Español
Questions About Cancer? 1-800-4-CANCER
  • View entire document
  • Print
  • Email
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Google+
  • Pinterest

Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome Treatment (PDQ®)

Treatment Option Overview

There are different types of treatment for patients with mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome cancer.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Six types of standard treatment are used:

Photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic therapy is a cancer treatment that uses a drug and a certain type of laser light to kill cancer cells. A drug that is not active until it is exposed to light is injected into a vein. The drug collects more in cancer cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy will need to limit the amount of time spent in sunlight.

In one type of photodynamic therapy, called psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy, the patient receives a drug called psoralen and then ultraviolet radiation is directed to the skin. In another type of photodynamic therapy, called extracorporeal photochemotherapy, the patient is given drugs and then some blood cells are taken from the body, put under a special ultraviolet A light, and put back into the body.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.

Sometimes, total skin electron beam (TSEB) radiation therapy is used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. This is a type of radiation treatment in which the skin over the whole body is treated with rays of tiny particles called electrons.

The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). Sometimes the chemotherapy is topical (put on the skin in a cream, lotion, or ointment). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

See Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information. (Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.)

Other drug therapy

Topical corticosteroids are used to relieve red, swollen, and inflamed skin. They are a type of steroid. Topical corticosteroids may be in a cream, lotion, or ointment.

Retinoids, such as bexarotene, are drugs related to vitamin A that can slow the growth of certain types of cancer cells. The retinoids may be taken by mouth or put on the skin.

See Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information. (Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.)

Biologic therapy

Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Interferon is a type of biologic therapy used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. It interferes with the division of cancer cells and can slow tumor growth.

See Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information. (Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.)

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy and other types of targeted therapies are used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome.

Alemtuzumab and denileukin diftitox are monoclonal antibodies used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. Monoclonal antibody therapy uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.

Vorinostat and romidepsin are two of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. HDAC inhibitors cause a chemical change that stops tumor cells from dividing.

Pralatrexate is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor used to treat mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. It builds up in cancer cells and stops them from using folate, a nutrient needed for cells to divide. Pralatrexate may slow the growth of tumors and kill cancer cells.

See Drugs Approved for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma for more information. (Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.)

New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Ultraviolet B radiation therapy

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation therapy uses a special lamp or laser that directs UVB radiation at the skin.

High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant

This treatment is a method of giving high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and replacing blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the bone marrow or blood of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After therapy is completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body's blood cells.

Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

  • Updated: November 11, 2014