NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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apilimod dimesylate capsule
A capsule containing the dimesylate salt form of apilimod, an inhibitor of the class III PI kinase phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulatory activities. Upon oral administration of apilimod dimesylate capsule, apilimod selectively binds to and inhibits PIKfyve. The inhibition leads to disruption of PIKfyve-mediated signal transduction pathways and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in PIKfyve-overexpressing tumor cells. Also, PIKfyve inhibition by apilimod inhibits the toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of various cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23, thereby preventing IL-12/IL-23-mediated immune responses. PIKfyve, a lipid kinase dysregulated in various tumor types, plays a key role in TLR signaling and tumor cell migration, proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apixaban
An orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa with anticoagulant activity. Apixaban directly inhibits factor Xa, thereby interfering with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and preventing formation of cross-linked fibrin clots. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aplenzin
(Other name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release)
Aplidin
(Other name for: plitidepsin)
apolizumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against 1D10, a polymorphic determinant on the HLA-DR beta chain that is expressed on normal and neoplastic B cells. Apolizumab induces complement-mediated cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and apoptosis of 1D10 antigen-positive B cells in vitro. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apomab
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against human death receptor 5 (DR5; TRAIL-R2; TNFRSF10B) with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Mimicking the natural ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand), apomab binds to DR5, which may directly activate the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and indirectly induce the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tumor cells. DR5 is a cell surface receptor of the TNF-receptor superfamily and is expressed in a broad range of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apoptosis inducer BZL101
An orally active aqueuous extract derived from the plant Scutellaria barbata with potential antineoplastic activity. Sparing normal cells, apoptosis inducer BZL101 specifically facilitates translocation of the protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondrial membrane into the nucleus in tumor cells, thereby causing tumor cell-specific chromatin condensation and DNA degradation followed by the induction of caspase-independent apoptosis. AIF is both a mitochondrial intermembrane flavoprotein with oxidoreductase activity and a caspase-independent death effector that, similar to cytochrome c, is released from mitochondria early in the apoptotic process. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apoptosis inducer GCS-100
A galectin-binding polysaccharide derived from citrus pectin with potential antineoplastic activity. Apoptosis inducer GCS-100 binds to the carbohydrate-binding domain of the lectin galectin-3, which may result in apoptosis mediated through mitochondria/caspase activation cascades; this agent may overcome tumor growth mediated through anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, heat shock protein-27 (Hsp-27), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Galectin-3, a chimeric molecule consisting of both carbohydrate recognition and collagen-like domains, interacts with a variety of carbohydrate and protein ligands to form pentamers with unique crosslinking abilities; this lectin also exhibits anti-apoptotic properties, perhaps, in part, through the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apoptosis inducer MPC-2130
A broad-acting, apoptosis-inducing, small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, apoptosis inducer MPC-2130 exhibits proapoptotic activities in tumor cells, including membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria, caspase activation, cell condensation, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, because this agent is not a substrate for several types of multidrug resistance (MDR) ABC superfamily transporters, such as P-glycoprotein 1 (MDR-1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1/ABCG2), it may be useful in treating MDR tumors that express these particular MDR efflux pumps. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apoptotic autologous tumor cells-pulsed alpha-type-1 polarized dendritic cells
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of mature polarized dendritic cells (DCs) and pulsed with apoptotic autologous tumor cells that has potential immunostimulating and antineoplatic activities. Dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-alpha (IFN-a), IFN-gamma and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (p-I:C) to produce mature alpha type-1 polarized DCs (alphaDC1) that are capable of producing high levels of interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70). The alphaDC1 are subsequently pulsed with apoptotic autologous tumor cells. Upon administration, these DCs are able to induce a potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor associated antigens (TAAs), resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell growth. Apoptotic tumor cells contain an array of TAAs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
APOTONE
(Other name for: androstane steroid HE3235)
aprepitant
A small molecule, high-affinity substance P antagonist (SPA) with antiemetic activity. Crossing the blood brain barrier, aprepitant binds selectively to the human substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby inhibiting receptor binding of endogenous substance P and substance P-induced emesis. This agent has little or no affinity for serotonin type 3 (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apricoxib
An orally bioavailable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Apricoxib binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby inhibiting the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Apricoxib-mediated inhibition of COX-2 may induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. COX-related metabolic pathways may represent crucial regulators of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Apriso
(Other name for: mesalamine)
aprotinin bovine
A single chain polypeptide isolated from bovine lung with antifibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory activities. As a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin bovine competitively and reversibly inhibits the activity of a number of different esterases and proteases, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, plasmin, tissue plasminogen activator, and tissue and leukocytic proteinases, resulting in attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), fibrinolysis, and thrombin generation. This agent also inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine release and maintains glycoprotein homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
aprutumab ixadotin
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed against the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 2 (FGFR2) and conjugated to an as of yet unidentified toxin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, aprutumab ixadotin binds to FGFR2. Upon binding, the toxin selectively induces cell death, through an as of yet undisclosed mechanism of action, in FGFR2-expressing tumor cells. FGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays an essential role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aptosyn
(Other name for: exisulind)
Aquacel AG with Hydrofiber
(Other name for: ionic silver-impregnated sodium carboxymethyl cellulose antimicrobial dressing)
Aquacel Dressing
(Other name for: sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing)
Aquadiol
(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)
Aquaphor
(Other name for: petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin-ceresin ointment)
Aquasol A
(Other name for: vitamin A compound)
AR antagonist BMS-641988
A nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with anti-androgenic and potential antineoplastic activities. AR antagonist BMS-641988 binds to ARs in target tissues and prevents AR activation, which may result in the inhibition of AR-mediated transcriptional activity and tumor cell death in susceptible tumor cell populations. Global gene expression analysis has shown that exposure to this agent may result in a phenotype that is closer to a castration phenotype than is achievable with other antiandrogens such as bicalutamide. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aralast
(Other name for: alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor human)
Aranelle
(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)
Aranesp
(Other name for: darbepoetin alfa)
Arava
(Other name for: leflunomide)
ARC fusion protein SL-279252
An agonist redirected checkpoint (ARC) fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domains of human programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4; OX40 ligand; OX40L; CD252), linked by a central Fc domain (PD1-Fc-OX40L), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, ARC fusion protein SL-279252 simultaneously binds to both tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4; OX40) and PD-1 expressed on T lymphocytes. Stimulation of OX40 may promote cytokine production and induce proliferation of memory and effector T lymphocytes against tumor cells, while PD-1 binding disrupts PD-1 signaling and may restore immune function through the activation of T cells. This may enhance the immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells more effectively than PD-1 blockade or OX40-agonism alone. OX40L, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; CD274) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Archexin
(Other name for: Akt antisense oligonucleotide RX-0201)
arcitumomab
A murine IgG monoclonal Fab fragment antibody labeled with technetium-99m directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein that is overexpressed by many tumor cell types. For tumors that overexpress CEA, arcitumomab may be used as an adjunct diagnostic imaging tool to obtain prognostic information following resection and to monitor for recurrent disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arcoxia
(Other name for: etoricoxib)
Aredia
(Other name for: pamidronate disodium)
arfolitixorin
