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RAS Pathway v2.0

, by Frank McCormick

The diagram shows 227 genes arranged in 65 groups containing one to 29 genes per group.  The proteins represented by gene names in a group are thought to carry out similar, but probably not identical, functions. Gene names separated by periods represent proteins believed to form physical complexes. At the top of the diagram are the receptors and messengers to the three RAS proteins. The RAS proteins in turn signal through six alternative effector families to affect many downstream targets including TP53, RB1, and MTOR.  Arrows represent activation signals, dotted  "T" lines represent inhibitory signals. The bracket connecting KSR1 and KSR2 to the RAF, MAP2K, and MAPK genes represents a scaffolding function.

Many thanks for your valuable input into the RAS pathway diagram.  Gaddy Getz and Matt Myerson and colleagues at the Broad Institute along with Bob Stephens, Jim Hartley and colleagues at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research are utilizing this diagram to develop a RAS-centric version of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We hope that this will provide useful data for the RAS community to investigate as well as reveal new and provocative functional relationships.

Our original pathway diagram (posted on October 22, 2014) has been altered incorporating suggestions from the following investigators:

  • Phil Stork ( suggested adding RASGRP1, but but we left out PDZGEF1 which (I think) is a RAP1  GEF, not a RAS GEF.  Any input on this would be welcome.
  • Julie Irving ( suggested adding FLT3 (also suggested by Kevin Shannon, PTPN11 (also suggested by Ben Braun, UC San Francisco) and CBL. On Ben’s advice, PTPN11 was kept vague with a positive arrow to RAS activation of RAF, without a clear target.
  • Manuela Baccarini ( noted  that MAP2K1 activates PTEN by sending it to the plasma membrane. RAF1 inhibits ROCK2, but was not included  in our updated diagram because the drawing was getting too complicated. This may be fixed in a subsequent version.
  • Mike Nickerson ( included negative feedback to IRS1 and 2 from the PI3 kinase pathway.
  • Anne Goriely ( suggested adding the MRAS (RRAS3) –SHOC2.PPP1CA pathways that activate RAF kinase and ERF, an ETS-family protein that inhibits ERK1 (aka MAPK3) and 2 (MAPK1).
  • Eric Collisson ( suggested adding the RHO GEF ARHGEF2, aka GEF-H1. Rob Rottopel has recently shown this also acts on the MAPK pathway via interaction with KSR1, but I couldn’t find a way of representing that in this version.
  • Jim DeCaprio ( suggested adding cyclin D2 (CCND2) and 3 (CCND3) in addition to Cyclin D1 (CCND1) as MAPK targets.
    Ping Lu ( suggested adding PIN1 as an activator of RAF1 kinase (aka CRAF). It could have been added at many other sites (see Cell Res 24, 1033, 2014 for a review by Zhimin Lu and Tony Hunter).
  • Michael Tainsky ( noted that AP2 is essential for RAS transformation, but I couldn't find a direct link to the RAS pathway.  Any suggestions are welcome.
  • Maria Zajac-Kaye ( suggested adding E2F target genes, including thymidilate synthase (TYMS).  Target genes that appear on other parts of the pathway were not listed, to keep it simple.
  • Ramon Parsons ( suggested adding the RAC GEF, PREX2.
  • Shyam Biswal ( and Carola Neumann ( suggested adding NFE2L2 (aka NRF2), and NOX1.
  • Eric O’Neill ( suggested adding a mini-version of the Hippo pathway (RASSF, MST [STK3 and 4], SAV1, YAP1).
  • Joe Ramos ( and Naoto Ueno ( suggested adding PEA15.
  • Larry Feig ( suggested adding RASGRF1 and 2.
  • Howard Crawford ( proposed adding VAV1, ECT2 and TIAM1. Howard also suggested DOCK10, but I wasn’t sure where to put it. Suggestions welcome!
  • Mike White ( suggested adding EXOC1-8 connected to the RALA, B node and CNKSR1, CNKSR2, SHOC2 connected to the RAF node.
  • Karen Cichowski (  suggested adding DAB21P and INPP4B.
  • Andrew Sharrocks ( suggested adding ELK1.
