Changes to This Summary (10/29/2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Revised text to state that between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50% (cited Smith et al. as reference 3).
Added Yan et al. as reference 4.
Added text to state that from 1990 to 2009, incidence rates for differentiated thyroid carcinomas increased in children, adolescents, and young adults in the United States; the trend toward larger tumors suggests that diagnostic scrutiny is not the only explanation for the observed results (cited Vergamini et al. as reference 45).
Added text about the results of a phase I/II trial of children with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma who were treated with vandetanib (cited Fox et al. as reference 102).
Added Tichy et al. as reference 15.
Added McAteer et al. as reference 28.
Added text to state that exon sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of 45 adrenocortical carcinomas in adults identified two molecular subgroups, one with a favorable prognosis and one with an unfavorable prognosis; the group with a poor prognosis had numerous mutations and DNA methylation alterations; in contrast, the group with a good prognosis had relatively few mutations (cited Assié et al. as reference 30).
Added text about the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology report on lymph node sampling and right hemicolectomy in children with appendiceal carcinoid tumors (cited Boxberger et al. as reference 119 and level of evidence 3iiDii).
Added text about the results of a phase I/II trial of children with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma who were treated with vandetanib (cited Fox et al. as reference 35).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.