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Cancer Nano-Therapies in the Clinic and Clinical Trials

The true measure of nanotechnology success in medicine and oncology lies in effectively translating research discoveries into the clinic for improved disease diagnosis and treatment. Although the use of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment is largely still in the development phase, several nanocarrier-based drugs are already available, and many more nano-based therapeutics are undergoing clinical trials. Nanotechnology in oncology includes the use of precisely engineered materials to develop novel therapies and devices that may reduce toxicity as well as enhance the efficacy and delivery of treatments. Notably, Doxil® and Abraxane®, most known nano-based drugs, have been approved by FDA several years ago and have been used successfully in clinical practice.  A complete list of cancer nano-therapeutics approved by FDA and regulatory agencies of other countries is given below. The link ClinicalTrials.gov will bring you to a comprehensive list of the current U.S. clinical trials involving cancer nanotechnology.

Approved Cancer Drug Therapies Based on Nanotechnology (EMA: European Medicines Agency; FDA: US Food and Drug Administration; Adapted from Andreas Wicki, et al., J Control Release, 2015 and Francisco Rodriguez, et al., Biomolecules, 2022)

Approval (year)

Product

Company

Nanoparticle material

Drug/Mechanism

Indication

EMA (2019)

Hensify (NBTXR3)

Nanobiotix

Hafnium oxide nanoparticle

Radiotherapy

Locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS)

EMA (2019)

Pazenir

Ratiopharm GmbH

Nanoparticle-bound albumin

Paclitaxel

Metastatic breast cancer, metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, non-small cell lung cancer

FDA (2017)

EMA (2018)

Vyxeos

Celator/Jazz Pharma

Liposome  

Cytarabine/Daunorubicin

Acute myeloid leukemia

FDA (2015)

Onivyde

Merrimack Pharma

Liposome

Irinotecan

Pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer

EMA (2010, 2013) NanoTherm MagForce Nanotechnologies AG Iron oxide nanoparticles Thermal ablation with magnetic field Glioblastoma, prostate,
and pancreatic cancer

FDA (2012)

Marqibo

Talon Therapeutics/ Spectrum Pharmaceuticals

Liposome

Vincristine

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

EMA (2009)

Mepact

Takeda Pharmaceuticals

Liposome

Mifamurtide MTP-PE

Osteosarcoma

South Korea (2007)

Genexol-PM

Samyang Biopharmaceuticals

PEG-PLA polymeric micelle

Paclitaxel

Breast, lung, ovarian cancer

FDA (1994, 2006)

Oncaspar

Enzon-Sigma-tau

Polymer protein conjugate

Pegaspargase/L-asparaginase

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

FDA (2005)

Abraxane

Abraxis/Celgene

Nanoparticle-bound albumin

Paclitaxel

Breast and pancreatic cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer

FDA (1999)

DepoCyt

Pacira Pharmaceuticals 

Liposome

Cytarabine

Neoplastic meningitis

FDA (1996)

DaunoXome

Gilead Sciences

Liposome

Daunorubicin

Kaposi’s sarcoma

FDA (1995, 1999, 2007), EMA (1996, 2000), Taiwan (1998) Doxil, Caelyx, Myocet, and Lipo-Dox Johnson and Johnson, Schering-Plough, Teva UK, and TTY Biopharm Liposome Doxorubicin Metastatic breast cancer, ovarian cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma, multiple myeloma

 

 

 

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