The R-isomer of folitixorin, a reduced folate-based biomodulator and active metabolite of folate drugs leucovorin (LV) and levoleucovorin (l-LV) that can be used to increase the efficacy of certain antimetabolites, such as the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and reduce as well as protect against certain antimetabolite-associated adverse effects, such as those seen with high-dose (HD) methotrexate. Upon administration of arfolitixorin, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) is a reduced folate substrate for the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) and stabilizes, upon co-administration of 5-FU, the covalent binding of the 5-FU metabolite 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (FdUMP), instead of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP), to its target enzyme TS, which results in an inhibition of TS. This inhibits the synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and leads to the depletion of thymidine triphosphate (TTP), which is a necessary constituent of DNA. This inhibits DNA synthesis, which leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation and induces tumor cell death. As MTHF is able to stabilize and strengthen the ternary complex, co-administration of arfolitixorin enhances the inhibition of DNA synthesis and increases the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU. As MTHF is the active form of folate and the active metabolite of LV and l-LV, arfolitixorin does not need to be converted to an active metabolite to become activated. In DNA synthesis, a ternary complex is formed between the reduced folate substrate MTHF, the TS enzyme and dUMP in order to convert dUMP to the DNA building block dTMP, which is necessary for DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginase inhibitor INCB001158
An orally available inhibitor of arginase, a manganese-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the amino acid arginine to form ornithine and urea, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, arginase inhibitor INCB001158 inhibits the breakdown of arginine by arginase, which is produced by myeloid cells, and restores arginine levels. This allows arginine to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which induces the proliferation and activation of T cells. Therefore, this agent may prevent the immunosuppressive effects of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and promote lymphocyte-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. Arginase is produced by neutrophils, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and plays a role in inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginase-1 peptide vaccine
A vaccine comprised of arginase-1 peptides, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination, the arginase-1 peptide vaccine may activate the immune system to induce an immune response against arginase-1-expressing cells. Arginase-1 is expressed by some cancer cells and by immune inhibitory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs); its expression is associated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine butyrate
The butyric acid salt of the amino acid arginine. In EBV-related lymphomas, arginine butyrate induces EBV thymidine kinase transcription and may act synergistically with the antiviral agent ganciclovir to inhibit cell proliferation and decrease cell viability. In addition, the butyrate moiety inhibits histone deacetylase, which results in hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. Acetylated histones have a reduced affinity for chromatin; this reduced histone-chromatin affinity may allow chromosomal unfolding, potentially enhancing the expression of genes related to tumor cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of arginine, an essential amino acid in juvenile humans. Arginine is a complex amino acid, often found at active sites in proteins and enzymes due to its amine-containing side chain. Arginine may prevent or treat heart and circulatory diseases, combat fatigue, and stimulate the immune system. It also boosts production of nitric oxide, relaxing blood vessels, and treating angina and other cardiovascular problems. Arginine is also an important intermediate in the urea cycle and in detoxification of nitrogenous wastes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine/nucleotides/omega-3 fatty acids/olive oil polyphenols/antioxidants/L-carnitine oral supplement
A hypercaloric, hyperproteic, enteric nutritional supplement, enriched in arginine, nucleotides, omega-3 fatty acids, olive oil polyphenols, L-carnitine, and antioxidants, with potential immunomodulatory activity. Upon oral or tube administration of the arginine/nucleotides/omega-3 fatty acids/olive oil polyphenols/antioxidants/L-carnitine oral supplement, these immunonutrients may modulate the activity of key components of the immune system, including lymphocytes, antigen presenting cells (APC), and various cytokines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arginine/omega-3 fatty acids/nucleotides oral supplement
An oral nutritional supplement, containing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, arginine, and nucleotides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Omega-3 fatty acids/arginine/nucleotides oral supplement may enhance activities of key components of the immune system, including lymphocytes, antigen presenting cells (APCs), and various cytokines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ArginMax
(Other name for: L-arginine/Korean ginseng/ Gingko biloba/damiana-based supplement)
Aricept
(Other name for: donepezil hydrochloride)
Arimidex
(Other name for: anastrozole)
Aristocort
(Other name for: triamcinolone)
Aristocort A
(Other name for: triamcinolone acetonide)
Arixtra
(Other name for: fondaparinux sodium)
armodafinil
The R-enantiomer of the racemic synthetic agent modafinil with central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and wakefulness-promoting activities. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, armodafinil appears to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine-reuptake pump, which leads to an increase in extracellular dopamine levels in some brain regions. This agent does not bind to or inhibit several receptors and enzymes that may be involved in sleep/wake regulation and is not a direct- or indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonist. Armodafinil has a longer half-life than modafinil. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arnebia Indigo Jade Pearl topical cream
A proprietary multiherbal topical cream based on Chinese herbal medicine with potential antineoplastic, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulatory activities. Arnebia Indigo Jade Pearl topical cream contains 12 ingredients including 9 herbs infused in sesame oil, with an additional three powdered ingredients and beeswax added to the infused oil to create the salve. The purported mechanism(s) of action is unclear due to the complexity of the herbal mixture. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aromasin
(Other name for: exemestane)
Aroplatin
(Other name for: liposomal NDDP)
Arranon
(Other name for: nelarabine)
arsenic trioxide
A small-molecule arsenic compound with antineoplastic activity. The mechanism of action of arsenic trioxide is not completely understood. This agent causes damage to or degradation of the promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML/RARa) fusion protein; induces apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells and in many other tumor cell types; promotes cell differentiation and suppresses cell proliferation in many different tumor cell types; and is pro-angiogenic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
arsenic trioxide capsule formulation ORH 2014
An orally bioavailable capsule formulation of the inorganic toxic compound arsenic trioxide (As2O3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the mechanism of action (MoA) of As2O3 is not well understood, upon oral administration of ORH 2014, As2O3 appears to bind to DNA, prevent DNA synthesis, and cause DNA fragmentation, which leads to an induction of apoptosis in proliferating cells, including tumor cells. In addition, As2O3 causes damage to and induces degradation of the promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML/RARa) fusion protein, and inhibits the activity of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artemether sublingual spray
A sublingual spray containing artemether, a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, an endoperoxide extracted from the Chinese herb qinghaosu (Artemisia annua or annual wormwood), with antiparasitic and potential antineoplastic activity. Upon sublingual application of the spray, artemether exerts its antineoplastic activity through as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism(s) of action. This agent binds to heme molecules inside cells, thereby inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage which selectively kills cancer cells. In addition, artemether appears to target and modulate the expression of various proteins involved in cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Also, this agent depletes T regulatory cells, and modulates the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma. Altogether, this inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The sublingual spray allows faster absorption of a higher percentage of the artemether dose, when compared to the oral form, as it avoids first pass metabolism; this results in an increased efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artesunate
A water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpine lactone artemisinin with anti-malarial, anti-shistosomiasis, antiviral, and potential anti-neoplastic activities. Upon hydrolysis of artesunate’s active endoperoxide bridge moiety by liberated heme in parasite-infected red blood cells, reactive oxygen species and carbon-centered radicals form, which have been shown to damage and kill parasitic organisms. Additionally, in vitro studies demonstrate that this agent induces DNA breakage in a dose-dependent manner. Artesunate has also been shown to stimulate cell differentiation, arrest the cell cycle in the G1 and G2/M phases, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis through mitochondrial and caspase signaling pathways. Artemisinin is isolated form the plant Artemisia annua. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artichoke whole phytocomplex concentrate
A whole phytocomplex concentrate (W.P.C.) composed of a standardized extract of the Cynara scolymus (artichoke) leaf with potential antioxidant, protective and chemopreventive activities. Artichoke W.P.C. is high in flavonoids and polyphenols, such as caffeoylquinic acids, which are mainly responsible for the pharmacological effects of the extract. Artichoke W.P.C. also contains protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, numerous enzymes, volatile oils, phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
artificial saliva spray
A spray formulation containing a saliva substitute, composed of potassium chloride, sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, dipotassium phosphate and monopotassium phosphate, that has potential anti-xerostomia activity. Upon direct oral application of the artificial saliva spray, a protective film of moisture is deposited over the mucous membranes of the mouth, which relieves dryness of the mucous membranes and increases salivary flow. In addition, artificial saliva may help prevent chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist BAY2416964
An orally available formulation containing a small molecule antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR; class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 76; bHLHe76) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, AhR antagonist BAY2416964 specifically binds to AhR, inhibits AhR activation, and prevents AhR-mediated signaling. Abrogation of AhR activation prevents the activation of immune-tolerant dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This may restore the immune response against tumor cells. AhR, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors, has important roles in regulating immunity and cellular differentiation. AhR can exhibit both pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor-like functions depending on the tumor type; therefore, its expression may serve as a negative or positive prognostic factor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibitor IK-175
An orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR; class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 76; bHLHe76), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, AhR inhibitor IK-175 specifically targets and binds to AhR, inhibits AhR activation, prevents AhR-mediated signaling, and AhR-dependent tumor cell proliferation. Abrogation of AhR activation prevents the activation of immune-tolerant dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreases suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment (TME). It stimulates cytotoxic T-cell activation and expansion. This may restore the immune response against tumor cells. AhR, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors, plays key roles in regulating immunity and cellular differentiation. It mediates the expression of multiple immune related and tumor cell signal transduction and proliferation genes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Arzerra
(Other name for: ofatumumab)
arzoxifene hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of arzoxifene, a synthetic aromatic derivative with anti-estrogenic properties. Arzoxifene binds to estrogen receptors as a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist. In comparison to other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), arzoxifene exhibits greater bioavailability and higher anti-estrogenic potency in the breast than raloxifene; it exhibits reduced estrogenicity in the uterus compared with either tamoxifen or raloxifene. This agent may have beneficial effects on bone and the cardiovascular system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine
A split-virus, inactivated influenza A (H1N1) vaccine containing H1N1 immunizing antigen combined with the adjuvant AS03, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon intramuscular vaccination, AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine may elicit an immune response against the H1N1 virus and the production of anti-H1N1 antibodies. AS03 is a stabilized oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant containing DL-alpha-tocopherol, squalene and polysorbate 80 that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune antigen responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asacol
(Other name for: mesalamine)
asaley
An L-leucine derivative of melphalan with antineoplastic activity. Asaley alkylates and crosslinks DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asciminib
An orally bioavailable, allosteric Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome resistance, asciminib binds to the Abl portion of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein at a location that is distinct from the ATP-binding domain. This binding results in the inhibition of Bcr-Abl-mediated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) hematological malignancies. The Bcr-Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase is an abnormal enzyme produced by leukemia cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asclera
(Other name for: polidocanol)
ascorbic acid
A natural water-soluble vitamin (Vitamin C). Ascorbic acid is a potent reducing and antioxidant agent that functions in fighting bacterial infections, in detoxifying reactions, and in the formation of collagen in fibrous tissue, teeth, bones, connective tissue, skin, and capillaries. Found in citrus and other fruits, and in vegetables, vitamin C cannot be produced or stored by humans and must be obtained in the diet. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ashwagandha root powder extract
A dietary supplement containing an extract powder derived from the root of the ashwagandha shrub with potential antineoplastic, antioxidant, immunostimulating and anti-angiogenic activities. Ashwagandha root powder extract contains numerous alkaloids, including withanine as the primary alkaloid, and steroidal lactone withanolides. The withanolides in this agent may suppress nuclear factor-kappaB activation and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated gene expression, potentiating apoptosis and inhibiting tumor cell invasion. Cultivated in India and North America, ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal or Indian ginseng) belongs to the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asian ginseng
The aromatic root of perennial herbs of Panax ginseng. Ginseng, used in traditional Chinese medicine and available as a nutritional supplement, is classified as an adaptogenic herb with multiple effects, many of them are regulatory in nature. It contains a complex mixture of saponins, ginsenosides and panaxosides. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, ginseng is reported to enhance the immune system and reduce fatigue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASK1 inhibitor GS-4997
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), with potential anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and anti-fibrotic activities. Upon oral administration, ASK1 inhibitor GS-4997 targets and binds to the catalytic kinase domain of ASK1 in an ATP-competitive manner, thereby preventing its phosphorylation and activation. This prevents the phosphorylation of downstream kinases, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). By preventing the activation of ASK1-dependent signal transduction pathways, GS-4997 prevents the production of inflammatory cytokines, down-regulates the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, suppresses excessive apoptosis and inhibits cellular proliferation. ASK1, also called mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), is activated in response to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium influx and infection. It plays a key role in the development of certain cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, as well as certain types of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASONEP
(Other name for: sonepcizumab)
Asorbicap
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
ASP4132
A molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ASP4132 affects oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of metabolically-active tumor cells, which reduces both energy production and tumor cell proliferation. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is hyperactivated in tumor cells and plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ASP9853
An orally bioavailable small molecule, with potential antineoplastic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asparaginase
An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Escherichia coli or the bacterium Erwinia carotovora with antileukemic activity. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia in leukemic cells, resulting in the depletion of asparagine, inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and apoptosis in susceptible leukemic cell populations. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells; some leukemic cells cannot synthesize this amino acid de novo due to the absent or deficient expression of the enzyme asparagine synthase. The E. carotovora-derived form of asparaginase is typically reserved for cases of asparaginase hypersensitivity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (E. carotovora). Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting leukemic cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The Erwinia-derived product is often used for those patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to the E. Coli formulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Asparlas
(Other name for: calaspargase pegol-mknl)
Aspergum
(Other name for: acetylsalicylic acid)
astatine At 211 anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody OKT10-B10
A radioimmunoconjugate composed of the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) OKT10-B10 labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide astatine (At) 211 (211At), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of astatine At 211 anti-CD38 MoAb OKT10-B10, the MoAb moiety targets and binds to CD38-expressing tumor cells, thereby delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation directly to the CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is present on various immune cells and in hematologic malignancies; its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
astatine At 211 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8-B10
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the murine IgG1 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb) BC8 where the lysine side groups have been conjugated with decaborate (closo-decaborate; B10) and labeled with astatine (At) 211, with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Astatine At 211 anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody BC8-B10 binds to CD45 antigen, a receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase expressed on the surface of both normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. After binding and internalization by CD45-expressing tumor cells, this agent may deliver a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation. Additionally, the radiolabel can be leveraged to assay the biodistribution and/or pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) for this agent. The use of B10 rather than other labeling methods increases the therapeutic efficacy while decreasing the toxicity of the radioconjugate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Astragalus membranaceus/Angelica gigas/Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz mixed herbal extract SH003
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based herbal extract composed of Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag) and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the active ingredients in Am/Ag/Tk mixed herbal extract SH003 work synergistically to exert a number of activities through various mechanisms of action (MOA); although, not all of the MOAs are fully elucidated. SH003 blocks the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptor VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2; KDR), thereby inhibiting VEGF/VEGFR2-mediated signaling and VEGF-induced tumor endothelial cell migration, invasion and tube formation. This inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In addition, SH003 inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and STAT3-mediated signaling, decreases the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expression of STAT3 target genes. This induces apoptosis in, and reduces proliferation and metastasis of, cancer cells in which STAT3 signaling is overactivated. STAT3 activation contributes to inflammation in the cancer environment and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Astragalus-based formulation Qing Shu Yi Qi Tang
An herbal remedy containing Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng, Atractylodes chinensis Koidz, Cimicifuga foetida, A. macrocephala Koidz, Alisma orientale Juzep, and Citrus reticulata Blanco, with potential immunomodulating, anti-oxidant and anticachexia activities. Upon oral consumption, the ingredients in this herbal supplement may modulate the activity of the immune system through a decrease in both the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and he production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (Il-1b), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are correlated with decreased appetite and weight loss; thus, this herbal remedy may improve immune function, appetite and weight gain, which could prevent cachexia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Astugenal
