Clinical Trials Using Cyclophosphamide

Clinical trials are research studies that involve people. The clinical trials on this list are studying Cyclophosphamide. All trials on the list are supported by NCI.

NCI’s basic information about clinical trials explains the types and phases of trials and how they are carried out. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. You may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Talk to your doctor for help in deciding if one is right for you.

Trials 376-400 of 401

  • Dinutuximab, Sargramostim, and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Newly Diagnosed High-Risk Neuroblastoma Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

    This phase II trial studies the side effects and how well dinutuximab and sargramostim work with combination chemotherapy in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma undergoing stem cell transplant. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as dinutuximab, may induce changes in the body's immune system and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Sargramostim helps the body produce normal infection-fighting white blood cells. Giving chemotherapy before a stem cell transplant, with drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, melphalan, etoposide, carboplatin, topotecan, and isotretinoin, helps kill any cancer cells that are in the body and helps make room in a patient's bone marrow for new blood-forming cells (stem cells). Giving dinutuximab and sargramostim with combination chemotherapy may work better than combination chemotherapy alone in treating patients with high-risk neuroblastoma undergoing stem cell transplant.
    Location: 7 locations

  • CS1-CAR T Therapy following Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Relapsed or Refractory CS1 Positive Multiple Myeloma

    This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of CS1-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T therapy after chemotherapy in treating patients who have CS1 positive multiple myeloma that has come back (relapsed) or does not respond to treatment (refractory). Immune cells can be engineered to kill multiple myeloma cells by inserting a piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into the immune cells using a lentiviral vector such as CS1, that allows them to recognize multiple myeloma cells. These engineered immune cells, CS1-CAR T cells, may kill multiple myeloma cells.
    Location: City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California

  • Molecular Profile of Breast Cancer in Ugandan Patients with Stage IIB-III Breast Cancer

    This phase I trials studies the molecular profile of breast cancer in Ugandan patients with stage IIB-III breast cancer. Creating a molecular profile of breast cancer my help doctors learn more about biological factors associated with breast cancer in Ugandan patients with as well as measure the benefits of locally available diagnostic studies and the possibility of providing treatment via oral medication.
    Location: Fred Hutch / University of Washington Cancer Consortium, Seattle, Washington

  • Nivolumab and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    This phase I / II trial studies how well nivolumab and cyclophosphamide works in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia and higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome that has come back or does not respond to treatment. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body’s immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Given nivolumab and cyclophosphamide may work better at treating acute myeloid leukemia and higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
    Location: University of Minnesota / Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota

  • Carboplatin and Paclitaxel followed by Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    This phase II trial studies how well carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide work in treating patients with triple negative breast cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as carboplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading.
    Location: 6 locations

  • Ex-Vivo Expanded and Activated Donor NK Cells and Hu14.18-IL2 in Treating Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma

    This phase I trial studies the side effects of ex-vivo expanded and activated donor NK cells and hu14.18-IL2 in treating patients with neuroblastoma that has come back or does not respond to treatment. Expanded and activated donor NK cells may be able to kill the cancer cells better. Hu14.18-IL2 binds to NK cells and may be able to activate them, improving their ability to stay alive, multiply, and kill cancer cells. Giving ex-vivo expanded and activated donor NK cells and hu14.18-IL2 may work better in treating patients with neuroblastoma.
    Location: University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin

  • Autologous CD8+ SLC45A2-Specific T Lymphocytes with Cyclophosphamide, Aldesleukin, and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients with Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

    This phase Ib trial studies the side effects and best dose of autologous CD8 positive (+) SLC45A2-specific T lymphocytes when given together with cyclophosphamide, aldesleukin, and ipilimumab, and to see how well they work in treating patients with uveal melanoma that has spread to other places in the body (metastatic). To make specialized CD8+ T cells, researchers separate out T cells collected from patients' blood and treat them so they are able to target melanoma cells. The blood cells are then given back to the patients. This is known as "adoptive T cell transfer" or "adoptive T cell therapy." Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, may work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Biological therapies, such as aldesleukin, use substances made from living organisms that may stimulate the immune system in different ways and stop tumor cells from growing. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as ipilimumab, may help the body’s immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Giving autologous CD8+ SLC45A2-specific T lymphocytes together with cyclophosphamide, aldesleukin, and ipilimumab may work better in treating patients with metastatic uveal melanoma.
    Location: M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

  • Human Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modified T-Cells with or without Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients with Mesothelin-Expressing Cancers

