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Azacitidine and Enasidenib in Treating Patients with IDH2-Mutant Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Trial Status: Active

This phase II trial studies the side effects and how well azacitidine and enasidenib work in treating patients with IDH2-mutant myelodysplastic syndrome. Azacitidine and enasidenib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

Inclusion Criteria

  • Signed, informed consent must be obtained prior to any study specific procedures
  • Subjects with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of MDS, including both MDS and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) (acute myeloid leukemia [AML] with 20-30% blasts and multilineage dysplasia by French-American-British [FAB] criteria) by World Health Organization (WHO), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are eligible
  • Subjects must have an IDH2 gene mutation (IDH2-R140 or R172) as determined by local laboratory result
  • (Arm A only): Subject must be hypomethylating agent naive (i.e. prior azacitidine, decitabine, SGI-110 is exclusionary). Receipt of other MDS-directed therapy such as lenalidomide is allowed
  • (Arm A only): Subjects with high-risk MDS (i.e. International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] intermediate-2 or high-risk; or revised [R]-IPSS high or very-high risk). Patients with intermediate-1 risk by IPSS or intermediate risk by R-IPSS with high-risk molecular features including TP53, ASXL1, EZH2, and/or RUNX1 mutations are also eligible
  • (Arm B only): Subject must be relapsed or refractory to prior hypomethylating agent therapy, defined as prior receipt of 6 cycles of HMA therapy with failure to attain a response, or relapse after prior response to HMA therapy
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2
  • Serum bilirubin =< 2 x the upper limit of normal (ULN) (except for patients with Gilbert’s disease)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) =< 3 x the laboratory ULN
  • Serum creatinine =< 2 x the ULN
  • Able to understand and voluntarily sign a written informed consent, and willing and able to comply with protocol requirements
  • Resolution of all clinically significant treatment-related, non-hematological toxicities, except alopecia, from any previous cancer therapy to =< grade 1 prior to the first dose of study treatment
  • Female patients of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 7 days of the first dose of study drug and agree to use dual methods of contraception during the study and for a minimum of 3 months following the last dose of study drug. Post-menopausal females (> 45 years old and without menses for > 1 year) and surgically sterilized females are exempt from these requirements. Male patients must use an effective barrier method of contraception during the study and for a minimum of 3 months following the last dose of study drug if sexually active with a female of childbearing potential

Exclusion Criteria

  • Any prior or coexisting medical condition that in the investigator’s judgment will substantially increase the risk associated with the subject’s participation in the study
  • Subject has received a prior targeted IDH2 inhibitor
  • Psychiatric disorders or altered mental status precluding understanding of the informed consent process and/or completion of the necessary study procedures
  • Active uncontrolled infection at study enrollment including known diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus or chronic active hepatitis B or C infection
  • Clinically significant gastrointestinal conditions or disorders that may interfere with study drug absorption, including prior gastrectomy
  • Patients with known active central nervous system (CNS) disease, including leptomeningeal involvement
  • Impaired cardiac function, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia, or clinically significant cardiac disease including the following: a) New York Heart Association grade III or IV congestive heart failure, b) myocardial infarction within the last 6 months
  • Subjects with a corrected QT (QTc) > 480 ms (QTc > 510 msec for subjects with a bundle branch block at baseline
  • Nursing or pregnant women
  • Subjects with known hypersensitivity to study drugs or their excipients


Johns Hopkins University / Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Amy Elizabeth DeZern
Phone: 410-955-8964

New York

New York
NYP / Weill Cornell Medical Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Gail J. Roboz
Phone: 646-962-2700


Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Mikkael Aaron Sekeres
Phone: 216-444-6833


M D Anderson Cancer Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Courtney DiNardo
Phone: 713-794-1141


I. To determine the safety and tolerability of enasidenib alone, and enasidenib in combination with azacitidine (AZA), for patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) mutated myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

II. To assess the efficacy of the combination of enasidenib + azacitidine in hypomethylating agent (HMA) naive subjects with IDH2-mutated MDS, and to assess the efficacy of enasidenib single-agent in subjects with IDH2-mutated MDS who are relapsed/refractory to HMA therapy.


I. To evaluate molecular and cellular markers that may be predictive of antitumor activity and/or resistance including evaluation of IDH2 variant allele fraction (VAF) levels during treatment and presence of co-occurring mutations.

II. To assess overall survival, event-free survival and duration of response of enasidenib alone, and enasidenib in combination with azacitidine.


I. To assess changes in cellular differentiation and changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation profiles in IDH2-mutated MDS treated with enasidenib alone and with enasidenib + azacitidine.

OUTLINE: Patients are assigned to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM I: Patients who are HMA-naive receive enasidenib orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-14 and azacitidine intravenously (IV) over 30-60 minutes or subcutaneously (SC) on days 1-7. Patients who experience persistent disease after 3 cycles, or if it is in their best interest, receive enasidenib PO QD on days 1-28 beginning cycle 4. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

ARM II: Patients relapsed and/or refractory to HMA therapy receive enasidenib PO QD on days 1-28. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for up to 3 years.

Trial Phase Phase II

Trial Type Treatment

Lead Organization
M D Anderson Cancer Center

Principal Investigator
Courtney DiNardo

  • Primary ID 2016-0981
  • Secondary IDs NCI-2018-00987
  • ID NCT03383575