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Azacitidine, Venetoclax, and Trametinib for the Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Trial Status: Active

This phase II trial investigates how well azacitidine, venetoclax, and trametinib work in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia or higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome that has come back (relapsed) or has not responded to treatment (refractory). Chemotherapy drugs, such as azacitidine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Venetoclax and trametinib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. The goal of this study is learn if the combination of azacitidine, venetoclax, and trametinib can help to control acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

Inclusion Criteria

  • Diagnosis: * Cohort A (frontline): Newly diagnosed AML * Cohort B (relapsed/refractory): Relapsed/refractory AML or relapsed/refractory MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) that is intermediate-2 or high-risk by the International Prognostic Scoring System with >= 10% blasts harboring a Ras pathway-activating mutation. Eligible mutations include: activating mutations of KIT, HRAS/NRAS/KRAS, BRAF, CBL or PTPN11 or loss of function mutation of NF1. Other mutations not listed here that are anticipated to activate Ras signaling may be considered for enrollment after discussion with the principal investigator (PI)
  • Performance status =< 2 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] scale)
  • Total serum bilirubin =< 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN), unless due to Gilbert’s syndrome, hemolysis or the underlying leukemia approved by the PI
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) =< 3 x ULN, unless due to the underlying leukemia approved by the PI
  • Creatinine clearance >= 30 mL/min
  • Ability to swallow
  • Signed informed consent

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients suitable for and willing to receive intensive induction chemotherapy (cohort A only)
  • Active serious infection not controlled by oral or intravenous antibiotics (e.g. persistent fever or lack of improvement despite antimicrobial treatment)
  • Patients with a prior or concurrent malignancy whose natural history or treatment is not anticipated to interfere with the safety or efficacy assessment of the investigational regimen may be included only after discussion with the PI
  • Consumed strong inducer of CYP3A or p-glycoprotein within 3 days of study enrollment. Agents include but are not limited to: carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, and St. John’s wart
  • Treatment with any investigational antileukemic agents or chemotherapy agents in the last 7 days before study entry, unless full recovery from side effects has occurred or patient has rapidly progressive disease judged to be life-threatening by the investigator. Prior recent treatment with corticosteroids, hydroxyurea and/or cytarabine (given for cytoreduction) permitted
  • Pregnant women will not be eligible; women of childbearing potential should have a negative pregnancy test prior to entering on the study and be willing to practice methods of contraception throughout the study period and for at least 6 months after the last dose of study drugs. Women do not have childbearing potential if they have had a hysterectomy or are postmenopausal without menses for 12 months. In addition, men enrolled on this study should understand the risks to any sexual partner of childbearing potential and should practice an effective method of birth control throughout the study period and for at least 4 months after the last dose of study drugs. Lactating women (or those planning to breastfeed) should not breastfeed during treatment of trametinib and for at least 2 months after the last dose of trametinib


M D Anderson Cancer Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Nicholas Short
Phone: 713-563-4485


I. To determine overall survival rate at 1 year of the regimen in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (Cohort A)

II. To determine the complete remission (CR)/complete remission without recovery of counts (CRi) rate of the regimen in patients with relapsed/refractory AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). (Cohort B)


I. To assess other efficacy endpoints (CR rate, minimal residual disease negativity by flow cytometry, relapse-free survival, event-free survival, and overall survival).

II. To assess proportion of patients proceeding to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

III. To determine the safety of the combination regimen.


I. To evaluate the impact of baseline genomic alterations on response and survival of the combination regimen.

II. To evaluate clonal evolution from diagnosis to relapse.


INDUCTION (CYCLE 1): Patients receive azacitidine intravenously (IV) over 30-60 minutes or subcutaneously (SC) on days 1-7, venetoclax orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-28, and trametinib PO QD on days 1-28 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

CONSOLIDATION (CYCLES 2-24): Patients receive azacitidine IV over 30-60 minutes or SC on days 1-7, venetoclax PO QD on days 1-21, and trametinib PO QD on days 1-28. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 23 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 30 days, and then every 6 months thereafter.

Trial Phase Phase II

Trial Type Treatment

Lead Organization
M D Anderson Cancer Center

Principal Investigator
Nicholas Short

  • Primary ID 2020-0506
  • Secondary IDs NCI-2020-05350
  • ID NCT04487106