    This phase I trial studies the side effects of human chimeric antigen receptor modified T-cells (huCART-meso cells) with or without cyclophosphamide in treating patients with mesothelin-expressing cancers. T-cells or white blood cells can be genetically modified by introducing a receptor called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that recognizes mesothelin protein. Using huCART-meso cells can help identify cancerous cells and may improve the body's ability to fight mesothelin-expressing cancers. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. It is not yet known whether huCART-meso cells with or without cyclophosphamide work better in treating patients with mesothelin-expressing cancers.
    Location: University of Pennsylvania / Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • Adjuvant Tumor Lysate Vaccine and Iscomatrix With or Without Metronomic Oral Cyclophosphamide and Celecoxib in Patients With Malignancies Involving Lungs, Esophagus, Pleura, or Mediastinum

    Background: During recent years, cancer-testis (CT) antigens (CTA), particularly those encoded by genes on the X chromosome (CT-X genes), have emerged as attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Whereas malignancies of diverse histologies express a variety of CTAs, immune responses to these proteins appear uncommon in cancer patients, possibly due to low-level, heterogeneous antigen expression, as well as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells present within tumor sites and systemic circulation of these individuals. Conceivably, vaccination of cancer patients with tumor cells expressing high levels of CTAs in combination with regimens that deplete or inhibit T regulatory cells will induce broad immunity to these antigens. In order to examine this issue, patients with primary lung and esophageal cancers, pleural mesotheliomas, thoracic sarcomas, thymic neoplasms and mediastinal germ cell tumors, as well as sarcomas, melanomas, germ cell tumors, or epithelial malignancies metastatic to lungs, pleura or mediastinum with no evidence of disease (NED) or minimal residual disease (MRD) following standard multidisciplinary therapy will be vaccinated with H1299 tumor cell lysates with Iscomatrix adjuvant. Vaccines will be administered with or without metronomic oral cyclophosphamide (50 mg PO BID x 7d q 14d), and celecoxib (400 mg PO BID). Serologic responses to a variety of recombinant CTAs as well as immunologic responses to autologous tumor or epigenetically modified autologous EBVtransformed lymphocytes will be assessed before and after a six month vaccination period. Primary Objectives: 1. To assess the frequency of immunologic responses to CTAs in patients with thoracic malignancies following vaccinations with H1299 cell lysate / Iscomatrix(TM) vaccines alone in comparison to patients with thoracic malignancies following vaccinations with H1299 cell lysate / Iscomatrix vaccines in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide and celecoxib. Secondary Objectives: 1. To examine if oral metronomic cyclophosphamide and celecoxib therapy diminishes the number and percentage of T regulatory cells and diminishes activity of these cells in patients with thoracic malignancies are at risk of recurrence. 2. To examine if H1299 cell lysate / Iscomatrix(TM) vaccination enhances immunologic response to autologous tumor or epigenetically modified autologous EBV-transformed lymphocytes (B cells). Eligibility: - Patients with histologically or cytologically proven small cell or non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC;NSCLC), esophageal cancer (EsC), malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) , thymic or mediastinal germ cell tumors, thoracic sarcomas, or melanomas, sarcomas, or epithelial malignancies metastatic to lungs, pleura or mediastinum who have no clinical evidence of active disease (NED), or minimal residual disease (MRD) not readily accessible by non-invasive biopsy or resection / radiation following standard therapy completed within the past 26 weeks. - Patients must be 18 years or older with an ECOG performance status of 0 2. - Patients must have adequate bone marrow, kidney, liver, lung and cardiac function. - Patients may not be on systemic immunosuppressive medications at time vaccinations commence. Design: - Following recovery from surgery, chemotherapy, or chemo / XRT, patients with NED or MRD will be vaccinated via IM injection with H1299 cell lysates and Iscomatrix(TM) adjuvant monthly for 6 months. - Vaccines will be administered with or without with metronomic oral cyclophosphamide and celecoxib. - Systemic toxicities and immunologic response to therapy will be recorded. Pre and post vaccination serologic and cell mediated responses to a standard panel of CT antigens as well as autologous tumor cells (if available) and EBV-transformed lymphocytes will be assessed before and after vaccination. - Numbers / percentages and function of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood will be assessed before, during, and after vaccinations. - Patients will be followed in the clinic with routine staging scans until disease recurrence. - The trial will randomize 28 evaluable patients per arm to either receive vaccine alone or vaccine plus chemotherapy in order to have 80% power to determine if the frequency of immune responses on the combination arm exceeds that of the vaccine alone arm, if the expected frequencies of immune responses on the two arms were 20% and 50%, using a one-sided 0.10 alpha level Fisher s exact
    Location: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland

  • Intensive Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    This partially randomized phase II trial studies how well intensive combination chemotherapy works in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as daunorubicin hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, prednisone, leucovorin calcium, cytarabine, etoposide, and liposomal cytarabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab, may induce changes in body’s immune system and may interfere with the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Biological therapies, such as mercaptopurine, use substances made from living organisms that may stimulate or suppress the immune system in different ways and stop cancer cells from growing. Dietary supplements, such as levocarnitine, may reduce the incidence of liver damage. Pegaspargase, methotrexate, dasatinib and imatinib mesylate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Giving combination chemotherapy with, rituximab, mercaptopurine, levocarnitine, pegaspargase, methotrexate, dasatinib and imatinib mesylate may be an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma.
    Location: 3 locations

  • Brentuximab Vedotin or Crizotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients with Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    This partially randomized phase II trial studies how well brentuximab vedotin or crizotinib and combination chemotherapy works in treating patients with newly diagnosed stage II-IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Brentuximab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody, called brentuximab, linked to a toxic agent called vedotin. Brentuximab attaches to CD30 positive cancer cells in targeted way and delivers vedotin to kill them. Crizotinib and methotrexate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. It is not yet known whether brentuximab vedotin and combination chemotherapy is more effective than crizotinib and combination chemotherapy in treating anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
    Location: 144 locations

  • Risk Adapted Focal Proton Beam Radiation and / or Surgery in Patients with Low, Intermediate, and High Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma Receiving Standard or Intensified Chemotherapy

    This phase II trial studies how well chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy work in treating patients with newly diagnosed rhabdomyosarcoma that has spread to other parts of the body. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as vincristine sulfate, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Giving combination chemotherapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. Giving combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery.
    Location: 2 locations

  • Ixazomib Citrate, Cyclophosphamide, and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients with Previously Untreated Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma or Light Chain Amyloidosis

    This phase I / II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of cyclophosphamide when given together with ixazomib citrate and dexamethasone in treating patients with previously untreated symptomatic multiple myeloma or light chain amyloidosis. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as dexamethasone lower the body’s immune response and are used with other drugs in the treatment of some types of cancer. Ixazomib citrate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Giving cyclophosphamide together with ixazomib citrate and dexamethasone may be a better treatment for multiple myeloma or light chain amyloidosis.
    Location: Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota

  • Donor Progenitor Cell and Natural Kill Cell Transplant in Treating Younger Patients with High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    This phase II trial studies how well donor progenitor cell and natural killer cell transplant works in treating younger patients with cancers of the blood that are at high risk of coming back or spreading. Giving chemotherapy before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. It may also stop the patient’s immune system from rejecting the donor’s stem cells. When certain stem cells and natural killer cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient’s bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body’s normal cells. Removing the T cells from the donor cells before transplant may stop this from happening.
    Location: Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee

  • Combination Chemotherapy with or without Rituximab in Treating Younger Patients with Stage III-IV Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or B-Cell Acute Leukemia

    This randomized phase II / III trial studies how well combination chemotherapy with or without rituximab works in treating younger patients with stage III-IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma or B-cell acute leukemia. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Monoclonal antibody, such as rituximab, may block cancer growth in different ways by targeting certain cells. It is not yet known whether combination chemotherapy together with rituximab is more effective in treating patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or B-cell acute leukemia.
    Location: See Clinical Trials.gov

  • Cladribine, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab for the Primary Treatment of Macroglobulinemic Lymphoma

    This phase I trial studies how well cladribine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab work for the primary treatment of macroglobulinemic lymphoma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cladribine and cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Immunotherapy with rituximab, may induce changes in body’s immune system and may interfere with the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread. Giving cladribine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab may work better in shrinking lymphoma cells compared to each drug by itself.
    Location: M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas

  • Cyclophosphamide and Abatacept for the Treatment of Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Hematologic Cancers

    This phase II trial studies how well cyclophosphamide and abatacept work in reducing the incidence of moderate and severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following donor stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic (blood) cancers. GVHD occurs when the cells from the donor (the graft) see the body's cells (the host) as different and attack them. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Immunosuppressive therapy, such as abatacept, is used to decrease the body’s immune response. The combination of cyclophosphamide and abatacept following donor stem cell transplantation may work better in reducing the incidence of moderate and severe chronic GVHD compared to standard of care.
    Location: University of California San Diego, San Diego, California