(Other name for: antineoplaston AS2-1)
astuprotimut-R
A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant form of human melanoma antigen A3 (MAGE-A3) combined with a proprietary adjuvant with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, astuprotimut-R may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the MAGE-A3 antigen, resulting in tumor cell death. MAGE-A3, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) originally discovered in melanoma cells, is expressed by various tumor types. The proprietary immunostimulating adjuvant in this agent is composed of a specific combination of immunostimulating compounds selected to increase the anti-tumor immune response to MAGE-A3. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asulacrine isethionate
The isethionate salt of an amsacrine analogue with antineoplastic properties. Asulacrine inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase ll, thereby blocking DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
asunaprevir
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), with potential activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Upon administration, asunaprevir binds to the active center of the HCV NS3 and prevents NS3 protease-mediated polyprotein maturation. This disrupts the processing of viral proteins required for HCV replication. NS3, a serine protease, is essential for the proteolytic cleavages within the HCV polyprotein and plays a key role during HCV viral RNA replication. HCV is a small, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atacand
(Other name for: candesartan cilexetil)
atamestane
A synthetic steroidal substance with antineoplastic activity. Atamestane binds irreversibly to and inhibits the enzyme aromatase, thereby blocking the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the peripheral aromatization of androgenic precursors into estrogens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atengenal
(Other name for: antineoplaston A10)
atenolol
A synthetic isopropylamino-propanol derivative used as an antihypertensive, hypotensive and antiarrhythmic. Atenolol acts as a peripheral, cardioselective beta blocker specific for beta-1 adrenergic receptors, without intrinsic sympathomimetic effects. It reduces exercise heart rates and delays atrioventricular conduction, with overall decreasing oxygen requirements. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atezolizumab
A humanized, Fc optimized, monoclonal antibody directed against the protein ligand PD-L1 (programmed cell death-1 ligand 1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Atezolizumab binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T-cells, which may enhance the T-cell-mediated immune response to neoplasms and reverse T-cell inactivation. In addition, by binding to PD-L1, atezolizumab also prevents binding of this ligand to B7.1 expressed on activated T cells, which further enhances the T-cell-mediated immune response. PD-L1 is overexpressed on many human cancer cell types and on various tumor-infiltrating immune cells. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. The Fc region of atezolizumab is modified in such a way that it does not induce either antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATGAM
(Other name for: anti-thymocyte globulin)
Atgam
(Other name for: horse anti-thymocyte globulin)
atiprimod
An orally bioavailable small molecule belonging to the azaspirane class of cationic amphiphilic agents with anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antiangiogenic properties. Atiprimod inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), blocking the signalling pathways of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and downregulating the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, and inducing apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Ativan
(Other name for: lorazepam)
ATM inhibitor M 3541
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), with potential chemo-/radio-sensitizing and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, M 3541 targets and binds to ATM, thereby inhibiting the kinase activity of ATM and ATM-mediated signaling. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, induces tumor cell apoptosis, and leads to cell death of ATM-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, M 3541 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATM, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types; it is activated in response to DNA damage and plays a key role in DNA-strand repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATM kinase inhibitor AZD0156
An orally bioavailable ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase inhibitor, with potential chemo-/radio-sensitizing and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, AZD0156 targets and binds to ATM, thereby inhibiting the kinase activity of ATM and ATM-mediated signaling. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, induces tumor cell apoptosis, and leads to cell death of ATM-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, AZD0156 sensitizes tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy. ATM, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types; it is activated in response to DNA damage and plays a key role in DNA-strand repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATN-161
A small peptide antagonist of integrin alpha5beta1 with potential antineoplastic activity. ATN-161 selectively binds to and blocks the receptor for integrin alpha5beta1, thereby preventing integrin alpha5beta1 binding. This receptor blockade may result in inhibition of endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Integrin alpha5beta1 is expressed on endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atomoxetine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt of atomoxetine, a phenoxy-3-propylamine derivative and selective non-stimulant, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-enhancing activity. Although its precise mechanism of action is unknown, atomoxetine appears to selectively inhibit the pre-synaptic norepinephrine transporter, resulting in inhibition of the presynaptic reabsorption of norepinephrine and prolongation of norepinephrine activity in the synaptic cleft; the effect on cognitive brain function may result in improved attention and decreased impulsivity and activity levels. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atorvastatin calcium
The calcium salt of atorvastatin, a synthetic lipid-lowering agent. Atorvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent increases the number of LDL receptors on hepatic cell surfaces, enhancing the uptake and catabolism of LDL and reducing LDL production and the number of LDL particles, and lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. Like other statins, atorvastatin may also display direct antineoplastic activity, possibly by inhibiting farnesylation and geranylgeranylation of proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins, which may result in the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent may also sensitize tumor cells to cyctostatic drugs, possibly through the mTOR-dependent inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
atovaquone
A synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinone with antiprotozoal activity. Atovoquone blocks the mitochondrial electron transport at complex III of the respiratory chain of protozoa, thereby inhibiting pyrimidine synthesis, preventing DNA synthesis and leading to protozoal death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR kinase inhibitor BAY1895344
An orally available ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-specific kinase inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ATR kinase inhibitor BAY1895344 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of ATR, which prevents ATR-mediated signaling. This inhibits DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair and induces apoptosis in ATR-overexpressing tumor cells. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR kinase inhibitor M1774
An orally available inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ATR kinase inhibitor M1774 selectively inhibits ATR activity and blocks the downstream phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1). This prevents ATR-mediated signaling, which results in the inhibition of DNA damage checkpoint activation, the disruption of DNA damage repair, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and survival. It is activated by DNA damage caused during DNA replication-associated stress. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR kinase inhibitor M6620
An inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) kinase, a DNA damage response kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ATR kinase inhibitor M6620 selectively binds to and inhibits ATR kinase activity and prevents ATR-mediated signaling in the ATR-checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) signaling pathway. This prevents DNA damage checkpoint activation, disrupts DNA damage repair, and induces tumor cell apoptosis. ATR, a serine/threonine protein kinase upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and survival; it is activated by DNA damage caused during DNA replication-associated stress. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ATR-101
An orally bioavailable agent that is selective towards adrenal cortex cells with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, ATR-101 selectively kills adrenal and adrenal cancer cells, through an unknown mechanism. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atragen
(Other name for: liposomal tretinoin)
atrasentan hydrochloride
The orally available hydrochloride salt of pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. As a selective antagonist of the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor, atrasentan binds selectively to the ETA receptor, which may result in inhibition of endothelin-induced angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Atromid-S
(Other name for: clofibrate)
atropine sulfate
The sulfate salt of atropine, a naturally-occurring alkaloid isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine functions as a sympathetic, competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, thereby abolishing the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. This agent may induce tachycardia, inhibit secretions, and relax smooth muscles. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus 5T4 vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant, attenuated, replication-defective simian adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1) encoding the human 5T4 fetal oncoprotein (ChAdOx1.5T4), with potential immuno-activating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the recombinant attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus 5T4 vaccine, the viral vector expresses 5T4 and stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing 5T4, which results in tumor cell lysis. 5T4, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types; its expression is correlated with increased invasiveness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
attenuated Listeria monocytogenes CRS-100
A live-attenuated strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes CRS-100 may accumulate in and infect liver cells where it may activate a potent innate immune response and an adaptive immune response involving the by recruitment and activation of T lymphocytes. This agent may potentiate the immune response to vaccines against various liver neoplasms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Augmentin
