NCI Drug Dictionary

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The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

33 results found for: X
xaliproden hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of xaliproden, an orally-active, synthetic, non-peptidic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist with neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities. Although its mechanism of action is not fully understood, xaliproden appears to either mimic the effects of neurotrophins or stimulate their synthesis, thereby stimulating neuronal cell differentiation and proliferation and inhibiting neuronal cell death. The neuroprotective effect of this agent involves the activation of MAP kinase pathways via stimulation of the 5-HT1A receptor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: crizotinib)
(Other name for: alprazolam)
A prenylated flavonoid derived from the female flowers of the hops plant (Humulus lupulus L), with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, xanthohumol scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby preventing DNA damage due to oxidative stress. In addition, xanthohumol is able to increase the expression of phase II cytoprotective enzymes, thereby inactivating carcinogens. This agent exerts anti-inflammatory activity, through the inhibition of inflammation-inducing enzymes, inhibits DNA synthesis, and induces apoptosis of susceptible cancer cells. Xanthohumol also decreases the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), thereby preventing cancer cell invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: methoxsalen)
(Other name for: rivaroxaban)
XBP1-US/XBP1-SP/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccine PVX-410
A cancer vaccine containing immunogenic, HLA-A2-specific epitopes derived from X-box–binding protein 1-unspliced (XBP1-US), XBP1-spliced (SP), syndecan-1 (CD138), and CS1 (CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7, CD319) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, XBP1-US/XBP1-SP/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccine PVX-410 may stimulate the immune system to induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against the four myeloma-specific antigens. The tumor associated antigens (TAAs) XBP1-US, XBP1-SP, CD138 and CS1, are overexpressed on the surface of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: motexafin gadolinium)
XELIRI regimen
A chemotherapy regimen containing capecitabine and irinotecan used in the treatment of colorectal, esophageal and gastric cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: capecitabine)
XELOX regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of capecitabine (Xeloda) and oxaliplatin used for the treatment of advanced-stage colorectal cancer. This regimen differs from a similar regimen, CAPOX, with regards to the dosing schedule for oxaliplatin. (NCI Thesaurus)
xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccine
A plasmid DNA vaccine, encoding an epitope of mouse tyrosinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Administered via intramuscular electroporation, vaccination with xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccine may induce both humoral and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against melanoma cells that express tyrosinase, resulting in decreased tumor growth. . Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
A colorless, heavy, odorless noble gas element with atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.3. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
A humanized IgG1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) monoclonal antibody targeting the IGF ligands 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, xentuzumab binds to both IGF-1 and IGF-2 and inhibits the binding of these ligands to their receptor, IGF-1R. This blocks the insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which is upregulated in a number of cancer cell types and plays a key role in cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance. In addition, xentuzumab prevents the binding of IGF-2 to insulin receptor variant A (IR-A), preventing its activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: corticorelin acetate)
(Other name for: denosumab)
xianling gubao
An orally bioavailable phytoestrogen-rich Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) containing extracts from the six herbs Herba epimedii, Radix dipsaci (Dipsacus root), Radix salvia miltiorrhiza (Salvia root, Danshen, red sage root), Rhizoma anemarrhenae (zhi Mu), Fructus Psoraleae (fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L), and Radix Rehmanniae (Rehmannia root, Rehmannia glutinosa, Sheng Di Huang, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch), with potential anti-osteoporotic and bone-strengthening activities. Xianling gubao (XLGB) contains various phytochemicals, including flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Upon oral administration of XLGB, the active ingredients may strengthen bones and may treat or prevent osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, bone loss and bone fractures. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
XIAP/cIAP1 antagonist ASTX660
An orally bioavailable, non-peptidomimetic antagonist of both X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular IAP 1 (cIAP1), with potential antineoplastic and pro-apoptotic activities. Upon administration, XIAP/cIAP1 antagonist ASTX660 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of XIAP and cIAP1. This restores and promotes the induction of apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells, and inactivates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated survival pathway. XIAP and cIAP1 are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of certain caspases; they promote both cancer cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: rifaximin)
(Other name for: anti-interleukin-1 alpha monoclonal antibody MABp1)
(Other name for: atrasentan hydrochloride)
An orally bioavailable, small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. XL820 binds to and inhibits the receptor tyrosine kinases for vascular endothelial drowth factor (VEGF), c-kit, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). In tumor models of breast carcinomas, gliomas, and leukemia, this agent exhibits dose-dependent growth inhibition and has been shown to cause tumor regression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) with potential antineoplastic activity. XL844 binds to and inhibits Chks 1 and 2, resulting in inhibition of cell cycle arrest, progressive DNA damage, inhibition of DNA repair, and, ultimately, tumor cell apoptosis. This agent also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), important mediators of tumor angiogenesis and lymphogenesis, respectively. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, eukaryotic cells activate cell cycle checkpoints that temporarily halt the cell cycle to permit DNA repair or completion of DNA replication to take place. In the presence of extensive damage or absence of timely repair, these checkpoint-signaling pathways may also trigger a pathway that effects apoptosis. Normal functions of Chks involve the initiation of cell-cycle arrest and the up-regulation of transcription genes involved with DNA excision repair and dNTP synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: radium Ra 223 dichloride)
(Other name for: omalizumab)
(Other name for: ketoconazole)
XPO1 inhibitor KPT-8602
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of exportin-1 (XPO1; chromosome region maintenance 1 protein homolog; CRM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, XPO1 inhibitor KPT-8602 binds to the XPO1 cargo binding site, which prevents the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of cargo proteins such as tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs), including p53, p73, BRCA1/2, pRB, FOXO, and other growth regulatory proteins and leads to their selective accumulation in the nuclei of tumor cells. As a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-8602 restores the nuclear localization and function of tumor suppressing proteins which leads to the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. XPO1, the major export factor that transports proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types while minimally expressed in normal, healthy cells. The export of tumor suppressor proteins into the cytoplasm prevents them from initiating apoptosis and leads to uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
(Other name for: enzalutamide)
(Other name for: lidocaine)
(Other name for: lidocaine)
(Other name for: prilocaine hydrochloride)
(Other name for: paclitaxel poliglumex)
(Other name for: levocetirizine dihydrochloride)