. as reference 108 and level of evidence 3iiA).
Added Rombi et al. as reference 142.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.