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Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Last Modified: 11/21/2014

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Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

Mature and Immature Teratomas
Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors
        Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors
        Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
Malignant Extragonadal Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors
Recurrent Childhood Malignant Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors



Mature and Immature Teratomas

Treatment of mature teratomas that are not in the sacrum or coccyx (bottom part of the spine) includes the following:

Treatment of immature teratomas that are not in the sacrum or coccyx includes the following:

  • Surgery to remove the tumor followed by observation for stage I tumors.
  • Surgery to remove the tumor and combination chemotherapy for stage II–IV tumors. It is not known if chemotherapy will help the patient live longer.

Treatment of immature teratomas that are in the sacrum or coccyx includes the following:

  • Surgery (removal of the sacrum and coccyx) followed by observation.

Sometimes a mature or immature teratoma also has malignant cells. The teratoma and malignant cells may need to be treated differently.

Regular follow-up exams with imaging tests and the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tumor marker test will be done for at least 3 years.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood teratoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

Treatment of malignant testicular germ cell tumors may include the following:

For boys younger than 15 years:

For boys 15 years and older:

Malignant testicular germ cell tumors in boys 15 years and older are treated differently than they are in young boys. Surgery may include removal of lymph nodes in the abdomen. (See the PDQ summary on Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information.)

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood malignant testicular germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

Dysgerminomas

Treatment of stage I dysgerminomas in young girls may include the following:

Treatment of stages II–IV dysgerminomas in young girls may include the following:

  • Surgery (unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) followed by combination chemotherapy.
  • Combination chemotherapy to shrink the tumor, followed by surgery (unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy).
Nongerminomas

Treatment of stage I nongerminomas in young girls may include the following:

Treatment of stages II–IV nongerminomas in young girls may include the following:

  • Surgery followed by combination chemotherapy. A second surgery may be done to remove any remaining cancer.
  • Biopsy followed by combination chemotherapy to shrink the tumor and sometimes surgery for tumors that cannot be removed by surgery when cancer is diagnosed.

The treatment for adolescents and young adults with ovarian germ cell tumor is much like the treatment for adults. (See the PDQ treatment summary on Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors for more information.)

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Extragonadal Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

Treatment of childhood malignant extragonadal extracranial germ cell tumors may include the following:

  • Combination chemotherapy to shrink the tumor followed by surgery to remove the sacrum and coccyx (bottom part of the spine) for tumors that are in the sacrum or coccyx.
  • Combination chemotherapy to shrink the tumor followed by surgery to remove tumors that are in the mediastinum.
  • Biopsy followed by combination chemotherapy to shrink the tumor and surgery to remove tumors that are in the abdomen.
  • Surgery to remove the tumor followed by combination chemotherapy for tumors of the head and neck.

Treatment of malignant extragonadal extracranial germ cell tumors in places not already described includes the following:

  • Surgery followed by combination chemotherapy.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood extragonadal germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Recurrent Childhood Malignant Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

There is no standard treatment for recurrent childhood malignant extracranial germ cell tumors. Treatment depends on the following:

Treatment is usually within a clinical trial and may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood malignant germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.