Special Sources of Funds

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs)

As a result of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (PL 99-502), government laboratories are authorized to enter into Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with private sector entities. Under a CRADA, the NIH laboratory can provide personnel, services, facilities, equipment or other resources and the collaborator can provide funds, personnel, services, facilities, equipment or other material and/or technical resources. Importantly, the CRADA provides the non-Federal party the option to negotiate an exclusive license to the resultant CRADA Subject Invention(s).  The CRADA is the primary legal mechanism the Federal government has to convey such rights in advance of an invention. The agreement has no mandatory length but often are written for 1 to 3 years, renewable at the mutual agreement of the parties.

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CRADA Receipts Deposited to the U.S. Treasury
(Dollars in Thousands)
Fiscal Year Carryover from Prior Year Collections Obligations
2005 10,962 6,858 4,253
2006 13,567 6,142 7,125
2007 12,584 9,410 8,360
2008 13,634 6,677 7,200
2009 13,111 5,466 4,765
2010 13,813 5,024 5,644
2011 13,150 8,582 5,894
2012 15,504 9,253 5,668
2013 10,587 11,226 8,470
2014 21,173 9,334 5,672
2015 24,835 15,772 11,670
2016 28,276 23,411 17,259
2017 40,647 27,033 20,990

Royalty Income

NCI retains a portion of the royalty income generated by the patents related to NCI-funded research. A major portion of this royalty income is used to support employees of the laboratory, further scientific exchange, and provide education and training in accordance with the terms of the Federal Technology Transfer Act (PL 99-502). Receipts are also used to support costs associated with processing and collecting royalty income and for technology transfer efforts at NCI and NIH. Royalties may be spent in the year of receipt and for two additional fiscal years. 

NCI Royalty Income Funding History
(Dollars in Thousands)
Years Collections* Inventor Payments Other Obligations
* Collections do not inclue assessments by NIH.

** 2016/2018 and 2017/2019 Inventor Payments and Other Obligations are estimates.

2005/2007 34,086 5,745 28,341
2006/2008 29,811 6,853 22,958
2007/2009 36,344 7,210 29,134
2008/2010 50,269 8,192 42,077
2009/2011 51,621 10,225 41,396
2010/2012 58,515 5,729 52,786
2011/2013 69,155 23,271 45,884
2012/2014 84,876 33,279 51,597
2013/2015 91,324 48,433 42,891
2014/2016 112,668 33,487 79,181
2015/2017 122,037 30,605 91,432
**2016/2018 115,096 21,270 93,826
**2017/2019 112,611 7,980 104,631

Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act

The Stamp Out Breast Cancer Act (PL 105-41) was established in August 1997 and has since been extended in July 2000 (PL 106-253), November 2005 (PL 109-100), December 2007 (PL 110-150), December 2011 (PL 112-80), and in December 2015 (PL 114-99). This act allows postal customers the opportunity to contribute funds to breast cancer research through their voluntary purchases of special rate postage stamps from the U.S. Postal Service (USPS). Of the funds collected above the postage costs and administrative costs, the Act requires the USPS to transfer 70% to NIH and 30% to the Department of Defense. As of September 2017, NCI has received $59,422,225. NCI uses these funds for research projects directed towards breast cancer research. Thus far, five major programs have been funded, including the Insight Awards to Stamp Out Breast Cancer, the Breast Cancer Research Stamp Exceptional Opportunities Program, the Breast Cancer Premalignancy Program, a clinical trial to determine the risk of breast cancer recurrence, and the Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Screen Detected Lesions Consortium. In FY 2017, $1,639,615 million in Stamp funds were obligated towards Breast Cancer research.

NCI Breast Cancer Stamp Funding History
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY Collected Obligated *Balance
* Balance includes carryover funds from the prior fiscal year not obligated.
1999 4,150 0 4,150
2000 3,101 3,499 3,753
2001 5,556 4,846 4,463
2002 3,595 1,129 6,929
2003 5,176 3,130 8,975
2004 4,814 3,472 10,317
2005 4,372 2,987 11,703
2006 4,468 6,896 9,274
2007 3,006 1,601 10,679
2008 4,856 2,122 13,413
2009 3,403 1,873 14,944
2010 2,345 2,590 14,698
2011 2,049 1,977 14,770
2012 1,623 1,654 14,738
2013 1,404 1,337 14,805
2014 1,160 1,477 14,488
2015 1,251 1,635 14,105
2016 1,707 1,654 14,158
2017 1,387 1,640 13,905

  • Posted: February 16, 2018