General Information About Vulvar Cancer
Key Points for This Section
- Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva.
- Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer.
- Signs of vulvar cancer include bleeding or itching.
- Tests that examine the vulva are used to detect (find) and diagnose vulvar cancer.
- Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva.
Vulvar cancer most often affects the outer vaginal lips. Less often, cancer affects the inner vaginal lips, clitoris, or vaginal glands.
Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over a number of years. Abnormal cells can grow on the surface of the vulvar skin for a long time. This condition is called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Because it is possible for VIN to become vulvar cancer, it is very important to get treatment.
Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for vulvar cancer include the following:
Other possible risk factors include the following:
- Having many sexual partners.
- Having first sexual intercourse at a young age.
- Having a history of abnormal Pap tests (Pap smears).
Signs of vulvar cancer include bleeding or itching.
Tests that examine the vulva are used to detect (find) and diagnose vulvar cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking the vulva for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Biopsy : The removal of samples of cells or tissues from the vulva so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.