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Expand Use of Proven Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Strategies

NCI has announced several funding opportunities that align with the Cancer Moonshot.

See Funding Opportunities

Millions of Americans, and others around the world, remain at high-risk for cancers for which there are proven prevention and early detection strategies. This is particularly true among medically underserved and hard to reach populations, as barriers continue to inhibit the widespread adoption and implementation of these strategies.

The goal of this recommendation is to research, develop, test, and adopt evidence-based strategies to significantly reduce cancer risk in all populations. Researchers will identify effective, sustainable cancer prevention and early detection strategies that involve individuals, family members, caregivers, health care providers and systems, and the community at large, and significantly improve the degree to which they are integrated within clinical and community care settings.

Ultimately, these projects aim to improve the availability and use of early cancer detection and preventive interventions to reduce cancer risk and mortality, and to address cancer health disparities in these areas.

NCI has awarded funding to several research projects that align with the panel's recommendation to expand the use of proven cancer prevention and early detection strategies:

Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I)

Multidisciplinary teams at NCI-Designated Cancer Centers are developing sustainable and effective tobacco cessation treatment programs for cancer patients. These tobacco cessation projects are examining interventions and relapse prevention strategies, including tobacco cessation support methods, counseling, and medications, and how they can be implemented and sustained within care settings. Additionally, the researchers are evaluating tobacco screening approaches, use of the tobacco cessation programs, costs for patients, and tobacco cessation outcomes in cancer patients.

Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer through Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination: The HPV Vaccine Trials

HPV vaccines, co-invented by NCI researchers, have been proven safe and effective and have been in use since 2006. Despite the availability of the vaccines, uptake in the United States and elsewhere is far lower than ideal. Through the NCI Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial, conducted in 2004-2005, NCI and Costa Rican researchers discovered that a single vaccine dose might provide adequate protection.

Wide-spread use of a single-dose HPV vaccine schedule would help dramatically increase HPV vaccination globally. NCI and Costa Rican investigators launched the ESCUDDO study to determine the protection afforded by a single dose of the HPV vaccines, compared with the recommended multiple doses, in young girls. Findings from the trial will provide the definitive evidence about whether or not a single dose is as good as two doses of vaccine. Results from the trial are intended to provide actionable evidence needed to update current HPV vaccine recommendations in the United States and globally.

Accelerated Cervical Cancer Control

There are several challenges to cervical cancer control worldwide that differ in high- and low-resource settings. Areas with ample resources still face issues of inefficient screening, overtreatment, and low HPV vaccine uptake in some places. In contrast, in areas with limited resources, multi-visit screening programs are unsustainable for many reasons. In addition, people in these areas struggle with lack of access to screening tests, limited treatment options, and lack of access to HPV vaccines.

To overcome these barriers, NCI researchers are addressing four major areas:

  • Advancing understanding of how HPV causes cancer to develop 
  • Inventing and validating novel assays and cervical cancer prevention methods
  • Unifying national and international guidelines and recommendations for cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination 
  • Enabling global cervical cancer control efforts through the integration of screening and vaccination

Learn more about these efforts.

Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening and follow-up through Implementation Science (ACCSIS)

ACCSIS is improving colorectal cancer screening, follow-up, and referral for care among populations that have low colorectal cancer screening rates. ACCSIS will focus on underserved groups in particular, including racial and ethnic minority populations and people living in rural or difficult-to-reach areas.

The two-phase projects in this program are designing multilevel interventions to reduce the burden of colorectal cancer. The first phase of these projects focuses on pilot studies that demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of multilevel interventions for increasing colorectal cancer screening and follow-up. The second phase involves testing the implementation and impact of the multilevel interventions in target populations with low colorectal cancer screening rates.

The ACCSIS Coordinating Center provides, collects, and shares resources with ACCSIS centers and the broader research community, and contributes to the evaluation of approaches to increase CRC screening.

More information about this program can be found at the ACCSIS website.

Dissemination of a Colorectal Cancer Screening Program Across American Indian Communities in the Southern Plains and Southwest United States

The overall death rate from colorectal cancer has been dropping steadily for several decades, largely due to increased screening rates, better screening methods, and improved treatment options. However, many American Indian populations have shown either no change or increases in mortality rates for patients with colorectal cancer during that time. American Indian patients are often diagnosed with late-stage cancer and have poorer survival rates compared with other populations.

Although colorectal cancer screening approaches have been shown to reduce the burden of the disease, they are under-utilized by American Indians, which may be due to the underfunding of health care services and lack of disease prevention efforts in American Indian communities. Other barriers to colorectal cancer screening in American Indian populations include: cost, fear of screening or diagnosis, lack of transportation to medical care, privacy concerns, and cultural beliefs.

