OHAM Research Activities
OHAM programs extend across the spectrum of research, training, international studies, and clinical trials to address the clinically, socially, and demographically diverse population of HIV/AIDS patients. OHAM contributes to and has shared oversight for a number of training, research, and clinical trial efforts across the NIH and beyond.
OHAM-Managed Research Activities
As the epidemic evolves and the needs of patients change shape, OHAM programs are at the forefront of identifying and delivering the most effective prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for patients impacted by HIV/AIDS and HIV-associated malignancies.
The AIDS Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR) is a biorepository for HIV-infected human biospecimens obtained from a wide spectrum of HIV-related or associated diseases, including cancer, and from appropriate HIV-negative controls.
The AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) is an NCI-supported clinical trials group founded in 1995 to support innovative trials for HIV-associated malignancies.
The International Conference on Malignancies in HIV/AIDS (ICMH), formerly known as The International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies (ICMAOI), is a conference presented by the Office of HIV and AIDS Malignancy.
NCI and the Fogarty International Center (FIC) have partnered in several efforts for developing research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa on HIV-associated cancers.
Trans-NIH and Other Collaborative Activities
OHAM interfaces with the Office of AIDS Research and other Institutes and Centers to coordinate HIV/AIDS training, research, and clinical trial efforts conducted throughout the NIH more effectively. Also, OHAM has shared oversight for a number of the trans-NIH and other collaborative programs described below.
The CFAR program at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides administrative and shared research support to enhance and coordinate high quality HIV research projects, including HIV-associated malignancies. CFARs accomplish this through core facilities that provide expertise, resources, and services not otherwise readily obtained through more traditional funding mechanisms. Co-funded by seven NIH Institutes, CFARs promote interdisciplinary collaboration to accelerate translation of laboratory findings into clinical applications.
The HIV Research Training Program provides training for scientists from institutions in low- and middle-income countries to strengthen HIV-related research. Institutions in the United States with strong HIV-related research training experience receive grants to establish full research training programs at institutions in these countries. The collaborative effort enables the development of multidisciplinary biomedical, behavioral, and social science research capacities for the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV/AIDS and HIV-related conditions in resource-poor settings. The NCI partners with the HIV Research Training Program grantees to expand research training related to HIV-associated malignancies in these countries.
The IeDEA is a consortium of regional centers that collect and harmonize high quality data from HIV/AIDS research efforts throughout the world. This initiative provides a means to effectively pool the collected data—thus providing a cost effective avenue of generating large data sets that can address unique and evolving research questions in HIV/AIDS, including cancer-related questions, currently unanswerable by single cohorts.
The MACS is an ongoing prospective study started in 1984 of the natural and treated histories of HIV-1 infection in homosexual and bisexual men conducted at various sites throughout the United States. Initially 5,622 men were enrolled in the study, with an additional 1,356 predominantly minority men added from 2001–2003. The MACS allows for cohort-based surveillance of the occurrence, distribution and determinants of HIV-associated cancers. Data and specimens collected from study participants have been compiled in a National Repository that serves as a highly valuable resource in deepening the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
U.S.-Russia Bilateral Collaborative Research Partnerships (CRP) on the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS and HIV-Associated Comorbidities
The purpose of this initiative is to is to support innovative basic and multidisciplinary research for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and its comorbidities through collaborative efforts of U.S. and Russian investigators and their institutions. The U.S.-Russia Bilateral CRP is designed to increase the knowledge and understanding of topics that impact HIV/AIDS and HIV-associated co-infections, comorbidities including cancer, and complications. The establishment of this collaborative is supported by research project grant (R01) RFA-AA-17-006.
U.S.-South Africa Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research
The purpose of this initiative is to foster, stimulate, and/or expand basic, translational, behavioral and applied research that will advance scientific discovery and engage U.S. and South African researchers working collaboratively in the areas of TB, HIV/AIDS biomedical and behavioral science, and HIV-related co-morbidities, including malignancies. NCI’s participation in this initiative will enhance scientific knowledge in HIV-related malignancies and increase collaborations between U.S. and South African investigators. The establishment of this collaborative is supported by research project grant (R01) RFA-AI-14-009.
The WIHS investigates the impact of HIV infection on women in the United States. The initial enrollment included 2,625 women, with an additional 1,143 women enrolled in 2001–2002. The core portion of the study includes a detailed and structured interview, physical, and gynecologic examinations, as well as laboratory testing. The WIHS participants are also asked to enroll in various sub-studies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic, physical functioning, neurocognition, and cancer. These sub-studies provide data on the incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS defining cancers in the cohort. In addition, sera and plasma from HIV-positive women who develop cervical squamous cell abnormalities are collected and donated to the AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR).
The global burden of people living with HIV is estimated to be 33.3 million. The developing world, especially sub-Saharan Africa, is the region most affected by the epidemic. These same regions are also experiencing a continued increase in AIDS-defining malignancies; as access to antiretroviral therapy becomes more widespread and people are no longer dying from opportunistic infections, non-AIDS defining malignancies will begin to have a major impact. A number of OHAM activities are addressing this global burden of HIV/AIDS and HIV-associated malignancies, either as their main focus or as part of a larger endeavor. The OHAM activities with a substantial international component include:
- AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource
- AIDS Malignancy Consortium
- Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR)
- Fogarty HIV Research Training Program
- The International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)
- U.S.-Russia Bilateral Collaborative Research Partnerships (CRP) on the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS and HIV-Associated Comorbidities
- U.S.-South Africa Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research
- Strengthening Capacity for Research for HIV-Associated Malignancies in Africa