(Other name for: amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium)
auranofin
An orally available, lipophilic, organogold compound, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, with anti-inflammatory and potential antineoplastic activities. Auranofin interacts with selenocysteine residue within the redox-active domain of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thereby blocking the activity of TrxR. As a result, this agent induces mitochondrial oxidative stress leading to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, this agent strongly inhibits the JAK1/STAT3 signal transduction pathway, thereby suppressing expression of immune factors involved in inflammation. TrxR, overexpressed in many cancer cell types, inhibits apoptosis, promotes cell growth and survival and plays a role in resistance to chemotherapy; TrxR catalyzes the reduction of oxidized thioredoxin (Trx) and plays a central role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurimmune
(Other name for: colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor)
Aurixim
(Other name for: rituximab conjugate CON-4619)
Aurolate
(Other name for: gold sodium thiomalate)
aurora A kinase inhibitor LY3295668 erbumine
The tert-butylamine salt form of LY3295668, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase aurora A, with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, aurora A kinase inhibitor LY3295668 targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of aurora A kinase. This may result in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, inhibition of cell division and the induction of apoptosis in cells overexpressing aurora A kinase. Aurora A kinase, overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, plays an essential role in the regulation of spindle assembly and mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora A kinase inhibitor TAS-119
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase aurora A, with potential antimitotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, aurora A kinase inhibitor TAS-119 binds to and inhibits aurora A kinase, which may result in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, inhibition of cell division and the induction of apoptosis in cells overexpressing aurora A kinase. Aurora A kinase localizes to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules during mitosis; it plays an essential role in the regulation of spindle assembly. Aurora kinase A is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora A kinase/tyrosine kinase inhibitor ENMD-2076
An orally bioavailable synthetic small molecule with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Aurora A kinase/tyrosine kinase inhibitor ENMD-2076 selectively binds to and inhibits non-specified tyrosine kinases and Aurora kinases (AKs). The inhibition of AKs may result in the inhibition of cell division and proliferation and may induce apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress AKs; antiangiogenic activity is related to the inhibition of angiogenic tyrosine kinases. AKs are serine-threonine kinases that play an essential role in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis and are important regulators of cell division and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora B kinase inhibitor TAK-901
A small-molecule inhibitor of the serine-threonine kinase Aurora B with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora B kinase inhibitor TAK-901 binds to and inhibits the activity of Aurora B, which may result in a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress Aurora B. Aurora B is a positive regulator of mitosis that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere; the segregation of sister chromatids to each daughter cell; and the separation of daughter cells during cytokinesis. This serine/threonine kinase may be amplified and overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A
An ATP-competitive inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinases Aurora B and C with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor GSK1070916A binds to and inhibits the activity of Aurora kinases B and C, which may result in inhibition of cellular division and a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress the Aurora kinases B and C. Aurora kinases play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis, and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase A/B inhibitor TT-00420
An orally available small molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases (AKs) A and B and other currently undisclosed kinases with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulatory activities. Upon oral administration, Aurora kinase inhibitor TT-00420 selectively binds to and inhibits AKs A and B, which may inhibit cell division in tumor cells that overexpress AKs. TT-00420 may also target other not yet disclosed kinases that play a role in tumor-associated inflammation and immune evasion. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900
A small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases A, B and C with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may result in inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 811283
A small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor BI 811283 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases, resulting in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor MLN8054
An orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Aurora A kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Auora kinase inhibitor MLN8054 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinase A, resulting in disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregration, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Aurora A localizes in mitosis to the spindle poles and to spindle microtubules and is thought to regulate spindle assembly. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases occurs in a wide variety of cancers, including colon and breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor PF-03814735
An orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive, reversible small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor PF-03814735 binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A and B, which may result in the inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor SNS-314
A synthetic small molecule Aurora kinase (AK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor SNS-314 selectively binds to and inhibits AKs A and B, which may result in the inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress AKs. AKs are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase inhibitor TTP607
A small-molecule pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor TTP607 selectively binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may result in the disruption of the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus, disruption of chromosome segregation, and inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in Aurora kinase-overexpressing tumor cells. Aurora kinases A, B and C, are serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Aurora kinase/VEGFR2 inhibitor CYC116
An orally bioavailable small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase/VEGFR 2 inhibitor CYC116 inhibits Aurora kinases A and B and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), resulting in disruption of the cell cycle, rapid cell death, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Aurora kinases are serine/threonine protein kinases that are only expressed in actively dividing cells and are critical in division or mitosis. VEGFR2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that appears to account for most of the mitogenic and chemotactic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on adult endothelial cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous ACTR-CD16-CD28-expressing T lymphocytes ACTR707
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified, using proprietary Antibody-Coupled T-cell Receptor (ACTR) technology, to express a chimeric protein containing, at least, the extracellular Fc receptor domain of CD16, normally found on certain immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, coupled to the co-stimulatory signaling domain of CD28, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon reintroduction into the patient with co-administration of a cancer-specific antibody, the co-administered antibody targets and binds to the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on the tumor cell. In turn, the autologous ACTR-CD16-CD28-expressing T lymphocytes ACTR707 bind to the antibody, become activated and induce the destruction of the tumor cells by a) releasing cytotoxins that directly kill cancer cells; b) releasing cytokines that trigger an immune response and recruit other immune-mediated killer cells to kill the tumor cells; c) targeting and killing adjacent tumor cells that are not bound to the antibody; d) inducing T-cell proliferation and thereby further enhancing the T-cell mediated tumor cell attack. Compared to other T-cell products, ACTR-based products do not target a specific TAA and can potentially be used in a variety of tumors because targeting is based on the specificity of the co-administered antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous Ad-CD154-transduced CLL B cells
An autologous tumor cell vaccine containing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells transduced with an adenoviral vector carrying chimeric CD154 (ad-CD154) with potential antineoplastic activity. Administration of autologous ad-CD154 transduced CLL B cells may result in increases in the numbers of leukemia-specific CD4+ T cells and high serum-levels of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. Due to ligation of CD154 to CD40 on CLL cells, this agent may induce CLL cells to express the proapoptotic molecule Bid and death receptors CD95 (Fas) and DR5, rendering CLL B cells first resistant and then sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, autologous ad-CD154 transduced CLL B cells may induce MHC class I-dependent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against autologous leukemia cells. CD154 is a type II membrane glycoprotein and ligand for CD40; both molecules are important in cognate co-stimulatory cell-cell interactions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous AML/dendritic cell fusion vaccine
A therapeutic cell-based cancer vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) fused with autologous acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The autologous AML/DC fusion vaccine is generated in vitro by mixing DCs and irradiated AML cells harvested from individual patients, in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), to produce hybrid DC-leukemia fusion cells. Upon re-administration, the autologous AML/DC fusion vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated antitumor immune response against a broad array of AML-associated antigens, which may lead to AML cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-B7-H3/CD19 CAR T cells SCRI-CARB7H3(s)x19