  • Mark Philips ( suggested adding FNTA and B, RCE1 and ICMT1.
  • Debbie Morrison ( suggested adding a feedback arrow from MAPK1,3 to the RAFs.
  • Channing Der ( suggested adding MYC as a MAPK1/3 substrate. He also included RGL, RGL2 and RGL3 with RALGDS as another effector that links RAS with RAL. Additionally, the RALGAPs, RALGAPA1 and RALGAPA2, and PLCE1 are included as  RAS effectors.
  • Philippe Roux ( pointed out errors in the pathway as originally drawn: “The pathway should indicate that RPS6KB1 and RPS6KB2 are targets of mTOR (they are the p70 S6Ks). The related p90 S6Ks (RPS6KA1, RPS6KA2, RPS6KA3, RPS6KA6) are actually targets of MAPK1/3, and should be transferred to that branch of the pathway."  Steen Hansen ( also pointed out these errors and suggested we add FOSL1 downstream of RPS6KA1,2,3 and 6. Additionally, there are two more isoforms of EIF4EBPs, and thus the pathway should indicate EIF4EBP1-3.
  • Julian Downward ( also noted some errors, “You should have PIK3CA, PIK3CD and PIK3CG here, but not PIK3CB as p110beta does not interact with RAS. Also, for regulatory subunits, there should be PIK3R 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, but not 4 – this is VPS15, the regulatory partner of VPS34. PIK3R 5 and 6 are the regulatory subunits of p110gamma, so are fine to have here.”  

Thank you for these suggestions.

Gene Names, Cognate Proteins, and Aliases in the RAS Pathway

The table comprises the name of each human gene in the RAS Pathway diagram,  the name of the cognate protein for each gene, and gene aliases (alternative names).  The aliases in bold are gene names more commonly used by RAS researchers. Gene names, protein names, and gene aliases were obtained from BioGPS.

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Gene Name Protein from BioGPS Alternative Gene Names from BioGPS
AKT1 RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase AKT, CWS6, PKB, PKB-ALPHA, PRKBA, RAC, RAC-ALPHA
AKT2 RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase  HIHGHH, PKBB, PKBBETA, PRKBB, RAC-BETA
AKT3 RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase MPPH, MPPH2, PKB-GAMMA, PKBG, PRKBG, RAC-PK-gamma, RAC-gamma, STK-2
ALK anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; ALK tyrosine kinase receptor CD246, NBLST3 
APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 APAF-1, CED4
ARAF serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf  A-RAF, ARAF1, PKS2, RAFA1
ARHGAP35 Rho GTPase-activating protein 35  GRF-1, GRLF1, P190-A, P190A, p190ARhoGAP, p190RhoGAP
ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2 GEF, GEF-H1, GEFH1, LFP40, P40
BARD1 BRCA1 associated RING domain 1 [none]
BRAF serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf  B-RAF1, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1
BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset BRCAI, BRCC1, BROVCA1, IRIS, PNCA4, PPP1R53, PSCP, RNF53
BRCA2 breast cancer 2, early onset BRCC2, BROVCA2, FACD, FAD, FAD1, FANCD, FANCD1, GLM3, PNCA2
BRIP1 BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 BACH1, FANCJ, OF
BUB1 BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase BUB1A, BUB1L, hBUB1
CASP3 caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase CPP32, CPP32B, SCA-1
CASP7 caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase CASP-7, CMH-1, ICE-LAP3, LICE2, MCH3
CASP8 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase ALPS2B, CAP4, Casp-8, FLICE, MACH, MCH5
CBL Cbl proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase C-CBL, CBL2, FRA11B, NSLL, RNF55
CBLB Cbl proto-oncogene B, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl-b, RNF56
CBLC Cbl proto-oncogene C, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase CBL-3, CBL-SL, RNF57
CCNA1 cyclin A1 CT146
CCNA2 cyclin A2 CCN1, CCNA
CCND1 cyclin D1 BCL1, D11S287E, PRAD1, U21B31
CCND2 cyclin D2 KIAK0002, MPPH3
CCND3 cyclin D3 [none]
CDC25A cell division cycle 25A CDC25A2
CDC6 cell division cycle 6 cell division cycle 6
CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2 CDKN2, p33(CDK2)
CDK4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4 CMM3, PSK-J3
CDK6 cyclin-dependent kinase 6 PLSTIRE
CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1
CNKSR1 connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 1 CNK, CNK1
CNKSR2 connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 2 CNK2, KSR2, MAGUIN
CYTH2 cytohesin 2 ARNO, CTS18, CTS18.1, PSCD2, PSCD2L, SEC7L, Sec7p-L, Sec7p-like
DAB2IP DAB2 interacting protein AF9Q34, AIP-1, AIP1, DIP1/2
DHFR dihydrofolate reductase DHFRP1, DYR
DUSP1 dual specificity phosphatase 1 CL100, HVH1, MKP-1, MKP1, PTPN10
DUSP2 dual specificity phosphatase 2 PAC-1, PAC1
DUSP3 dual specificity phosphatase 3 VHR
DUSP4 dual specificity phosphatase 4 HVH2, MKP-2, MKP2, TYP
DUSP5 dual specificity phosphatase 5 DUSP, HVH3
DUSP6 dual specificity phosphatase 6 HH19, MKP3, PYST1
E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1 E2F-1, RBAP1, RBBP3, RBP3
E2F2 E2F transcription factor 2 E2F-2
E2F3 E2F transcription factor 3 E2F-3
E2F7 E2F transcription factor 7 [none]
ECT2 epithelial cell transforming 2 ARHGEF31
EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor ERBB, ERBB1, HER1, PIG61, mENA
EIF4EBP1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1  4E-BP1, 4EBP1, BP-1, PHAS-I
EIF4EBP2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 4EBP2, PHASII
EIF4EBP3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 3 4E-BP3, 4EBP3
ELK1 ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family [none]
ERBB2 receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 CD340, HER-2, HER-2/neu, HER2, MLN 19, NEU, NGL, TKR1
ERF Ets2 repressor factor CRS4, PE-2, PE2
ETS1 v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 ETS-1, EWSR2, p54
ETS2 v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 ETS2IT1
EXOC1 Exocyst complex component 1 BM-102, SEC3, SEC3L1, SEC3P
EXOC2 exocyst complex component 2 SEC5, SEC5L1, Sec5p
EXOC3 exocyst complex component 3 SEC6, SEC6L1, Sec6p
EXOC4 exocyst complex component 4 SEC8, SEC8L1, Sec8p
EXOC5 exocyst complex component 5 HSEC10, PRO1912, SEC10, SEC10L1, SEC10P
EXOC6 exocyst complex component 6 EXOC6A, SEC15, SEC15L, SEC15L1, SEC15L3, Sec15p
EXOC7 exocyst complex component 7 2-5-3p, EX070, EXO70, EXOC1, Exo70p, YJL085W
EXOC8 exocyst complex component 8 EXO84, Exo84p, SEC84
FANCA Fanconi anemia, complementation group A FA, FA-H, FA1, FAA, FACA, FAH, FANCH
FANCC Fanconi anemia, complementation group C FA3, FAC, FACC
FGFR1 fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 BFGFR, CD331, CEK, FGFBR, FGFR-1, FLG, FLT-2, FLT2, HBGFR, HH2, HRTFDS, KAL2, N-SAM, OGD, bFGF-R-1 
FGFR2 fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 BBDS, BEK, BFR-1, CD332, CEK3, CFD1, ECT1, JWS, K-SAM, KGFR, TK14, TK25
FGFR3 fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 CH, CD333, CEK2, HSFGFR3EX, JTK4
FGFR4 fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 CD334, JTK2, TKF 
FLT3 fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 CD135, FLK-2, FLK2, STK1
FNTA farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, alpha FPTA, PGGT1A, PTAR2
FNTB farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, beta FPTB
FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog AP-1, C-FOS, p55
FOSL1 FOS-like antigen 1 FRA, FRA1, fra-1 
GRB10 growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 GRB-IR, Grb-10, IRBP, MEG1, RSS
GRB2 growth factor receptor-bound protein 2  ASH, EGFRBP-GRB2, Grb3-3, MST084, MSTP084, NCKAP2
ICMT isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase HSTE14, MST098, MSTP098, PCCMT, PCMT, PPMT
INPP4B inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa [none]
INSR insulin receptor CD220, HHF5
INSRR insulin receptor-related receptor IRR
IRS1 insulin receptor substrate 1 HIRS-1
IRS2 insulin receptor substrate 2 IRS-2
JUN Jun proto-oncogene AP-1, AP1, c-Jun
KSR1 kinase suppressor of Ras 1  KSR, RSU2
KSR2 kinase suppressor of Ras 2 [none]
MAP2K1 dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 CFC3, MAPKK1, MEK1, MKK1, PRKMK1
MAP2K2 dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 CFC4, MAPKK2, MEK2, MKK2, PRKMK2
MAPK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1  ERK, ERK-2, ERK2, ERT1, MAPK2, P42MAPK, PRKM1, PRKM2, p38, p40, p41, p41mapk, p42-MAPK
MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 ERK-1, ERK1, ERT2, HS44KDAP, HUMKER1A, P44ERK1, P44MAPK, PRKM3, p44-ERK1, p44-MAPK
MCM3 minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 HCC5, P1-MCM3, P1.h, RLFB
MCM4 minichromosome maintenance complex component 4 CDC21, CDC54, NKCD, NKGCD, P1-CDC21, hCdc21
MCM5 minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 CDC46, P1-CDC46
MCM6 minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 MCG40308, Mis5, P105MCM
MCM7 minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 CDC47, MCM2, P1.1-MCM3, P1CDC47, P85MCM, PNAS146, PPP1R104 
MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ACTFS, HDMX, hdm2
MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase; hepatocyte growth factor receptor AUTS9, HGFR, RCCP2, c-Met
MLST8 MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog (S. cerevisiae) GBL, GbetaL, LST8, POP3, WAT1
MRAS muscle RAS oncogene homolog M-RAs, R-RAS3, RRAS3
MTOR mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) FRAP, FRAP1, FRAP2, RAFT1, RAPT1
MYB v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog Cmyb, c-myb, c-myb_CDS, efg
MYC   v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog MRTL, MYCC, bHLHe39, c-Myc
NF1 neurofibromin NFNS, VRNF, WSS
NFE2L2 nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 NRF2
NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 EBP-1, KBF1, NF-kB1, NF-kappa-B, NF-kappaB, NFKB-p105, NFKB-p50, NFkappaB, p105, p50
NOX1 NADPH oxidase 1 GP91-2, MOX1, NOH-1, NOH1 
PAK1 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 PAKalpha
PAK2 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2 PAK65, PAKgamma
PAK3 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3  CDKN1A, MRX30, MRX47, OPHN3, PAK3beta, bPAK, hPAK3 
PAK4 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4 [none]
PDGFRA platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha CD140A, PDGFR-2, PDGFR2, RHEPDGFRA
PDGFRB platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta CD140B, IBGC4, IMF1, JTK12, PDGFR, PDGFR-1, PDGFR1
PDPK1 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1  PDK1, PDPK2, PRO0461
PEA15 phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 HMAT1, HUMMAT1H, MAT1, MAT1H, PEA-15, PED 
PEBP1 phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 HCNP, HCNPpp, HEL-210, HEL-S-34, PBP, PEBP, PEBP-1, RKIP
PIK3CA Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform  CLOVE, CWS5, MCAP, MCM, MCMTC, PI3K, p110-alpha
PIK3CD phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit delta APDS, IMD14, P110DELTA, PI3K, p110D
PIK3CG phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma PI3CG, PI3K, PI3Kgamma, PIK3, p110gamma, p120-PI3K
PIK3R1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha AGM7, GRB1, p85, p85-ALPHA
PIK3R2 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta MPPH, MPPH1, P85B, p85, p85-BETA
PIK3R3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma p55, p55-GAMMA
PIK3R5 phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 F730038I15Rik, FOAP-2, P101-PI3K, p101
