Expand Use of Proven Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Strategies
NCI has announced several funding opportunities that align with the Cancer Moonshot.See Funding Opportunities
Millions of Americans, and others around the world, remain at high-risk for cancers for which there are proven prevention and early detection strategies. This is particularly true among medically underserved and hard to reach populations, as barriers continue to inhibit the widespread adoption and implementation of these strategies.
The goal of this recommendation is to research, develop, test, and adopt evidence-based strategies to significantly reduce cancer risk in all populations. Researchers will identify effective, sustainable cancer prevention and early detection strategies that involve individuals, family members, caregivers, health care providers and systems, and the community at large.
Ultimately, these projects aim to improve early cancer detection and interventions to reduce cancer risk and mortality, and to address cancer health disparities in these areas.
NCI has awarded funding to several research projects that align with the panel's recommendation to expand the use of proven cancer prevention and early detection strategies. In addition, the following scientific initiatives addressing this recommendation will be launched:
Tobacco Cessation Treatment in Cancer Patients at NCI Cancer Centers)
Multidisciplinary teams at NCI Cancer Centers are developing sustainable and effective tobacco cessation treatment programs for cancer patients. These treatment programs are examining interventions and relapse prevention strategies, including tobacco cessation support methods, counseling, and medications. Additionally, the tobacco cessation programs are evaluating tobacco screening approaches, use of the tobacco cessation programs, costs for patients, and tobacco cessation outcomes in cancer patients.
Improving Smoking Cessation in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Populations via Scalable Interventions
Research projects are designing innovative interventions to improve smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. The focus of these projects is on the development of smoking cessation strategies that can be scaled up for use in large populations and the improvement of current, large-scale smoking cessation interventions. These projects are working to reduce smoking and tobacco-associated diseases in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.
Cervical Cancer Control and HPV Vaccine Trial
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer. This led researchers at NCI to develop the technology used to create an HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. However, there are issues in the adoption and dissemination of the HPV vaccine, especially in low and middle-income countries where most cervical cancer cases and deaths occur.
To improve cancer prevention through HPV vaccination, NCI researchers in collaboration with investigators in Costa Rica are studying HPV vaccine efficacy. They found that even a single dose of the vaccine may be just as effective as the recommended three doses. This reduces challenges to vaccine uptake in many parts of the world, such as cost and lack of medical infrastructure for multiple vaccination visits. Additionally, the researchers are examining the long-term effects and protection of HPV vaccination in follow-up studies.
Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening and follow-up through Implementation Science (ACCSIS)
ACCSIS is improving colorectal cancer screening, follow-up, and referral for care among populations that have low colorectal cancer screening rates. ACCSIS will focus on underserved groups in particular, including racial and ethnic minority populations and people living in rural or difficult-to-reach areas.
The two-phase projects in this program are designing multilevel interventions that increase colorectal cancer screening and healthcare delivery, as well as developing guidelines for scaling-up and implementing these multilevel interventions to reduce the burden of colorectal cancer. The first phase of these projects focuses on pilot studies that demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of multilevel interventions at increasing colorectal cancer screening and follow-up. The second phase involves testing the implementation and impact of the multilevel interventions in target populations with low colorectal cancer screening rates.
Dissemination of a Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Across American Indian Communities in the Southern Plains and South-West United States
American Indian populations show no change or increases in colorectal cancer cases and deaths, are often diagnosed with late-stage disease, and have poorer survival compared to other populations. Although colorectal cancer screening approaches help reduce the burden of the disease, they are under-utilized by American Indians. This may be related to underfunded health care services and a lack of disease prevention efforts in American Indian communities. Other barriers to colorectal cancer screening in American Indian populations include: cost, fear of screening or diagnosis, lack of transportation to medical care, privacy concerns, and cultural beliefs.
NCI Cancer Centers that collaborate with American Indian Communities are working to overcome these barriers to colorectal cancer screening by disseminating and implementing effective multilevel screening interventions to American Indian populations at high-risk for colorectal cancer. Collaborative efforts between American Indian tribes, cancer researchers, and epidemiologists in these projects are leading to the development of screening interventions based on tribal preferences, tribal and clinical approvals for colorectal cancer screening in American Indian populations, and data sharing guidelines that protect the personal information of American Indian populations.
Implementation Science Centers for Cancer Control (IS-C3)
These multidisciplinary and collaborative research centers form a network that is improving cancer control. The centers are creating implementation libraries in clinical and community settings, developing shared implementation science methods to improve study design and metrics for implementation research, performing innovative pilot projects to determine the best strategies for evidence-based cancer care, providing data resources on implementation science, and sharing findings about implementation approaches with the cancer research community. The goal of the network is to reduce the burden of cancer by enhancing the design and delivery of cancer control interventions.