A preparation of autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes lentivirally transduced to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the immunoregulatory protein B7-homologue 3 (B7-H3, CD276) and the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19, and containing, as of yet undisclosed co-stimulatory signaling domains, and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-B7-H3/CD19 CAR T cells target and bind to both B7-H3 on T cells and CD19 on tumor cells. This crosslinks T cells and tumor cells, and induces selective toxicity in B7-H3/CD19-expressing tumor cells. B7-H3, a type I transmembrane protein and a member of the B7 co-stimulatory protein superfamily, is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types and on various immune cells. It promotes the activation of T cells. CD19, a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein expressed on the surface of cells in the B lineage, are often overexpressed on malignant B cells. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA CAR-T cells IM21
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) and containing, as of yet undisclosed costimulatory signaling domains, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the autologous anti-BCMA CAR-T cells IM21 recognize and induce selective toxicity against BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA CAR-transduced T cells KITE-585
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a human monoclonal antibody specific for the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused, via an as of yet unknown linker, to the co-stimulatory domain of CD28, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-BCMA CAR transduced T cells KITE-585 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells, is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells and plays a key role in plasma cell proliferation and survival. The CD28 co-stimulatory domain optimizes T-cell expansion and function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCARH125
A preparation of autologous CD4- and CD8-positive T lymphocytes that have been ex vivo transduced with a genetically-engineered lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the CD3-zeta (CD3z) T-cell signaling domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes JCARH125 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing memory T lymphocytes bb21217
A preparation of autologous memory T lymphocytes transduced, ex vivo, with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and a CD3-zeta T-cell activation domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration back into the patient, the autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing memory T lymphocytes bb21217 are directed to, and induce selective toxicity in, BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma survival. BCMA is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing T cells CT053
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a humanized single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) that is fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the T-cell receptor signaling domain of CD3zeta (CD3z), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing T cells CT053 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity against BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in the survival of B lymphocytes and plasma cells. BCMA is found on the surfaces of B cells and is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes FCARH143
A preparation of ex vivo expanded autologous CD8+ and CD4+ T cells that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes FCARH143 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing stem memory T cells P-BCMA-101
A preparation consisting of autologous T cells that are enriched to be primarily stem memory T cells (Tscm) and are transfected by electroporation with a proprietary transposon-based DNA plasmid vector (PiggyBac) containing an undisclosed selection gene and encoding both an unidentified human-derived safety switch and a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based on a proprietary non-immunoglobulin scaffold molecule Centyrin (CARTyrin), which specifically recognizes human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing Tscm P-BCMA-101 specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. Use of CARTyrin may elicit less immunotoxicity than agents based on antibody-derived single chain variable fragments (scFv), and this agent may exhibit increased persistence and decreased exhaustion for the administered T cells. If significant side effects occur, the safety switch mechanism can induce the rapid attenuation or elimination of P-BCMA-101. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) that binds to both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL; TNFSF13) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF; TNFSF13B), plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-mRNA-transfected CD8+ T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous CD8-positive T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified via transient mRNA transfection to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) and containing, as of yet undisclosed co-stimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-mRNA transfected CD8+ T lymphocytes specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-TCRz/4-1BB-expressing T lymphocytes CART-BCMA
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been ex vivo transduced with a genetically-engineered lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an extracellular human single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to an intracellular tandem signaling domain comprised of the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3z), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-BCMA-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing T lymphocytes specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD123 CAR TCR/4-1BB-expressing T lymphocytes
Autologous, genetically engineered T lymphocytes that have been electroporated with a messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain (IL3RA; CD123) single chain variable fragment (scFv) coupled to the co-stimulatory signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the mRNA-electroporated autologous anti-CD123 CAR TCR/4-1BB expressing T lymphocytes attach to cancer cells expressing CD123. This induces selective toxicity in and causes lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances T cell activation and signaling after recognition of CD123. CD123 is normally expressed on committed blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow; its overexpression is associated with both increased leukemic cell proliferation and aggressiveness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD123 CAR-T cells
A preparation of autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain or IL3RA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CD123 CAR-T cells target and bind to CD123 expressed on the surface of tumor cells. This induces selective toxicity in CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123, the alpha subunit of the IL-3 receptor, regulates the proliferation, survival and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. It is overexpressed on a variety of cancers, including myeloid leukemia, and the increased expression of CD123 on leukemic stem cells (LSCs) is associated with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes BinD19
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a T-cell receptor (TCR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137) and to the cytoplasmic portion of the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (CD3zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes BinD19 target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, the release of cytotoxic molecules and tumor cell lysis. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes huCART19
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a humanized single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to the cytoplasmic portion of the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (CD3zeta) and the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon re-introduction into the patient, the autologous anti-CD19 CAR TCR-zeta/4-1BB-transduced T lymphocytes huCART19 target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. CD19 (cluster of differentiation 19) is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the co-stimulatory signaling domains increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD28 T cells KTE-X19
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3 zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous infusion and re-introduction of autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD28 T cells KTE-X19 into the patient, these cells bind to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen that is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. CD3 zeta is one of several membrane-bound polypeptides found in the TCR/CD3 complex; it regulates both the assembly and cell surface expression of TCR complexes. CD28 is essential for CD4+ T-cell proliferation, interleukin-2 production, and T-helper type-2 (Th2) development. KTE-X19 has the same construct as axicabtagene ciloleucel, but differs in the manufacturing process in that KTE-X19 includes specific T-cell selection and lymphocyte enrichment necessary for activity against certain B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of an anti-cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) single chain variable fragment (scFv) linked to the intracellular signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing T cells, these cells target, bind to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing T cells PZ01
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19, coupled to the costimulatory domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (CD3zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, the autologous anti-CD19 CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing T cells PZ01 target, bind to, and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing B cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that targets the human tumor associated antigen (TAA) CD19, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes bind to and induce selective toxicity against CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes CLIC-1901
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that targets the human tumor associated antigen (TAA) CD19, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR-expressing T lymphocytes CLIC-1901 bind to and induce selective toxicity against CD19-expressing tumor cells. The CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-T cells IM19
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and containing, as of yet undisclosed co-stimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR-T cells IM19 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 CAR-T cells TBI-1501
Autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced, via a proprietary technology involving a recombinant human fibronectin fragment to enhance transduction efficiency, with a retroviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19 coupled to co-stimulatory molecules, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, anti-CD19-CAR-expressing autologous T lymphocytes TBI-1501 target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells, the release of cytotoxic molecules and the induction of tumor cell lysis. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increase proliferation and activation of T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells C-CAR011
A proprietary preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and containing, as of yet undisclosed, costimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells C-CAR011 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells SJCAR19
