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Mycophenolate Mofetil Combined with Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Glioblastoma or Gliosarcoma

Trial Status: Active

This early phase I / I trial evaluates how well mycophenolate mofetil combined with radiation therapy in treating patients with glioblastoma or gliosarcoma that has come back (recurrent). Mycophenolate mofetil may be used in combination with other medications to keep the body from attacking and rejecting a transplanted organ (such as a kidney, liver, heart). It belongs to a class of medications called immune-suppressants. It works by weakening the body's defense system (immune system) to help your body accept the new organ. Mycophenolate mofetil combined with radiation therapy may work better in treating patients with recurrent glioblastoma or gliosarcoma.

Inclusion Criteria

  • Recurrent glioblastoma or recurrent gliosarcoma
  • Multidisciplinary brain tumor board consensus of tumor progression based on imaging and-or clinical factors
  • Age 18 or older
  • Karnofsky performance status (KPS) 60 or greater
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,500 cells/mm^3 within 14 days prior to enrollment
  • Patient (men and childbearing age women) agrees to the use of highly effective contraception during study participation and for at least 6 weeks for female patients and 90 days for male patients after final MMF administration
  • Candidate for clinically indicated re-resection or biopsy of glioblastoma or gliosarcoma per treating physician(s) (Phase 0)
  • Candidate for clinically indicated re-irradiation of glioblastoma or gliosarcoma per treating physician(s) (Phase I)
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent
  • No more than one prior course of radiation for GBM

Exclusion Criteria

  • Lack of histopathological diagnosis of the tumor
  • Gliomatosis cerebri pattern (tumor involving three or more lobes) of disease
  • Leptomeningeal disease
  • Use of bevacizumab within 8 weeks of study enrollment
  • Radiation within 6 months prior to study enrollment (phase I)
  • Prior surgery within 4 weeks of re-irradiation (phase I)
  • Known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Active hepatitis B or C infection
  • Active systemic or central nervous system (CNS) infection
  • Grade 4 lymphopenia (if absolute blood lymphocyte count [ALC] < 0.5, patient must be on pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis)
  • Estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 25 ml/min
  • History of organ transplantation
  • Patients with known hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency
  • Serious intercurrent illness
  • Increase in steroid requirement within 7 days of study enrollment (stable or decreasing dose allowed)
  • History of allergic reaction or hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid or any component of the drug product
  • Known immunosuppressive condition from autoimmune disease, immune deficiency syndrome, or chronic immunosuppressive therapy
  • Inability to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with and without contrast
  • Medical contraindication for MMF per treating physician(s)
  • Pregnant or lactating women
  • Patients with known phenylketonuria
  • Patients undergoing biopsy who are deemed unlikely to have sufficient tissue to spare for research purposes (e.g., those whose tumors are in an eloquent brain location where all tissue taken must be used for diagnostic purposes)


Ann Arbor
University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center
Status: ACTIVE
Contact: Yoshie Umemura
Phone: 734-647-8906


I. To measure the concentration of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in tumors from patients who undergo re-resection for glioblastoma (GBM). (Phase 0)

2. To determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of mycophenolate mofetil

(MMF) when combined with re-irradiation in patients with recurrent GBM. (Phase I)


I. To determine guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations in recurrent GBM tissue re-resected after 1 week of MMF administration. (Phase 0)

II. To describe the adverse events associated with MMF when administered with re-irradiation in recurrent GBM patients. (Phase I)

III. To compare the overall survival of patients with recurrent GBM treated with MMF and re-irradiation to historical control of patients who were treated with re-irradiation alone. (Phase I)

IV. To compare the patterns of recurrence after re-irradiation with concurrent MMF to patterns of failure in patients treated with reirradiation alone. (Phase I)


I. To measure GTP level in re-resected GBM tumor tissue in patients who undergo standard of care re-resection without MMF administration.

II. To measure circulating MPA levels in plasma after 1 week of MMF administration and determine if these levels correlate with intratumoral MPA concentrations.

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of mycophenolate mofetil.

PHASE 0: Patients receive mycophenolate mofetil orally (PO) twice daily (BID) for 1 week prior to re-resection in the absence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity.

PHASE I: Patients receive mycophenolate mofetil PO BID for 1 week prior to re-irradiation to the evening of final dose radiation in the absence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity.

After completions of study treatment, patients are followed up every 6 months.

Trial Phase Phase I

Trial Type Treatment

Lead Organization
University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center

Principal Investigator
Yoshie Umemura

  • Primary ID UMCC 2019.192
  • Secondary IDs NCI-2020-11569, HUM00175785
  • ID NCT04477200