NCI-Designated Cancer Centers that collaborate with American Indian communities are working to overcome these barriers to colorectal cancer screening by disseminating and implementing effective multilevel screening interventions to American Indian populations at high risk for colorectal cancer. Collaborative efforts between American Indian tribes, cancer researchers, and epidemiologists in these projects are leading to the development of screening interventions based on tribal preferences, tribal and clinical approvals for colorectal cancer screening interventions in American Indian populations, and data sharing guidelines that protect the personal information of American Indians.

Implementation Science Centers for Cancer Control (IS-C3)

The IS-C3 Program supports multidisciplinary and collaborative research centers that form a network for improving cancer control through advancing implementation science. The centers are creating implementation laboratories in clinical and community settings capable of

  • supporting a range of innovative and impactful studies
  • developing shared implementation science methods to improve study design and metrics for implementation research
  • performing innovative pilot projects to determine the best strategies for evidence-based cancer care
  • providing data resources on implementation science for broad use within the field
  • sharing findings about implementation approaches with the cancer research community

The ultimate goal of IS-C3 is to reduce the burden of cancer by enhancing the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of evidence-based cancer control interventions.

Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Projects Awarded Cancer Moonshot Funding

Awarded Projects
Funding Opportunity Project Title Institution Principal Investigator(s)
Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening and follow-up through Implementation Science (ACCSIS) (UG3/UH3) (ACCSIS) Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening through Implementation Science in Appalachia University of Kentucky Dignan, Mark B; Paskett, Electra D
ACCISIS-Chicago University of Chicago Kim, Karen E; Polite, Blase N
Scaling Colorectal Cancer Screening Through Outreach, Referral, and Engagement (SCORE): A State-Level Program to Reduce Colorectal Cancer Burden in Vulnerable Populations University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Reuland, Daniel S
Screening More patients for CRC through Adapting and Refining Targeted Evidence-based Interventions in Rural settings (SMARTER CRC) Oregon Health & Science University Davis, Melinda Marie; Coronado, Gloria D
CRC-HUB-SPOKE: A ColoRectal Cancer screening Hub for Southern California community health centers. University Of California, San Diego Martinez, Maria Elena; Castaneda, Sheila Faye; Gupta, Samir 
Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening and follow-up through Implementation Science (ACCSIS): Coordinating Center (U24) Accelerating Colorectal Cancer Screening and Follow-up through Implementation Science (ACCSIS) Program Research Triangle Institute Subramanian, Sujha
Improving Smoking Cessation in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Populations via Scalable Interventions (R01, R21) Optimizing Remotely Delivered Smoking Cessation Services for Low-Income Smokers University of Wisconsin – Madison McCarthy, Danielle; Fiore, Michael C
Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation Intervention Tailored to Rural Young Adult African American Men: Toward Scalability University of Alabama at Birmingham Scarinci, Isabel; Carroll, William
Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health (R01) Using Technology to Scale-Up an Occupational Sun Protection Policy Program Klein Buendel, Inc. Buller, David B; Walkosz Barbara
Implementing Universal Lynch Syndrome Screening Across Multiple Healthcare Systems: Identifying Strategies to Facilitate and Maintain Programs in Different Organizational Contexts Geisinger Clinic Rahm, Alanna
Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluate a MHealth Intervention to Increase Adherence to Triage of HPV+ Women who Have Performed Self-Collection Center for the Study of State/Society Arrossi, Silvina
Mis-Implementation in Cancer Prevention and Control Washington University Brownson, Ross C
Validation and Advanced Development of Emerging Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer Research (R33) Advanced Development and Validation of Targeted Molecular Counting Methods for Precise and Ultrasensitive Quantitation of Low Prevalence Somatic Mutations University of Washington Salipante, Stephen J
Implementation Science for Cancer 
Control: Developing Centers (P50 Clinical Trial Optional)
iDAPT: Implementation and Informatics - Developing Adaptable Processes and Technologies for Cancer Control Wake Forest University Health Sciences Foley, Kristie L; Houston, Thomas K
Pragmatic Implementation Science Approaches to Assess and Enhance Value of Cancer Prevention and Control in Rural Primary Care University Of Colorado Denver Glasgow, Russell E
Washington University Implementation Science Center for Cancer Control Washington University Brownson, Ross C; Colditz, Graham A
Building Research in Implementation and Dissemination to close Gaps and achieve Equity in Cancer Control (BRIDGE-C2) Center Oregon Health & Science University Devoe, Jennifer E
The Implementation Science Center for Cancer Control Equity Harvard School Of Public Health Emmons, Karen M; Taveras Benavidez, Elsie Mireya
Optimizing Implementation in Cancer Control: OPTICC University Of Washington Weiner, Bryan J; Hannon, Margaret A; Lewis, Cara Charissa
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