Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Previously Untreated Metastatic / Unresectable Urothelial Cancer
This phase II trial studies how well atezolizumab and bevacizumab works in treating patients with urothelial cancer that has spread to other places in the body or that cannot be removed by surgery and are ineligible for cisplatin. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as atezolizumab and bevacizumab, may help the body’s immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread.
- Written informed consent and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) authorization for release of personal health information; NOTE: HIPAA authorization may be included in the informed consent or obtained separately
- As determined by the enrolling physician or protocol designee, ability of the subject to understand and comply with study procedures for the entire length of the study
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1 or 2 within 28 days prior to randomization
- Histological or cytological evidence urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder or urethra
- Locally advanced/unresectable disease as determined by site attending urologic oncologist or metastatic disease
- Evaluable untreated tumor tissue for biomarker analysis (25 unstained slides or FFPE tissue block); subjects with < 25 slides may be enrolled after discussion with the sponsor-investigator or co-investigator; untreated tumor tissue is defined as no intervening intravesical or systemic therapy since acquisition; subjects without tissue available must be willing and safe to undergo biopsy repeat biopsy (core needle or excisional) prior to enrollment
- Willing to undergo a core needle or excisional biopsy on-treatment; subjects will be assessed at the time of biopsy for safety of undergoing the procedure
- Measurable disease according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version (v)1.1 within 28 days prior to randomization
- No prior chemotherapy for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer * Perioperative chemotherapy previously administered in the neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant setting is permitted * Prior chemotherapy administered in the context of chemoradiation as definitive treatment for bladder preservation is also permitted, provided that disease progression outside the prior radiotherapy field is demonstrated histologically or cytologically
- Ineligible for cisplatin as defined by presence of one or more of the following: * Impaired renal function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >= 30 but =< 60 cc/min); GFR should be assessed by direct measurement (i.e. creatinine clearance or ethylenediaminetetra-acetate) or, if not available, by calculation from serum/plasma creatinine by Cockroft-Gault equation * Grade >= 2 hearing loss (measured by loss of > 25 decibels [dB] at two contiguous frequencies in at least one ear) * Grade >= 2 peripheral neuropathy * ECOG performance status of 2 * Solitary kidney
- If palliative radiotherapy administered, completion of palliative radiation therapy must be >= 2 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1 of protocol therapy
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,000 K/mm^3 (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) >= 9.0 g/dL (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Absolute lymphocyte count >= 500/uL (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Platelet count >= 100,000/uL (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Serum creatinine < 2.0 or >= 30 cc/min using a direct method or the Cockcroft-Gault formula (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Urinary albumin excretion < 1.0 g/24 hours (as estimated by urine protein-creatinine ratio) (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Bilirubin =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) (subjects with known Gilbert’s disease who have serum bilirubin =< 3.0 x ULN may be enrolled) (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) =< 2.5 x ULN (5.0 x ULN if liver involvement) (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 x ULN (5.0 x ULN if liver involvement) (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- Serum albumin >= 2.5 g/dL (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment)
- International normalized ratio (INR) or prothrombin time (PT) activated partial thromboplastin Time (aPTT) =< 1.5 x ULN (within 14 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 of treatment) (Note: This applies only to subjects who are not receiving therapeutic anticoagulation; subjects receiving therapeutic anticoagulation should be on a stable dose)
- Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 28 days prior to registration; NOTE: Females are considered of child bearing potential unless they are surgically sterile (have undergone a hysterectomy, bilateral tubal ligation, or bilateral oophorectomy) or they are naturally postmenopausal for at least 12 consecutive months
- Females of childbearing potential and males must be willing to abstain from heterosexual activity or to use 2 forms of effective methods of contraception from the time of informed consent until 150 days (5 months) after discontinuation of atezolizumab; for subjects randomized to receive bevacizumab the time frame is from the time of informed consent until 180 days (6 months) after discontinuation of bevacizumab; the two contraception methods can be comprised of two barrier methods, or a barrier method plus a hormonal method
- Any approved anti-cancer therapy, including chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy within 3 weeks prior to initiation of study treatment; the following exceptions are allowed: * Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases or soft tissue lesions should be completed > 7 days prior to baseline imaging * Hormone-replacement therapy or oral contraceptives
- Treatment with any other investigational agent or participation in another clinical trial with therapeutic intent within 28 days prior to enrollment
