Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT)
ATRT is a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. This means it begins in the brain or spinal cord.
What is the grade of ATRTs?
ATRTs are all classified as Grade IV tumors. This means they are malignant (cancerous) and fast-growing.
Who is diagnosed with ATRTs?
ATRTs occur in both children and adults and are very rare in both age groups. There have been only 50 reported cases in adults. ATRTs occur slightly more often in males than females.
What causes ATRTs?
Most ATRTs are caused by changes in a gene known as SMARCB1 (also called INI1). This gene normally signals proteins stops tumor growth. But in ATRTs, SMARCB1 doesn’t function properly and tumor growth is uncontrolled. SMARCB1 can sometimes be found in a person’s DNA, which means they are born with it.
Where do ATRTs form?
ATRTs can form anywhere in the CNS. They often occur in the brain and often spread to the spinal cord. But ATRTs rarely begin in the spinal cord. ATRTs can form outside the CNS, such as in the kidney, but this is rare. ATRTs develop from several different very young cells called embryonal cells. These cells include rhabdoid, neuroepithelial, epithelial and mesenchymal.
Do ATRTs spread?
ATRTs can be very fast-growing. They often spread to other areas of the CNS through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
What are the symptoms of an ATRT?
Symptoms related to an ATRT depend on the tumor’s location and the patient’s age. Some possible symptoms include morning headaches, vomiting, changes in activity levels and loss of balance. In infants, you may see an increase in head size. Since ATRTs are fast-growing, symptoms usually get worse quickly.
What are treatment options for ATRTs?
The first treatment for an ATRT is surgery, if possible. The goal of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the tumor type and to remove as much tumor as possible without causing more symptoms for the person.
People with ATRTs usually receive further treatments after surgery, which may include radiation, chemotherapy or clinical trials. Clinical trials, with new chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy drugs, may also be available and can be a possible treatment option. Treatments are decided by the patient’s healthcare team based on the patient’s age, remaining tumor after surgery, tumor type, and tumor location.
Open clinical studies for ATRTs
- Outcomes and Risk Project for Patients with Rare CNS Cancers
- Evaluation of the Natural History and Specimen Banking for Patients with CNS Cancers
- Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Nivolumab for Patients with Rare CNS Cancers
What do ATRTs look like on an MRI?
ATRTs usually appear very large with fluid-filled areas that often brightens with contrast. You can often see areas of bleeding or dead tissue.
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