Regorafenib in Treating Patients with Advanced Urothelial Cancer After Chemotherapy

Status: Closed to Accrual


This phase II trial studies how well regorafenib works in treating patients with urothelial cancer that has spread to other places in the body and usually cannot be cured or controlled after chemotherapy. Regorafenib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients must have pathologically or cytologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium
  • Progressive disease after 1-3 prior chemotherapy regimens (perioperative chemotherapy within 12 months will be considered one regimen)
  • Prior regimen must be within 6 months of registration
  • Measurable disease by RECIST 1.1
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1
  • Patients with metastatic (lymph node or distant metastasis, i.e. N+ or M1) or locally advanced unresectable (T4b) TCC
  • Life expectancy of at least 12 weeks (3 months)
  • Subjects must be able to understand and be willing to sign the written informed consent form; a signed informed consent form must be appropriately obtained prior to the conduct of any trial-specific procedure
  • Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x the upper limits of normal (ULN)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 x ULN (=< 5 x ULN for subjects with liver involvement of their cancer)
  • Aspartate amino-transferase (AST) =< 2.5 x ULN (=< 5 x ULN for subjects with liver involvement of their cancer)
  • Alkaline phosphatase limit =< 2.5 x ULN (=< 5 x ULN for subjects with liver involvement of their cancer)
  • Serum creatinine =< 1.5 x the ULN
  • International normalized ratio (INR)/ partial thromboplastin time (PTT) =< 1.5 x ULN; (subjects who are prophylactically treated with an agent such as warfarin or heparin will be allowed to participate provided that no prior evidence of underlying abnormality in coagulation parameters exists; close monitoring of at least weekly evaluations will be performed until INR/PTT is stable based on a measurement that is pre-dose as defined by the local standard of care
  • Platelet count > 100000 /mm3, hemoglobin (Hb) > 8 g/dL, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 1500/mm3; the patient cannot be transfused in order to meet study entry criteria
  • Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test performed within 7 days prior to the start of study drug; post-menopausal women (defined as no menses for at least 1 year) and surgically sterilized women are not required to undergo a pregnancy test; the definition of adequate contraception will be based on the judgment of the investigator
  • Subjects (men and women) of childbearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception beginning at the signing of the informed consent form (ICF) until at least 3 months after the last dose of study drug; the definition of adequate contraception will be based on the judgment of the principal investigator or a designated associate
  • Subject must be able to swallow and retain oral medication