- Active or untreated central nervous system (CNS) metastases as determined by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation during screening and prior radiographic assessments; subjects with treated asymptomatic CNS metastases are eligible, provided they meet all of the following criteria: * Evaluable or measurable disease outside the CNS * No metastases to midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, or within 10 mm of the optic apparatus (optic nerves and chiasm) * No history of intracranial or spinal cord hemorrhage * No evidence of significant vasogenic edema * No ongoing requirement for dexamethasone as therapy for CNS disease; anticonvulsants at a stable dose allowed * No stereotactic radiation, whole-brain radiation within 4 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1 * Subjects with CNS metastases treated by neurosurgical resection or brain biopsy within 3 months prior to cycle 1 day 1 will be excluded * Radiographic demonstration of interim stability (i.e., no progression) between the completion of CNS-directed therapy and the screening radiographic study * Screening CNS radiographic study >= 4 weeks since completion of radiotherapy or surgical resection and >= 2 weeks since discontinuation of corticosteroids
- Leptomeningeal disease
- Uncontrolled tumor-related pain * Subjects requiring pain medication must be on a stable regimen at study entry * Symptomatic lesions amenable to palliative radiotherapy (e.g., bone metastases or metastases causing nerve impingement) should be treated prior to enrollment * Asymptomatic metastatic lesions whose further growth would likely cause functional deficits or intractable pain (e.g., epidural metastasis that is not currently associated with spinal cord compression) should be considered for loco-regional therapy if appropriate prior to enrollment
- Uncontrolled pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or ascites requiring recurrent drainage procedures (once monthly or more frequently) * Subjects with indwelling drainage catheters are allowed
- Uncontrolled hypercalcemia (> 1.5 mmol/L ionized calcium or calcium [Ca] > 12 mg/dL or corrected serum calcium > ULN) or symptomatic hypercalcemia requiring continued use of bisphosphonate therapy or denosumab * Subjects who are receiving bisphosphonate therapy or denosumab specifically to prevent skeletal events and who do not have a history of clinically significant hypercalcemia are eligible * Subjects who are receiving denosumab prior to enrollment must be willing and eligible to receive a bisphosphonate instead while in the study
- Malignancies other than urothelial cancer within 5 years prior to cycle 1 day 1, with the exception of those with a negligible risk of metastasis or death treated with expected curative outcome (such as adequately treated carcinoma in situ of the cervix, basal or squamous cell skin cancer, or ductal carcinoma in situ treated surgically with curative intent) or localized prostate cancer treated with curative intent and absence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse or incidental prostate cancer (T1/T2a, Gleason score =< 3 + 4, and PSA =< 0.5 ng/mL undergoing active surveillance and treatment naive)
- Pregnant or breastfeeding (NOTE: breast milk cannot be stored for future use while the mother is being treated on study)
- History of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins
- Known hypersensitivity or allergy to biopharmaceuticals produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells or any component of the atezolizumab or bevacizumab formulation
- History of autoimmune disease, including but not limited to myasthenia gravis, myositis, autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vascular thrombosis associated with anti-phospholipid syndrome, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Guillain-Barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis * Subjects with a history of autoimmune-related hypothyroidism on a stable dose of thyroid replacement hormone may be eligible for this study * Subjects with controlled type I diabetes mellitus on a stable dose of insulin regimen may be eligible for this study * Subjects with a history of celiac disease may be eligible if controlled with diet
- History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, organizing pneumonia (e.g., bronchiolitis obliterans), drug-induced pneumonitis, idiopathic pneumonitis, or evidence of active pneumonitis on screening chest CT scan * History of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted
- History of confirmed positive test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Subjects with active hepatitis B virus (HBV) (chronic or acute, defined as having a positive hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] test at screening) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) * Subjects with past HBV infection or resolved HBV infection (defined as the presence of hepatitis B core antibody [HBc Ab] and absence of HBsAg) are eligible * Subjects positive for HCV antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction is negative for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA)
- Active tuberculosis
- Severe infections within 4 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1, including but not limited to hospitalization for complications of infection, bacteremia, or severe pneumonia
- Signs or symptoms of active infection within 2 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1
- Received therapeutic oral or IV antibiotics within 1 week prior to cycle 1 day 1 * Subjects receiving prophylactic antibiotics (e.g., for prevention of a urinary tract infection or to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation) are eligible
- Significant cardiovascular disease, such as: * New York Heart Association congestive heart failure class II or greater * Myocardial infarction, unstable angina or unstable arrhythmias within 3 months of enrollment * History of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 3 months of enrollment * Other clinically significant arterial vascular disease within 6 months of enrollment (e.g. aortic aneurysm requiring surgical repair or recent peripheral arterial thrombosis); prior history of adequately treated venous thromboembolism > 7 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 (C1D1) on stable dose of therapeutic anticoagulation is permitted * Subjects with known coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure not meeting the above criteria, or left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% must be on a stable medical regimen that is optimized in the opinion of the treating physician, in consultation with a cardiologist if appropriate
- Major surgical procedure other than for diagnosis within 28 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 or anticipation of need for a major surgical procedure during the course of the study
- Prior allogeneic stem cell or solid organ transplant
- Administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks before cycle 1 day 1 or anticipation that such a live attenuated vaccine will be required during the study * Influenza vaccination should be given during influenza season only (approximately October to March); subjects must not receive live, attenuated influenza vaccine (e.g., FluMist) within 4 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1 or at any time during the study
- Any other diseases, metabolic dysfunction, physical examination finding, or clinical laboratory finding giving reasonable suspicion of a disease or condition that contraindicates the use of an investigational drug or that may affect the interpretation of the results or render the subject at high risk from treatment complications
- ATEZOLIZUMAB-SPECIFIC EXCLUSION CRITERIA
- Prior treatment with CD137 agonists or immune checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti−CTLA-4, anti−PD-1, and anti−PD-L1 therapeutic antibodies * Prior cancer vaccines and cellular immunotherapy are permitted
- Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including but not limited to IFNs, interleukin [IL]-2) within 6 weeks or five half-lives of the drug, whichever is shorter, prior to cycle 1 day 1
- Treatment with systemic corticosteroids or other systemic immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to prednisone, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and anti−tumor necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents) within 2 weeks prior to cycle 1 day 1, or anticipated requirement for systemic immunosuppressive medications during the trial * Subjects who have received acute, low-dose, systemic immunosuppressant medications (e.g., a one-time dose of dexamethasone for nausea) may be enrolled * The use of inhaled corticosteroids, physiologic replacement doses of glucocorticoids (i.e., for adrenal insufficiency), and mineralocorticoids (e.g., fludrocortisone for adrenal insufficiency) is allowed
- BEVACIZUMAB-SPECIFIC EXCLUSION CRITERIA
- Inadequately controlled hypertension (defined as persistent systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 150 and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 100 mmHg)
- Prior history of hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy
- Evidence of bleeding diathesis or significant coagulopathy (in the absence of therapeutic anticoagulation)
- Current or recent (within 10 days of study enrolment) use of aspirin (> 325 mg/day), clopidogrel (> 75 mg/day), or current or recent (within 10 days prior to first dose of bevacizumab) use of therapeutic oral or parenteral anticoagulants or thrombolytic agents for therapeutic purposes * NOTE: The use of full-dose oral or parenteral anticoagulants is permitted as long as the INR or aPTT is within therapeutic limits (according to the medical standard of the institution) and the subject has been on a stable dose of anticoagulants for at least two weeks at the time of study enrollment; prophylactic use of anticoagulants is allowed
- History of hemoptysis (>= 1/2 teaspoon of bright red blood per episode) within 1 month of study enrollment
- Minor surgical procedure within 7 calendar days prior to cycle 1 day 1
- History of abdominal or tracheoesophageal fistula or gastrointestinal perforation within 6 months prior to enrollment
- Clinical signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction or requirement for routine parenteral hydration, parenteral nutrition, or tube feeding
- Evidence of abdominal free air not explained by paracentesis or recent surgical procedure
- Serious non-healing or dehiscing wound, active ulcer, or untreated or non-healing bone fracture
- On-going gross hematuria associated with clots
Locations & Contacts
Contact: Alejandro Recio Boiles
Contact: Arjun V. Balar
Contact: Samuel A. Funt
Contact: Shilpa Gupta
Contact: Daniel Alberto Vaena
U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Contact: Arkadiusz Z. Dudek
Contact: Deepak Kilari
Trial Objectives and Outline
I. Estimate the 1 year overall survival rate for atezolizumab plus bevacizumab treatment in cisplatin-ineligible subjects with locally advanced/unresectable and metastatic urothelial cancer.
I. Estimate the objective response rate (ORR).
II. Estimate the duration of response (DoR).
III. Estimate the disease control rate (ORR + stable disease [SD]).
IV. Estimate the progression-free survival (PFS).
V. Describe the safety and toxicity by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version (v)4.
I. Evaluation of frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)/sera from blood collected at baseline and on treatment will be interrogated to test immune hypotheses.
II. Collection of stool samples at baseline and on-treatment to perform metagenomic shotgun sequencing to characterize the microbial species present, targeted metabolomic assays, and bacterial culture.
Patients receive atezolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30-60 minutes and bevacizumab IV over 30-90 minutes on day 1. Courses repeat every 21 days for up to 24 months in the absence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 30 days, every 3 months for 2 years, and then every 6 months thereafter up to 5 years.
Trial Phase & Type
Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone
Arjun V. Balar
Secondary IDs NCI-2017-01868, NCT03133390
Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT03272217