A proprietary preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 and containing, as of yet undisclosed, costimulatory signaling domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells SJCAR19 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cells AUTO1
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been genetically modified and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CAT-41BBz CAR, targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 CAR T-cells AUTO1 target and bind to CD19-expressing tumor cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells and tumor cell lysis. CD19, cluster of differentiation 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. The CAT-41BBz CAR has a faster off-rate compared with FMC63-41BBz CAR. This may minimize cytokine release and reduce toxicities, and enhance persistence of the CAR T-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 TAC-T cells TAC01-CD19
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes genetically engineered with a T cell Antigen Coupler (TAC), comprising of a domain that targets the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) and another domain that binds to the endogenous T-cell receptor (TCR), anchored in the membrane via the CD4 co-receptor domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-CD19 TAC-T cells TAC01-CD19 targets and binds to CD19-expressing tumor cells and activates TCR-mediated signaling pathways, leading to T-cell-mediated killing of CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19 T-cell receptor T cells ET190L1
Autologous human peripheral blood T ymphocytes transduced with a lentivirus encoding a proprietary expression construct composed of a T-cell receptor (TCR)-like human antibody, which is synthesized by a proprietary phage display platform, targeting peptides derived from the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD19 that are presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following leukapheresis, isolation of lymphocytes, expansion ex vivo, transduction, and re-introduction into the patient, the autologous anti-CD19 TCR T cells ET190L1 target and bind to tumor cells expressing CD19 peptide/MHC complexes. This results in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of CD19-positive tumor cells. CD19, cluster of differentiation antigen 19, is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage malignancies. ET190L1 is able to match the anticancer activity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells; however, ET190L1 is less likely to stimulate cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and does not cause CAR T-cell-triggered neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19/anti-CD20-CAR-CD28-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt+-expressing Tn/mem cells
A preparation of genetically modified autologous naive/memory T cells (Tn/mem), that have been transduced with a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector to express a bispecific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-CD19, derived from the anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody FMC63, in tandem with an anti-CD20 scFv, derived from the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Leu16, and fused to the hinge domain of human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4, the transmembrane domain of human CD28, and the cytoplasmic signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the T-cell antigen receptor complex zeta chain (CD3-zeta) (BBz), and linked via the T2A sequence to a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, autologous anti-CD19/anti-CD20-CAR-CD28-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFR+-expressing Tn/mem cells recognize and induce selective toxicity in CD19/CD20-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Both CD19 and CD20 are B-cell-specific cell surface antigens overexpressed in B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered T cells and can promote elimination of those cells upon a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19/CD20 bispecific nanobody-based CAR-T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that is nanobody-based and specific for the two tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) and CD20, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CD19/CD20 bispecific nanobody-based CAR-T cells target and bind to CD19- and CD20-expressing tumor B cells. This induces selective toxicity in tumor B cells expressing these TAAs. Both CD19 and CD20 are B-cell-specific cell surface antigens overexpressed in B-cell lineage malignancies. Targeting both CD19 and CD20 may prevent tumor cell antigen escape and relapse.
autologous anti-CD19/CD22 CAR-T cells AUTO3
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a bicistronic retroviral vector encoding both an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) fused to OX40 co-stimulatory domain and an anti-CD22 CAR linked to the intracellular signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), optimized with a novel pentameric spacer derived from the collagen oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CD19/CD22 CAR T cells AUTO3 bind to and induce selectivity in tumor cells expressing CD19 and CD22. CD19 and CD22, both transmembrane phosphoglycoproteins expressed on the surface of cells in the B lineage, are often overexpressed on malignant B cells. By simultaneously targeting two B-cell antigens, this preparation may minimize relapse due to single antigen loss in patients with B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+ central memory T lymphocytes JCAR014
A defined preparation of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory (CM) autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the signaling domains of CD28, 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing CD4+/CD8+CM T lymphocytes JCAR014 are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of genetically modified CD8+ central memory (Tcm) and CD4+ autologous T-lymphocytes (1:1) transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) FMC63, fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-EGFRt-expressing T lymphocytes are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T-cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity response. The 4-1BB costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T-cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-CD28tm/4-1BB/CD3zeta-HER2tG-expressing CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes SCRI-huCAR19v1
A preparation of autologous CD4- and CD8-positive T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a third-generation self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector (LV) expressing a human-derived immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) hinge-optimized chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for CD19 that is fused to a human CD28 transmembrane domain (CD28tm), the intracellular cytoplasmic domain of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3zeta), and linked to a truncated form of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2tG), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes SCRI-huCAR19v1 specifically target and bind to CD19-expressing neoplastic B-cells. This results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CD19-expressing tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. CD19 is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen that is overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains of CD28 and 4-1BB increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the co-expressed HER2tG both facilitates in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a trastuzumab-induced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-IL-15-PD1-expressing tri-functional T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes engineered to express a tri-functional chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19), and an extracellular domain consisting of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and programmed cell death 1 (PD1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1), linked to the intracellular signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD19CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-IL-15-PD1-expressing tri-functional T lymphocytes target, bind to, and induce selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. IL-15 is a pro-survival cytokine that promotes T-cell persistence and potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. The PD1 moiety binds to programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274) on tumor cells, reversing T-cell inactivation caused by endogenous PD1/PD-L1 signaling and enhancing the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. CD19 is a B-cell-specific cell surface antigen overexpressed in B-cell lineage tumors. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increases human T-cell function, expansion, and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD19CAR-HER2t/CD22CAR-EGFRt-expressing T cells
A preparation of autologous human T lymphocytes engineered to express dual chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) consisting of both anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 binding domains, fused to an as of yet undisclosed co-stimulatory domain, and linked to truncated forms of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2t) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt), respectively with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CD19CAR-HER2t/CD22CAR-EGFRt-expressing T cells bind to CD19 and CD22 on the surface of, and induce selective toxicity against, tumor cells expressing CD19 and CD22. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed EGFRt and HER2t facilitate both in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. CD19 and CD22, both transmembrane phosphoglycoproteins expressed on the surface of cells in the B lineage, are often overexpressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD20 CAR transduced CD4/CD8 enriched T cells MB-CART20.1
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD20 (cluster of differentiation 20), and CD4/CD8 enriched, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, MB-CART20.1 specifically recognize and kill CD20-expressing tumor cells. The CD20 antigen, a non-glycosylated cell surface phosphoprotein, is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in B-cell lineage malignancies and certain melanoma cell subpopulations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD22 CAR-4-1BB-TCRz-transduced T lymphocytes CART22-65s
Autologous human T lymphocytes transduced with a recombinant lentiviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD22 human single chain variable fragment (scFv) and linked to the co-stimulatory domain 4-1BB (CD137) coupled to the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-CD22 CAR-4-1BB-TCRz -transduced T lymphocytes CART22-65s express anti-CD22-CAR on their cell surfaces and bind to the CD22 antigen on tumor cell surfaces, resulting in lysis of CD22-expressing tumor cells. CD22, a B-lineage-restricted, transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein, is expressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CD38 A2 CAR2-expressing T cells
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor recognizing the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-CD38 A2 CAR2-expressing T cells are directed to and induce selective toxicity in CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and hematologic malignancies, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis.
