NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms

The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,398 terms related to cancer and medicine.

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trisomy 18
(TRY-soh-mee …)
A genetic disorder caused by having an extra chromosome 18 in some or all of the body’s cells. Trisomy 18 is marked by a low birth weight and certain abnormal features. These include a small, abnormally shaped head; a small jaw and mouth; clenched fists with overlapping fingers; and heart, lung, kidney, intestine, and stomach defects. Many babies with trisomy 18 die before birth or within the first month of life, but some children live for several years. Having trisomy 18 increases the risk of certain types of cancer, such as hepatoblastoma (a type of liver cancer) and Wilms tumor (a type of kidney cancer). Also called Edwards syndrome.