Exclusion Criteria

  • Component of small-cell cancer or sarcomatoid cancer
  • Prior therapy with any systemic therapy (chemotherapy or biologic therapy) within twenty-eight days prior to study entry
  • Patients must have recovered from toxicities from prior systemic anticancer treatment or local therapies
  • Patients who have undergone major surgery < 4 weeks or minor surgery < 2 weeks prior to registration; wounds must be completely healed prior to study entry and patients recovered from all toxicities from surgery; placement of a vascular access device is not considered major or minor surgery in this regard
  • Prior radiation therapy is allowed as long as the irradiated area was not the sole source of measurable disease and radiotherapy was completed with recovery from toxicity, at least three weeks prior to enrollment; if the irradiated area is the only site of disease, there must be evidence of progressive disease
  • Uncontrolled central nervous system (CNS) metastases (previously treated with radiation and off steroids is acceptable)
  • Patient with active or uncontrolled infection
  • Recent or active bleeding diathesis or arterial vascular event within 4 weeks
  • Pregnant or nursing (fertile patients must use effective contraception during and for up to 3 months after completion of study treatment)
  • Patients may not be receiving any other investigational agents
  • Previous assignment to treatment during this study; subjects permanently withdrawn from study participation will not be allowed to re-enter study
  • Uncontrolled hypertension (systolic pressure >140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > 90 mm Hg National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 [NCI-CTCAE v4.0] on repeated measurement) despite optimal medical management
  • Active or clinically significant cardiac disease including: * Congestive heart failure – New York Heart Association (NYHA) > class II * Active coronary artery disease * Cardiac arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy other than beta blockers or digoxin * Unstable angina (angina symptoms at rest), new-onset angina within 3 months before randomization, or myocardial infarction within 6 months before randomization
  • Evidence or history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy
  • Any hemorrhage or bleeding event >= NCI CTCAE grade 3 within 4 weeks prior to start of study medication
  • Subjects with thrombotic, embolic, venous, or arterial events, such as cerebrovascular accident (including transient ischemic attacks) deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism within 6 months of start of study treatment within 6 months of informed consent
  • Subjects with any previously untreated or concurrent cancer that is distinct in primary site or histology from breast cancer except cervical cancer in-situ, treated localized basal cell carcinoma, Gleason score 6 prostate cancer or superficial bladder tumor; subjects surviving a cancer that was curatively treated and without evidence of disease for more than 3 years before randomization are allowed; all cancer treatments for another malignancy must be completed at least 3 years prior to study entry (i.e., signature date of the informed consent form)
  • Patients with pheochromocytoma
  • Known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or current chronic or active hepatitis B or C infection requiring treatment with antiviral therapy
  • Ongoing infection > grade 2 NCI-CTCAE v4.0
  • Symptomatic metastatic brain or meningeal tumors
  • Presence of a non-healing wound, non-healing ulcer, or bone fracture
  • Renal failure requiring hemo-or peritoneal dialysis
  • Dehydration grade >= 1 NCI-CTCAE v4.0
  • Patients with seizure disorder requiring medication
  • Persistent proteinuria >= grade 3 NCI-CTCAE v4.0 (> 3.5 g/24 hours [hrs], measured by urine protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine sample)
  • Interstitial lung disease with ongoing signs and symptoms at the time of informed consent
  • Pleural effusion or ascites that causes respiratory compromise (>= NCI-CTCAE version 4.0 grade 2 dyspnea)
  • History of organ allograft (including corneal transplant)
  • Known or suspected allergy or hypersensitivity to any of the study drugs, study drug classes, or excipients of the formulations given during the course of this trial
  • Any malabsorption condition
  • Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding
  • Any condition which, in the investigator’s opinion, makes the subject unsuitable for trial participation
  • Substance abuse, medical, psychological or social conditions that may interfere with the subject’s participation in the study or evaluation of the study results
  • Concurrent anti-cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, immunotherapy, biologic therapy, or tumor embolization) other than study treatment (regorafenib, other agents being investigated in combination with regorafenib)
  • Prior use of regorafenib
  • Concurrent use of another investigational drug or device therapy (i.e., outside of study treatment) during, or within 2 weeks of trial entry (signing of the informed consent form)
  • Major surgical procedure, open biopsy, or significant traumatic injury within 28 days before start of study medication
  • Therapeutic anticoagulation with vitamin-K antagonists (e.g., warfarin) or with heparins and heparinoids * However, prophylactic anticoagulation as described below is allowed: ** Low dose warfarin (1 mg orally, once daily) with PT-INR =< 1.5 x ULN is permitted; subjects taking concomitant warfarin should be monitored regularly for changes in PT, PT-INR or clinical bleeding episodes ** Low dose aspirin (=< 100 mg daily) ** Prophylactic doses of heparin
  • Use of any herbal remedy (e.g. St. John’s Wort [Hypericum perforatum])

Locations & Contacts

See trial information on for a list of participating sites.

Trial Objectives and Outline


I. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months (PFS6).


I. Measurable disease response rate Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).

II. Overall survival.

III. Comparison of observed PFS6 with expected/estimated PFS6 by nomogram.

IV. Toxicities.


I. Association of tumor immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Tie2 and VEGFR2 with PFS.

II. Association of gene expression in tumor tissue using Nanostring technology.


Patients receive regorafenib orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-21. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 4 weeks.

Trial Phase & Type

Trial Phase

Phase II

Trial Type


Lead Organization

Lead Organization
University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer Center

Principal Investigator
Guru P. Sonpavde

Trial IDs

Primary ID UAB1477
Secondary IDs NCI-2015-01824 ID NCT02459119