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Nivolumab in Combination with Chemo-Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma

Trial Status: In Review

This phase III trial compares the effects of nivolumab with chemo-immunotherapy versus chemo-immunotherapy alone in treating patients with newly diagnosed primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Treatment for PMBCL involves chemotherapy combined with an immunotherapy called rituximab. Chemotherapy drugs work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody. It binds to a protein called CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of white blood cell) and some types of cancer cells. This may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Giving nivolumab with chemo-immunotherapy may help treat patients with PMBCL.

Inclusion Criteria

  • Age >= 2 years
  • Patient must have histologically confirmed primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2 or ECOG performance status of 3 if poor performance is related to lymphoma * Children's Oncology Group (COG) Institutions: Use Karnofsky for patients >= 17 and < 18 years of age and Lansky for patients < 17 years of age
  • Adults (age 18 or older): Creatinine clearance >= 30 mL/min, as estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault formula. The creatinine value used in the calculation must have been obtained within 28 days prior to registration. Estimated creatinine clearance is based on actual body weight
  • Pediatric Patients (age < 18 years): The following must have been obtained within 14 days prior to registration: * Measured or calculated (based on institutional standard) creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70 ml/min/1.73 m^2, or * Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (IULN), or a serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows: ** Age : 2 to < 6 year; Maximum serum creatinine (mg/dL): 0.8 (male; 0.8 (female) ** Age : 6 to < 10 years; Maximum serum creatinine (mg/dL): 1 (male); 1 (female) ** Age : 10 to < 13 years; Maximum serum creatinine (mg/dL): 1.2 (male); 1.2 (female) ** Age : 13 to < 16 years; Maximum serum creatinine (mg/dL): 1.5 (male); 1.4 (female) ** Age : >= 16 years to < 18 years; Maximum serum creatinine (mg/dL): 1.7 (male); 1.4 (female)
  • Patients with abnormal liver function will be permitted if chemotherapy can still be delivered with standard dose reductions
  • Age >= 18 years: Ejection fraction of >= 50% by echocardiogram
  • Age < 18 years: Shortening fraction of >= 27% by echocardiogram, or ejection fraction of >= 50% by radionuclide angiogram
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on effective anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable viral load within 6 months are eligible for this trial
  • For patients with evidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the HBV viral load must be undetectable on suppressive therapy, if indicated
  • Patients with a history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection must have been treated and cured. For patients with HCV infection who are currently on treatment, they are eligible if they have an undetectable HCV viral load

Exclusion Criteria

  • Administration of prior anti-cancer therapy except as outlined below: * A short course (=< 2 weeks) of corticosteroids for the relief of lymphoma-related symptoms * A single course of COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) * One cycle of chemo-immunotherapy including R-CHOP, DA-EPOCH-R, or a pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) induction therapy (such as ANHL1131) that has not started more than 21 days prior to enrollment
  • Active ischemic heart disease or heart failure
  • Active uncontrolled infection
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of lymphoma
  • Previous cancer that required systemic chemotherapy and/or thoracic radiation. Other cancers will be permitted if in remission x 3 years
  • Active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment (such as disease modifying agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive agents) in the past 2 years. Replacement therapy such as thyroxine, insulin or physiologic corticosteroid for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency is not considered a form of systemic treatment
  • In patients < 18 years of age hepatitis B serologies consistent with past or current infections
  • Female patients who are pregnant since fetal toxicities and teratogenic effects have been noted for several of the study drugs. A pregnancy test is required for female patients of childbearing potential
  • Sexually active patients of reproductive potential who have not agreed to use a highly effective contraceptive method (failure rate of < 1% per year when used consistently and correctly) for the duration of their study participation
  • Lactating females are not eligible unless they have agreed not to breastfeed their infants starting with the first dose of study therapy and for at least 6 months after the last dose of rituximab
  • All patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent
  • All institutional, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and National Cancer Institute (NCI) requirements for human studies must be met

Location information is not yet available.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

I. To determine if nivolumab + chemo-immunotherapy results in a superior long term progression-free survival (PFS) (events defined as disease progression confirmed by central review or death) when compared with chemo-immunotherapy alone in patients with newly diagnosed primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

I. To compare the rates of “efficacy-related event-free survival (EFS)” (eEFS) (events defined as progression, change in therapy due to finding that led to concern about efficacy, biopsy + disease after 6 cycles of therapy, or death) between chemo-immunotherapy alone and chemo-immunotherapy + nivolumab in patients with newly diagnosed PMBCL.

II. To compare the rates of “therapy-related EFS” (tEFS) (events defined as relapse/progression, change in therapy for any reason, biopsy + disease after 6 cycles of therapy, secondary malignancy [SMN] or death) between chemo-immunotherapy alone and chemo-immunotherapy + nivolumab in patients with newly diagnosed PMBCL.

III. To compare the rates of overall survival (OS) between chemo-immunotherapy alone and chemo-immunotherapy + nivolumab in patients with newly diagnosed PMBCL.

IV. To establish the rate of a positive positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) (defined as Deauville score 4 or 5) at the completion of 6 cycles of nivolumab + rituximab (R)- cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)/dose-adjusted (DA)-etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (EPOCH)-R and R-CHOP/DA-EPOCH-R in patients with newly diagnosed PMBCL and evaluate the prognostic significance of such a finding.

EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES:

I. To bank radiology images for further studies.

II. To bank specimens for future correlative studies.

III. Characterize the immune profile of patients treated with nivolumab + chemo-immunotherapy to identify markers predictive of response.

IV. Define the rate of complete response at the completion of initial planned therapy.

OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 6 arms.

ARM A (DA-EPOCH-R): Patients receive prednisone or prednisolone orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-5 and rituximab intravenously (IV) or rituximab and hyaluronidase human subcutaneously (SC) over 5 minutes on day 1 or 5. Patients also receive etoposide phosphate, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and vincristine sulfate IV over 96 hours on days 1-4 and cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes on day 5. Beginning 24-72 hours after completing cyclophosphamide, patients receive filgrastim or pegylated filgrastim SC daily until absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is >= 500/uL after the expected nadir. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM B (DA-EPOCH-R + NIVOLUMAB): Patients receive treatment as in Arm A. Patients also receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM C (R-CHOP): Patients receive prednisone or prednisolone PO QD on days 1-5 and rituximab IV or rituximab and hyaluronidase human SC over 5 minutes on day 1 or 5. Patients also receive cyclophosphamide IV over 30-60 minutes, doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1-15 minutes or up to 60 minutes, and vincristine sulfate IV over 1 or up to 60 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM D (R-CHOP + NIVOLUMAB): Patients receive treatment as in Arm C. Patients also receive nivolumab IV over 30 minutes on day 1. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM E (R-CHOP + RADIOTHERAPY): Patients receive treatment as in Arm C. Within 6-8 weeks after completion of chemotherapy, patients undergo radiation therapy over 25 fractions.

ARM F (R-CHOP + RADIOTHERAPY + NIVOLUMAB): Patients receive treatment as in Arm D. Within 6-8 weeks after completion of chemotherapy, patients undergo radiation therapy over 25 fractions.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for year 1, every 6 months for years 2-3, and annually thereafter.

Trial Phase Phase III

Trial Type Treatment

Lead Organization
Children's Oncology Group

Principal Investigator
Lisa Giulino Roth

  • Primary ID ANHL1931
  • Secondary IDs NCI-2021-01071
  • Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT04759586