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Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)

  • Last Modified: 04/14/2014

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Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

Mature and Immature Teratomas
Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors
        Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors
        Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
Recurrent Childhood Malignant Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors



Mature and Immature Teratomas

Treatment of mature and immature teratomas in the sacrum or coccyx is usually surgery followed by watchful waiting. Most teratomas can be removed completely. If the tumor is in the coccyx, the entire coccyx is removed. Chemotherapy may be given if the tumor comes back.

Treatment of mature and immature teratomas that are not in the sacrum or coccyx is usually surgery followed by watchful waiting. A second surgery may be done to remove any remaining cancer.

Sometimes a mature or immature teratoma also has malignant cells. The teratoma and malignant cells may need to be treated differently. The best treatment for the malignant cells is not known.

Regular follow-up exams with imaging tests and the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tumor marker test will be done for at least 3 years.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood teratoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

Treatment of malignant testicular germ cell tumors may include the following:

For boys younger than 15 years:

For boys 15 years and older:

Malignant testicular germ cell tumors in boys 15 years and older are treated differently than they are in young boys. Surgery may include removal of lymph nodes in the abdomen. Treatment depends on whether the tumor is a seminoma or a nonseminoma. (See the PDQ summary on Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information.)

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood malignant testicular germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

Treatment of childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in young girls may include the following:

The treatment for adolescents and young adults with ovarian germ cell tumor is similar to the treatment for adults. (See the PDQ treatment summary on Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors for more information.)

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Treatment of childhood extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors may include the following:

(See the PDQ treatment summary on Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors for more information.)

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood extragonadal germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Recurrent Childhood Malignant Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

There is no standard treatment for recurrent childhood malignant extracranial germ cell tumors. Treatment is usually within in a clinical trial and may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood malignant germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your child's doctor about clinical trials that may be right for your child. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.