Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)
What is prevention?
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.
To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.
Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of cancer. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer.
Different ways to prevent cancer are being studied, including:
General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer
- Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the mouth or throat.
- Oral cancer is more common in men than in women.
Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the mouth or throat.
Oral cavity cancer forms in any of these tissues of the oral cavity:
Most oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers start in squamous cells (thin, flat cells) that line the oral cavity and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma can form from lesions on the mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth and throat). These lesions include leukoplakia (an abnormal white patch of cells) and erythroplakia (an abnormal red patch of cells).
In Western countries, such as the United States, the most common areas for oral cancer are the tongue and the floor of the mouth.
Oral cancer is more common in men than in women.
Men are more than twice as likely as women to have oral cancer and die from it.
Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention
- Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.
- The following are risk factors for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer:
- Tobacco use
- Alcohol use
- Tobacco and alcohol use
- Family history of oral cancer
- The following is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer:
- HPV infection
- The following is a protective factor for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer:
- Quitting smoking
- It is not clear whether avoiding certain risk factors will decrease the risk of oral cavity cancer or oropharyngeal cancer.
- Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
New ways to prevent oral cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are being studied in clinical
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.
Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.
The following are risk factors for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer:
All forms of tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and chewing (smokeless) tobacco, can cause cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. For cigarette smokers, the risk of oral cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Tobacco use is most likely to cause oral cancer in the floor of the mouth, but also causes cancer in other parts of mouth and throat.
Betel quid chewinghas also been shown to increase the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer.
Tobacco users who have had oral cancer may develop second cancers in the oral cavity or nearby areas. These areas include the nose, throat, vocal cords, esophagus, and trachea (windpipe). This is because the oral cavity and nearby areas have been exposed to the harmful substances in tobacco, and new cancers may form over time.
The risk of oral cancer increases with the number of alcoholic drinks consumed per day. The risk of oral cancer is about twice as high in people who have 3 to 4 alcoholic drinks per day compared to those who don't drink alcohol.
Tobacco and alcohol use
The risk of oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer is 2 to 3 times higher in people who use both tobacco and alcohol than it is in people who use only tobacco or only alcohol.
Family history of oral cancer
People with a family history of oral cancer have an increased risk of oral cancer.
The following is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer:
The risk of oropharyngeal cancer is about 15 times higher in people with oral HPV 16 infection, compared to people without oral HPV 16 infection. Tobacco and alcohol use do not appear to further increase the risk in people with oral HPV infection.
The following is a protective factor for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer:
Studies have shown that when people stop smoking cigarettes, their risk of oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer decreases by one-half (50%) within 5 years. Within 10 years of quitting, their risk of oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer is the same as for a person who never smoked cigarettes.
It is not clear whether avoiding certain risk factors will decrease the risk of oral cavity cancer or oropharyngeal cancer.
It has not been proven that the following will decrease the risk of oral cavity cancer or oropharyngeal cancer:
Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of certain types of cancer. Some cancer prevention trials are done with healthy people who have not had cancer but who have an increased risk for cancer. Other prevention trials are done with people who have had cancer and are trying to prevent another cancer of the same type or to lower their chance of developing a new type of cancer. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for cancer.
The purpose of some cancer prevention clinical trials is to find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.
New ways to prevent oral cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.
Chemoprevention is the use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to prevent or delay the growth of cancer. One study found no decrease in the risk of oropharyngeal cancer in male smokers who took vitamin E and beta carotene supplements (pills).
Other studies of chemoprevention are being done in patients at high risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. This includes patients with lesions on the mucous membranes, which may become cancer, and patients with a history of oral cancer.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials can be found in the Clinical Trials section of the NCI website. Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for lip and oral cavity cancer prevention trials and oropharyngeal cancer prevention trials that are now accepting patients.
Changes to This Summary (07/23/2015)
This summary was renamed from Oral Cancer Prevention.
About This PDQ Summary
Physician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.
PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.
Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer prevention. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.
Reviewers and Updates
Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") is the date of the most recent change.
The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board.
Clinical Trial Information
A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Clinical trials are listed in PDQ and can be found online at NCI's website. Many cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are also listed in PDQ. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
Permission to Use This Summary
PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to write a sentence such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [include excerpt from the summary].”
The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:
National Cancer Institute: PDQ® Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/oral-prevention-pdq. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>.
Images in this summary are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 2,000 scientific images.
The information in these summaries should not be used to make decisions about insurance reimbursement. More information on insurance coverage is available on Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page.
More information about contacting us or receiving help with the Cancer.gov website can be found on our Contact Us for Help page. Questions can also be submitted to Cancer.gov through the website’s E-mail Us.
Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the website's E-mail Us. We can respond only to email messages written in English.
Get More Information From NCI
For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.
The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI websites and answer questions about cancer.
Write to us
For more information from the NCI, please write to this address:
- NCI Public Inquiries Office
- 9609 Medical Center Dr.
- Room 2E532 MSC 9760
- Bethesda, MD 20892-9760
Search the NCI websites
The NCI website provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other websites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use the search box in the upper right corner of each web page. The results for a wide range of search terms will include a list of "Best Bets," editorially chosen web pages that are most closely related to the search term entered.
There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.
The NCI has booklets and other materials for patients, health professionals, and the public. These publications discuss types of cancer, methods of cancer treatment, coping with cancer, and clinical trials. Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. NCI materials on these and other topics may be ordered online or printed directly from the NCI Publications Locator. These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).