  • Palifermin with Leuprolide Acetate or Degarelix after Total-Body Irradiation Based Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    This phase II trial studies how well palifermin with leuprolide acetate or degarelix works after total body-irradiation based donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with hematologic malignancies (cancer of the blood or bone marrow). Giving chemotherapy and total body irradiation before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. It may also stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells. Giving palifermin and leuprolide acetate or degarelix and removing the T cells from the donor cells before transplant may stop this from happening. It is not yet known whether giving palifermin with leuprolide acetate or degarelix is more effective in helping the immune system recover faster after a donor stem cell transplant.
    Location: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York

  • Human Lysozyme Goat Milk for the Prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients with Blood Cancer Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    This phase I trial studies the side effects of human lysozyme goat milk in preventing graft versus host disease in patients with blood cancer undergoing a donor stem cell transplant. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can cause an immune response against the body's own normal cells (call graft versus host disease). The goat milk in the study is from goats that have been genetically engineered to produce human lysozyme in the milk. Human lysozyme is a natural enzyme found in human milk and acts as an antimicrobial. Lysozyme is key to the digestive health of breast-fed human infants, since it helps the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and reduces the growth of bacteria that causes diarrhea and intestinal disease. Giving human lysozyme goat milk may reduce the rate of graft versus host disease in blood cancer patients undergoing a donor stem cell transplant.
    Location: City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California

  • Regulatory T-Lymphocytes and Aldesleukin in Suppressing Acute Graft-Versus-Host-Disease after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    This pilot phase II trial studies how well regulatory T-lymphocytes and aldesleukin work in suppressing acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) after umbilical cord blood transplant in patients with hematological malignancies. Giving chemotherapy and total-body irradiation before a donor umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant helps stop the growth of cells in the bone marrow, including normal blood-forming cells (stem cells) and cancer cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells (called graft-versus-host disease). Giving regulatory T-lymphocytes and aldesleukin after the transplant may stop this from happening.
    Location: University of Minnesota / Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota

  • TAC / MTX vs. TAC / MMF / PTCY for Prevention of Graft-versus-Host Disease and Microbiome and Immune Reconstitution Study (BMT CTN 1703 / 1801)

    1703: The study is designed as a randomized, phase III, multicenter trial comparing two acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis regimens: tacrolimus / methotrexate (Tac / MTX) versus post-transplant cyclophosphamide / tacrolimus / mycophenolate mofetil (PTCy / Tac / MMF) in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. 1801: The goal of this protocol is to test the primary hypothesis that the engraftment stool microbiome diversity predicts one-year non-relapse mortality in patients undergoing reduced intensity allogeneic HCT.
    Location: 22 locations

  • GRAVITAS-119: Itacitinib in Combination With Calcineurin Inhibitor-Based Interventions for the Prophylaxis of Graft-Versus Host Disease

    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact and safety of itacitinib in combination with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based interventions for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD).
    Location: 5 locations

  • Anakinra in Preventing Severe Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Related Encephalopathy Syndrome in Patients with Recurrent or Refractory Large B-cell Lymphoma

    This phase II trial studies how well anakinra works in preventing severe chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy in patients with large B-cell lymphoma that has come back or has not responded to treatment. Immunosuppressive therapy, such as anakinra, is used to decrease the body’s immune response, which may prevent severe chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome.
    Location: UCLA / Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California

  • Cyclophosphamide and Bortezomib in Preventing Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients with Hematological Malignancies after Blood Stem Cell Transplant

    This phase II trial studies how well cyclophosphamide and bortezomib work in preventing graft versus host disease (GvHD) in patients with hematological malignancies following a blood stem cell transplant. In GvHD, the immune cells from the donor (the graft) attack the body of the transplant patient (the host). Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide and bortezomib, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Cyclophosphamide and bortezomib may also be an effective treatment for graft-versus-host disease caused by a blood stem cell transplant in patients with hematological malignancies.
    Location: Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone, New York, New York

  • Chemotherapy, Total Body Irradiation, and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Reducing Rates of Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    This phase Ib / II trial studies how well chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and post-transplant cyclophosphamide work in reducing rates of graft versus host disease in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing a donor stem cell transplant. Drugs used in the chemotherapy, such as fludarabine phosphate and melphalan hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving chemotherapy and total-body irradiation before a donor stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cells in the bone marrow, including normal blood-forming cells (stem cells) and cancer cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient, they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells (called graft versus host disease). Giving cyclophosphamide after the transplant may stop this from happening.
    Location: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York