Special Sources of Funds
Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs)
As a result of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (PL 99-502), government laboratories are authorized to enter into Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with private sector entities. Under a CRADA, the NIH laboratory can provide personnel, services, facilities, equipment or other resources and the collaborator can provide funds, personnel, services, facilities, equipment or other material and/or technical resources. Importantly, the CRADA provides the non-Federal party the option to negotiate an exclusive license to the resultant CRADA Subject Invention(s). The CRADA is the primary legal mechanism the Federal government has to convey such rights in advance of an invention. The agreement has no mandatory length but often are written for 1 to 3 years, renewable at the mutual agreement of the parties.
|Fiscal Year||Carryover from Prior Year||Collections||Obligations|
NCI retains a portion of the royalty income generated by the patents related to NCI-funded research. A major portion of this royalty income is used to support employees of the laboratory, further scientific exchange, and provide education and training in accordance with the terms of the Federal Technology Transfer Act (PL 99-502). Receipts are also used to support costs associated with processing and collecting royalty income and for technology transfer efforts at NCI and NIH. Royalties may be spent in the year of receipt and for two additional fiscal years.
|Years||Collections*||Inventor Payments||Other Obligations|
|* Collections do not include assessments by NIH.|
|** 2021/2023 and 2022/2024 Inventor Payments and Other Obligations are estimates.|
Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act
The Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act (PL 105-41) was enacted in August 1997 and has since been extended to July 2000 (PL 106-253), November 2005 (PL 109-100), December 2007 (PL 110-150), December 2011 (PL 112-80), December 2015 (PL 114-99) and recently until December 2027 (PL 116-92). This act allows postal customers the opportunity to contribute funds to breast cancer research through their voluntary purchases of special rate postage stamps from the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Of the funds collected above the postage costs and administrative costs, the Act requires the USPS to transfer 70% to NIH and 30% to the Department of Defense. As of September 2022, NCI has received $65,558,428. NCI uses these funds for research projects directed towards breast cancer research. Thus far, five major programs have been funded, including the Insight Awards to Stamp Out Breast Cancer, the Breast Cancer Research Stamp Exceptional Opportunities Program, the Breast Cancer Premalignancy Program, a clinical trial to determine the risk of breast cancer recurrence, the Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Screen Detected Lesions Consortium, the Breast Cancer Weight Loss (BWEL), and the Tomosynthesis Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (TMIST). In FY 2022, $1,460,509 million in Stamp funds were obligated towards Breast Cancer research.
|*Balance includes carryover funds from the prior fiscal year that have not obligated.|