Coronavirus: What People with Cancer Should Know
NCI information specialists are available to help answer your questions about coronavirus and cancer Monday through Friday 9:00 a.m.–9:00 p.m. ET.
What is coronavirus, or COVID-19?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in people and many different species of animals. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel (new) coronavirus that has caused a pandemic of respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019, which is abbreviated COVID-19.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) tracks the number of cases, deaths, and vaccines administered as the situation evolves.
If I have cancer now or had it in the past, am I at higher risk of getting COVID-19?
Having cancer increases your risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Other factors also increase your risk for severe illness from COVID-19, including a weakened immune system, older age, and other medical conditions.
People with blood cancers may be at higher risk of prolonged infection and death from COVID-19 than people with solid tumors. That is because these patients often have abnormal or depleted levels of immune cells that produce antibodies against viruses.
NCI is conducting a large study of people with cancer who have COVID-19 to learn more about the risk factors for COVID-19 and to help doctors better manage treatment for people with cancer and COVID-19.
At this time, it is not known whether having a history of cancer increases your risk for severe illness from COVID-19. People who have been treated for cancer in the past may want to discuss their concerns about COVID-19 with their doctors.
If I have cancer now or had it in the past, should I get a coronavirus vaccine?
Several vaccines to prevent COVID-19 are now available. Experts recommend everyone who is eligible get vaccinated if they have no contraindications—that is, no history of severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to any component of the vaccine. That includes people with underlying medical conditions such as cancer and people who are participating in cancer trials, although trial participants should talk to their clinical trial research team and follow their guidance.
If you recently received cancer treatment that suppresses the immune system—such as chemotherapy, a stem cell or bone marrow transplant, or cell therapy—your doctor may suggest that you wait until your immune system has recovered before being vaccinated.
COVID-19 vaccine trials have shown that the safety and efficacy of the vaccines are similar in people with underlying medical conditions that put them at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 and in people without those conditions. And vaccines for other infections, like the flu, are safe and recommended for people with cancer.
However, most COVID-19 trials have excluded people with cancer, so more data are needed on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in these individuals. It is possible that people treated for cancer and others who are immunosuppressed may have a weaker response to the vaccine.
Each state has its own criteria for prioritizing who can be vaccinated while supplies are limited. Depending on the state you live in, having cancer now or in the past may or may not put you in a higher priority group.
People who have received the vaccine should continue to follow all current guidance to protect themselves and others against COVID-19 exposure.
Learn more about what people with cancer should know about COVID-19 vaccines.
COVID-19 Vaccine and Breast Cancer Screening
A COVID-19 vaccine shot may cause temporary swelling of the lymph nodes in the armpit, recent studies have found. Because this side effect of the vaccine may be mistaken for a sign of breast cancer, several oncology groups are recommending that people wait 4‒6 weeks after completing COVID-19 vaccination before getting a mammogram.
What are other ways that I can protect myself?
Aside from vaccination, the most effective way to prevent COVID-19 is to avoid being exposed to the virus that causes it. CDC also recommends that people at high risk for developing serious illness from COVID-19 protect themselves by limiting their interactions with other people as much as possible and taking precautions to prevent getting COVID-19 when they do interact with others. These precautions include:
- Wear a well-fitting mask that covers your nose and mouth.
- Stay 6 feet away from people who don’t live with you.
- Get a COVID-19 vaccination.
- Avoid crowds and poorly ventilated indoor spaces.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water. Use hand sanitizer if soap and water aren’t available.
- Cover coughs and sneezes.
- Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily.
- Be alert for symptoms of COVID-19.
What should I do if I have symptoms of an infection?
This is a stressful time. How do I cope?
Coping with cancer in the face of the coronavirus can bring up a wide range of feelings you’re not used to dealing with. Learn more about feelings you may have and ways to cope with them.
What if I have additional questions?
NCI’s Cancer Information Service (CIS) can help answer questions that you or a loved one may have about COVID-19 or your cancer care.
To reach the CIS: