General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Key Points for This Section
- Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
- Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
- Previous chemotherapy and exposure to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL.
- Signs and symptoms of adult ALL include fever, feeling tired, and easy bruising or bleeding.
- Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose adult ALL.
- Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Leukemia may affect red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
A myeloid stem cell becomes one of three types of mature blood cells:
In ALL, too many stem cells become lymphoblasts, B lymphocytes, or T lymphocytes. These cells are also called leukemia cells. These leukemia cells are not able to fight infection very well. Also, as the number of leukemia cells increases in the blood and bone marrow, there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This may cause infection, anemia, and easy bleeding. The cancer can also spread to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
This summary is about adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. See the following PDQ summaries for information about other types of leukemia:
Previous chemotherapy and exposure to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Possible risk factors for ALL include the following:
Signs and symptoms of adult ALL include fever, feeling tired, and easy bruising or bleeding.
- Weakness or feeling tired.
- Fever or night sweats.
- Easy bruising or bleeding.
- Petechiae (flat, pinpoint spots under the skin, caused by bleeding).
- Shortness of breath.
- Weight loss or loss of appetite.
- Pain in the bones or stomach.
- Pain or feeling of fullness below the ribs.
- Painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin.
- Having many infections.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia or by other conditions.
Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose adult ALL.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as infection or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Complete blood count (CBC) with differential : A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
- Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.
- Peripheral blood smear : A procedure in which a sample of blood is checked for blast cells, the number and kinds of white blood cells, the number of platelets, and changes in the shape of blood cells.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy : The removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone by inserting a hollow needle into the hipbone or breastbone. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to look for abnormal cells.
The following tests may be done on the samples of blood or bone marrow tissue that are removed:
- Cytogenetic analysis: A laboratory test in which the cells in a sample of blood or bone marrow are looked at under a microscope to find out if there are certain changes in the chromosomes in the lymphocytes. For example, sometimes in ALL, part of one chromosome is moved to another chromosome. This is called the Philadelphia chromosome. Other tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), may also be done to look for certain changes in the chromosomes.
- Immunophenotyping : A process used to identify cells, based on the types of antigens or markers on the surface of the cell. This process is used to diagnose the subtype of ALL by comparing the cancer cells to normal cells of the immune system. For example, a cytochemistry study may test the cells in a sample of tissue using chemicals (dyes) to look for certain changes in the sample. A chemical may cause a color change in one type of leukemia cell but not in another type of leukemia cell.