NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms
The NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms features 8,176 terms related to cancer and medicine.
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- A molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly. They are the basis of body structures, such as skin and hair, and of other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.
- protein expression
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- Refers to the production of proteins by cells. The study of protein expression in cancer cells may give information about a specific type of cancer, the best treatment to use, and how well a treatment works.
- protein expression profile
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- Information about all proteins that are made in blood, other body fluids, or tissues, at certain times. A protein expression profile may be used to find and diagnose a disease or condition and to see how well the body responds to treatment. Also called protein signature and proteomic profile.
- protein kinase B
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- A group of enzymes involved in several processes related to cell growth and survival. Protein kinase B enzymes help to transfer signals inside cells. A protein kinase B enzyme is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase. Also called Akt.
- protein kinase C
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- An enzyme found throughout the body's tissues and organs. Several forms of protein kinase C are involved in many cellular functions. Protein kinase C is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Also called PKC.
- protein kinase inhibitor
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- A substance that blocks the action of enzymes called protein kinases. There are many different types of protein kinases and they take part in many cell functions. These include cell signaling, growth, and division. Blocking certain protein kinases may help keep cancer cells from growing. Some protein kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, vemurafenib, and gefitinib, are used to treat cancer.
- protein signature
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- Information about all proteins that are made in blood, other body fluids, or tissues, at certain times. A protein signature may be used to find and diagnose a disease or condition and to see how well the body responds to treatment. Also called protein expression profile and proteomic profile.
- protein-bound paclitaxel
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- A drug used to treat breast cancer that has come back or spread to other parts of the body. It is also used with carboplatin to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients who are not able to have surgery or radiation therapy. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Protein-bound paclitaxel is a form of the anticancer drug paclitaxel and may cause fewer side effects than paclitaxel. It stops cancer cells from growing and dividing, and may kill them. It is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent. Also called ABI-007, Abraxane, nanoparticle paclitaxel, and paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation.
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- Higher-than-normal amount of protein in the urine.