PIK3R6 phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 6   C17orf38, HsT41028, p84 PIKAP, p87(PIKAP), p87PIKAP
PIN1 peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 DOD, UBL5
PLCE1 phospholipase C, epsilon 1 NPHS3, PLCE, PPLC
PPP1CA protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme PP-1A, PP1A, PP1alpha, PPP1A
PREX2 phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2 6230420N16Rik, DEP.2, DEPDC2, P-REX2, PPP1R129
PRKAA1 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 AMPK, AMPKa1
PRKAA2 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2   AMPK, AMPK2, AMPKa2, PRKAA
PRKAB1 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1   AMPK, HAMPKb
PRKAB2 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 [none]
PRKAG1 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit AMPKG
PRKAG2 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit AAKG, AAKG2, CMH6, H91620p, WPWS
PRKAG3 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit AMPKG3
PTEN phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN 10q23del, BZS, CWS1, DEC, GLM2, MHAM, MMAC1, PTEN1, TEP1
PTPN11 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 BPTP3, CFC, NS1, PTP-1D, PTP2C, SH-PTP2, SH-PTP3, SHP2 
RAC1 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) Rac-1, TC-25, p21-Rac1
RAC2 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) EN-7, Gx, HSPC022, p21-Rac2
RAC3 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) [none]
RAD52 RAD52 homolog (S. cerevisiae) [none]
RAF1 RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase CMD1NN, CRAF, NS5, Raf-1, c-Raf
RALA Ras-related protein Ral-A RAL
RALB Ras-related protein Ral-B [none]
RALBP1 RalA binding protein 1 RIP1, RLIP1, RLIP76
RALGAPA1 Ral GTPase activating protein, alpha subunit 1 (catalytic) GARNL1, GRIPE, RalGAPalpha1, TULIP1, p240 
RALGAPA2 Ral GTPase activating protein, alpha subunit 2 (catalytic)  AS250, C20orf74, bA287B20.1, dJ1049G11, dJ1049G11.4, p220 
RALGDS Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator   RGDS, RGF, RalGEF
RAPGEF1 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1 C3G, GRF2
RAPGEF2 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2 CNrasGEF, NRAPGEP, PDZ-GEF1, PDZGEF1, RA-GEF, RA-GEF-1, Rap-GEP, nRap GEP
RASA1 Ras GTPase-activating protein 1  CM-AVM, CMAVM, GAP, PKWS, RASA, RASGAP, p120GAP, p120RASGAP
RASA2 Ras GTPase-activating protein 2 GAP1M
RASA3 Ras GTPase-activating protein 3 GAP1IP4BP, GAPIII
RASAL1 RasGAP-activating-like protein 1  RASAL
RASAL2 Ras GTPase-activating protein nGAP  NGAP
RASAL3 RAS protein activator like-3  [none]
RASGRF1 Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 CDC25, CDC25L, GNRP, GRF1, GRF55, H-GRF55, PP13187, ras-GRF1
RASGRF2 Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 GRF2, RAS-GRF2
RASGRP1 RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1 CALDAG-GEFI, CALDAG-GEFII, RASGRP, V, hRasGRP1
RASGRP2 RAS guanyl-releasing protein 2 CALDAG-GEFI, CDC25L
RASGRP3 Ras guanyl-releasing protein 3  GRP3, KIAA0846
RASGRP4 RAS guanyl-releasing protein 4 [none]
RASSF1 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 123F2, NORE2A, RASSF1A, RDA32, REH3P21
RASSF10 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 10 [none]
RASSF2 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 2 CENP-34, RASFADIN
RASSF3 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 3 RASSF5
RASSF4 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 4 AD037
RASSF5 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 5 Maxp1, NORE1, NORE1A, NORE1B, RAPL, RASSF3
RASSF6 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 6 [none]
RASSF7 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 7 C11orf13, HRAS1, HRC1
RASSF8 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 8 C12orf2, HOJ1
