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Androgen-Deprivation Therapy, Apalutamide, and Radiation Therapy Followed by Docetaxel in Treating Patients with Recurrent Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

Trial Status: Active

This phase II trial studies how well androgen-deprivation therapy, apalutamide, and radiation therapy followed by docetaxel work in treating patients with prostate cancer that has come back (recurrent) after radical prostatectomy. Hormone therapy such as androgen-deprivation therapy may fight prostate cancer by blocking the production and interfere with the action of hormones. Apalutamide may help stop or slow the growth of prostate cancer cells. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as docetaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving androgen-deprivation therapy, apalutamide, radiation therapy followed by docetaxel may work better in treating patients with prostate cancer.

Inclusion Criteria

  • Histologically-confirmed diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma; variants of prostate cancer, including predominantly (> 50%) neuroendocrine features and small cell carcinoma of the prostate, are not permitted
  • Gleason sum of 7 (with pT3 disease or positive margins or positive nodes [4 or fewer]), 8, 9, or 10 based on the radical prostatectomy specimen
  • PSA relapse within 4 years of prostatectomy defined by persistently detectable or rising PSA after surgery
  • Evidence of disease recurrence or progression as evidenced by a PSA > 0.20 ng/ml; this requires 2 consecutive rises in PSA, at least 1 week apart, over the post-prostatectomy nadir or one PSA value above 0.20 ng/mL if the patient failed to achieve a post-prostatectomy nadir of < 0.2 ng/mL
  • Karnofsky performance status >= 80%
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1.5 x 10^9/L
  • Platelets >= 100 x 10^9/L
  • Hemoglobin (Hb) > 9 g/dL
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Serum bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional ULN (in subjects with Gilbert’s syndrome, if total bilirubin is > 1.5 x ULN, measure direct and indirect bilirubin and patient is eligible if direct bilirubin =< 1.5 x ULN)
  • Glomerular filtration rate (either estimated or calculated from 24-hour urine collection) >= 45 mL/min
  • Serum potassium >= 3.5 mmol/L
  • A minimum of 4 weeks from any major surgery prior to cycle 1 day 1
  • Ability to swallow, retain, and absorb oral medication
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
  • Must use a condom if having sex with a pregnant woman
  • Male patient and his female partner who is of childbearing potential must use 2 acceptable methods of birth control (one of which must include a condom as a barrier method of contraception) starting at screening and continuing throughout the study period and for 3 months after final study drug administration

Exclusion Criteria

  • Radiographic evidence of metastatic disease by standard computed tomography (CT) and bone scan; patients with node-positive disease (=< 4 positive nodes) at the time of radical prostatectomy are eligible; patients with pelvic nodes less than 1.5 cm by short axis at the time of screening are eligible; patients with any enlarged lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum or above the aortic bifurcation or with pelvic nodes >= 1.5 cm must be excluded
  • PSA >= 4.0 ng/mL
  • Testosterone level =< 100 ng/dL
  • More than 1 month of prior hormone exposure or hormone exposure within 30 days of enrollment (up to 1 month of prior luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist and/or anti-androgen therapy as neoadjuvant therapy prior to prostatectomy is allowed); prior enzalutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide, ketoconazole, abiraterone, or TAK700 for prostate cancer are prohibited; prior first-generation antiandrogen therapy (including but not limited to bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) and prior estrogen therapy (including estrogen patch) are not allowed within 30 days of enrollment; all investigational agents are prohibited within 30 days of enrollment
  • The following medications are prohibited within 2 weeks of enrollment and while on study drug: * 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (finasteride, dutasteride) * Biologic or other agents with anti-tumor activity against prostate cancer (excluding herbal supplements) * Androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], etc.)
  • Prior immunotherapy for prostate cancer including sipuleucel-T
  • Prior systemic chemotherapy (docetaxel, cabazitaxel, estramustine, other cytotoxic agents)
  • History of solid organ or stem cell transplantation
  • History of seizure or any condition that may predispose to seizure (e.g., prior cortical stroke, prior head or traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness, prior or current space-occupying lesion in the brain); also, history of loss of consciousness or transient ischemic attack within 6 months of enrollment
  • Known or suspected brain metastasis or active leptomeningeal disease
  • Other concurrent severe and/or uncontrolled concomitant medical conditions (e.g., active or uncontrolled infection) that could cause unacceptable safety risks or compromise compliance with the protocol
  • Severe or unstable angina, myocardial infarction, symptomatic congestive heart failure, arterial or venous thromboembolic events (e.g., pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident including transient ischemic attacks), or clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias within 6 months prior to enrollment
  • Sustained uncontrolled hypertension (> 150/90 average over 1 week) despite optimal medical management
  • Impairment of gastrointestinal (GI) function or GI disease that may significantly alter the absorption of apalutamide or increase the risk of radiation (e.g., uncontrolled nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, malabsorption syndromes, prior small bowel resection, or inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Patients who have received prior prostate or pelvic radiotherapy, including external beam or brachytherapy
  • Patients who have not recovered from side effects of prior systemic therapy prior to cycle 1 day 1
  • Use of medications known to lower the seizure threshold within 4 weeks prior to study entry
  • Patients unable or unwilling to abide by the study protocol or cooperate fully with the investigator


Urology Cancer Center PC
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Luke T. Nordquist

New York

New York
NYP / Weill Cornell Medical Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Scott Tadashi Tagawa

North Carolina

Duke Cancer Institute Cary
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Kellie Shobe
Duke University Medical Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Tian Zhang
Phone: 919-684-4884
Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Contact: Rhonda Lynn Bitting


I. To describe the rate of 36-month (3-year) progression free survival (composite definition) in men with recurrent prostate specific antigen (PSA)-only disease after prostatectomy, who receive combined apalutamide (ARN-509 or JNJ-56021927) and standard androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with salvage radiation therapy followed by docetaxel, ADT, and apalutamide, AND who have had testosterone recovery to > 100 ng/dl at 36 months.


I. To determine the proportion of men at 12, 24, and 36 months with PSA < 0.1 ng/mL and testosterone recovery to > 100 ng/dl.

II. To describe the biochemical (PSA) progression free survival over time.

III. To describe the PSA nadir (10%, 50% and 90% PSA decline as maximum response).

IV. To describe the time to testosterone recovery.

V. To describe the safety profile of combination apalutamide, ADT, and radiation therapy followed by apalutamide, ADT, and docetaxel.

VI. To describe the percentage of patients completing all treatments including salvage radiation therapy and 6 cycles of docetaxel.


I. To describe the quality of life of patients receiving the combination of apalutamide, ADT, and radiation therapy, as well as the combination of apalutamide, ADT, and docetaxel.

II. Archived prostatectomy specimens will be collected and stored for eventual analysis of the correlation of outcomes with pre-treatment androgen receptor target genes, androgen receptor splice variants, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers.

III. Plasma samples will be collected and stored for eventual analysis of circulating proteins and circulating tumor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).


Patients receive androgen deprivation therapy during weeks 1-36 and apalutamide orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-28. Cycles of apalutamide repeat every 28 days for up to 36 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Beginning week 9, patients undergo radiation therapy per institutional standard of care in the absence of disease progression of unacceptable toxicity. About 4 weeks after radiation therapy, patients receive docetaxel intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks. Treatment repeats every 3 weeks for 6 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed at 4 weeks and then every 3 months for up to 36 months.

Trial Phase Phase II

Trial Type Treatment

Lead Organization
Duke University Medical Center

Principal Investigator
Tian Zhang

  • Primary ID Pro00080868
  • Secondary IDs NCI-2018-00435
  • ID NCT03311555