RASSF9 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 9 P-CIP1, PAMCI, PCIP1
RB1 Retinoblastoma 1 OSRC, PPP1R130, RB, p105-Rb, pRb, pp110
RCE1 Ras converting CAAX endopeptidase 1 FACE2, RCE1A, RCE1B
RGL1   ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator-like 1 RGL
RGL2 ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator-like 2 HKE1.5, KE1.5, RAB2L
RGL3 ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator-like 3 [none]
RHEB Ras Homolog Enriched In Brain, GTP-binding protein Rheb RHEB2
RHOA Ras homolog family member A ARH12, ARHA, RHO12, RHOH12
RHOB Ras homolog family member B ARH6, ARHB, MST081, MSTP081, RHOH6
RHOC Ras homolog family member C ARH9, ARHC, H9, RHOH9
ROCK1 Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 P160ROCK, ROCK-I
ROCK2 Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 ROCK-II
ROS1 ROS proto-oncogene 1 , receptor tyrosine kinase MCF3, ROS, c-ros-1
RPS6KA1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-1   MAPKAPK1A, RSK1
RPS6KA2 ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-2   HU-2, MAPKAPK1C, RSK, RSK3, S6K-alpha, S6K-alpha2, p90-RSK3, pp90RSK3
RPS6KA3 ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3   CLS, HU-3, ISPK-1, MAPKAPK1B, MRX19, RSK, RSK2, S6K-alpha3, p90-RSK2, pp90RSK2
RPS6KA6 ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-6 PP90RSK4, RSK4
RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 PS6K, S6K, S6K-beta-1, S6K1, STK14A, p70 S6KA, p70(S6K)-alpha, p70-S6K, p70-alpha
RPS6KB2 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 2 KLS, P70-beta, P70-beta-1, P70-beta-2, S6K-beta2, S6K2, SRK, STK14B, p70(S6K)-beta, p70S6Kb
RPTOR regulatory associated protein of MTOR, complex 1 KOG1, Mip1
SAV1 salvador family WW domain containing protein 1 SAV, WW45, WWP4
SCRIB scribbled planar cell polarity protein CRIB1, SCRB1, SCRIB1, Vartul
SHC1 SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 1 SHC, SHCA
SHC2 SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 2 SCK, SHCB, SLI
SHC3 SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 3 N-Shc, NSHC, RAI, SHCC
SHC4 SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 4 RaLP, SHCD
SHOC2 Soc-2 suppressor of clear homolog (C. elegans) SIAA0862, SOC2, SUR8
SOS1 Son of sevenless homolog 1 GF1, GGF1, GINGF, HGF, NS4
SOS2 Son of sevenless homolog 2 [none]
SPRED1 Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1  NFLS, PPP1R147, hSpred1, spred-1
SPRED2 Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 2  Spred-2
SPRED3 Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 3  Eve-3, spred-3
SPRY1 protein sprouty homolog 1  hSPRY1
SPRY2 protein sprouty homolog 2  hSPRY2
SPRY3 protein sprouty homolog 3 HSPRY3, spry-3
SPRY4 protein sprouty homolog 4   HH17
STK11 serine/threonine-protein kinase STK11 LKB1, PJS, hLKB1
STK3 serine/threonine kinase 3 KRS1, MST2
STK4 serine/threonine kinase 4 KRS2, MST1, TIIAC, YSK3
TBK1 TANK-binding kinase 1 NAK, T2K
TFDP1 transcription factor Dp-1 DP1, DRTF1, Dp-1
TFDP2 transcription factor Dp-2 (E2F dimerization partner 2) DP2
TIAM1 T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein 1  [none]
TIAM2 T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein 2 STEF, TIAM-2
TK1 thymidine kinase 1, soluble TK2
TP53 tumor protein p53 BCC7, LFS1, P53, TRP53
TP73 tumor protein p73 P73
TSC1 Tuberous Sclerosis 1, Hamartin LAM, TSC
TSC2 Tuberous Sclerosis 2,  Tuberin LAM, PPP1R160, TSC4
TYMS thymidylate synthetase HST422, TMS, TS
UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase DGU, HIGM4, HIGM5, UDG, UNG1, UNG15, UNG2
VAV1 vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV
YAP1 Yes-associated protein 1 COB1, YAP, YAP2, YAP65, YKI
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Targeting Ras Membrane Association: Still an Achilles Heel

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