autologous anti-CD7 CAR/28zeta CRISPR-edited T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes (ATL) that have been gene-edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-caspase 9 (Casp9) to remove the CD7 antigen and genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) directed against the CD7 antigen and linked to the co-stimulatory domains of CD28 and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) (CD28zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CD7 CAR/28zeta CRISPR-edited T lymphocytes specifically recognize and bind to CD7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in specific T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis. CD7 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and their precursors. It is expressed in the majority of lymphoblastic T-cell leukemias and lymphomas and in a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Removal of the endogenous CD7 antigen from the T-cell surface increases expansion and viability of the CAR-T cells and increases T-cell cytotoxic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-Claudin18.2-transduced T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes ex vivo transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Claudin18.2 (CLDN18.2; A2 isoform of claudin-18), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-CLDN18.2CAR-transduced T lymphocytes specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in CLDN18.2-expressing tumor cells. CLDN18.2, a tight junction protein, is expressed on a variety of tumor cells, but its expression in healthy tissues is strictly confined to short-lived differentiated epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-CS1 hinge-optimized CAR-4-1BB-EGFRt-expressing memory-enriched T cells
A preparation of autologous central memory-enriched T cells (Tcm) that have been transduced with a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector expressing a hinge-optimized chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprised of a CS1 (CD2 subset 1; SLAM family member 7; SLAMF7; CD319; CRACC)-specific single chain variable fragment (scFV), fused to the costimulatory signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and a truncated human epidermal growth factor receptor (huEGFRt), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, anti-CS1-CAR-4-1BB-CD3z-EGFRt-expressing Tcm-enriched T lymphocytes target and induce selective toxicity in CS-1-expressing tumor cells. Devoid of both ligand binding domains and tyrosine kinase activity, the expressed huEGFRt facilitates both in vivo detection of the administered, transduced T cells and can promote elimination of those cells through a cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response. CS1, a cell surface glycoprotein of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor family, is highly expressed on certain malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-EGFRvIII 4SCAR-IgT cells
A preparation of autologous T cells that are genetically modified to express immunoglobulins (Igs) that target the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; CD274) and are transduced with a replication incompetent, self-inactivating lentiviral vector expressing a fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor (4SCAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) targeting anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) that is coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains CD28, CD137, CD27 and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and is fused with the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous anti-EGFRvIII 4SCAR-IgT cells are directed to and induce selective toxicity in EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If the administered T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, the chemical homodimerizer AP1903 can be administered. AP1903 binds to the drug binding FKBP12-F36V domain and induces activation of caspase 9, which results in the apoptosis of the administered T cells and enhances safety of this agent. EGFRvIII, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) encoded by an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7 in the EGFR gene, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types and is not expressed by normal, healthy cells. It plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. The anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies produced by the T cells (IgT) bind to PD-1, expressed on T cells, and its ligand PD-L1 expressed on cancer cells, respectively. This inhibits PD-1/PD-L1-mediated signaling, prevents T-cell inhibition and exhaustion, enhances T-cell activation within the tumor microenvironment (TME), and results in an enhanced T-cell-mediated immune response against and toxicity in the EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-FLT3 CAR T cells AMG 553
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes genetically engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-FLT3 CAR T cells AMG 553 target and bind to tumor cells expressing FLT3, which results in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cell killing of FLT3-expressing tumor cells. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-GD2CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-IL-15-expressing natural killer T cells
A preparation of autologous natural killer T lymphocytes (NKTs) that have been transduced with a retroviral vector to express both an extracellular domain consisting of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the human tumor associated antigen (TAA) GD2, linked to the CD28 and CD3zeta (TCRzeta; CD247) costimulatory signaling domains, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-GD2CAR-CD28-CD3zeta-IL-15-expressing NKTs target, bind to, and induce selective toxicity in GD2-expressing tumor cells. IL-15 is a pro-survival cytokine that promotes T-cell persistence and potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. Incorporation of the costimulatory signaling domains increases T-cell function, expansion, and survival. The CD28 costimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of GD2. Additionally, inclusion of the CD28 signaling domain may increase proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD3zeta chain alone. GD2, a disialoganglioside and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-gp100:154-162 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) epitope-determined T cell receptor (TCR) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are isolated from a melanoma patient and pulsed with a viral vector encoding the TCR specific for amino acid residues 154-162 of gp100 (KTWGQYWQV). After expansion ex vivo, the transduced autologous PBLs, expressing this specific TCR, are reintroduced into the patient and bind to melanoma cells expressing the gp100 protein, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of gp100-expressing melanoma cells. gp100 is a melanocyte lineage-specific antigen overexpressed in melanomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-gp100CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-IL-15-PD1-expressing tri-functional T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding a tri-functional chimeric antigen receptor (TriCAR) comprised of an extracellular domain consisting of an antigen binding domain specific to glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptides 209-217 complexed with human leucocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2), interleukin 15 (IL-15) and programmed cell death 1 (PD1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1), which are linked by a transmembrane domain to the intracellular signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the autologous anti-gp100CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-IL-15-PD1-expressing tri-functional T lymphocytes selectively bind to gp100 peptides presented by HLA-A2. Upon binding to the gp100-HLA complex, the T-cells release cytokines and induce selective toxicity in gp100-expressing tumor cells. IL-15 is a pro-survival cytokine that promotes T-cell persistence and potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. The PD1 moiety binds to programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274) on tumor cells, reversing T-cell inactivation caused by endogenous PD1/PD-L1 signaling and enhancing the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-HER2-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-CD19t+-expressing Tcm-enriched T lymphocytes
A preparation of genetically modified autologous central memory (Tcm) enriched T cells transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from trastuzumab, with a 4-1BB (CD137) costimulatory domain that is linked to the signaling domain of the T-cell antigen receptor complex zeta chain (CD3-zeta) (BBz), and truncated CD19 (CD19t), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous infusion, Anti-HER2-CAR-4-1BB-CD19t+-expressing Tcm-enriched T lymphocytes are directed against HER2-expressing cells, thereby inducing selective toxicity in HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is mutated or overexpressed in many tumor cell types, plays a significant role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization. The BBz costimulatory signaling domain enhances proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity, while CD19t, a marker for transduction, is utilized to calculate CAR-T-cell dosing and for CAR-expressing cell tracking. Tcm cells have the capacity for long-lived persistence and retain their ability to proliferate upon antigen re-encounter. The immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) extracellular spacer contains a double mutation, (L235E;N297Q) (EQ) within the CH2 region to reduce Fc receptor recognition. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-HLA-A*02/AFP TCRm-expressing T cells ET140202
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a T-cell receptor mimetic (TCRm) antibody synthesized by a proprietary phage display platform, targeting the immunogenetic human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02 (HLA-A*02/AFP), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulatory activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-HLA-A*02/AFP TCRm-expressing T cells ET140202 specifically recognize and selectively bind to AFP peptides presented by HLA-A*02. This results in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of AFP-expressing tumor cells. AFP, an intracellularly expressed fetal glycoprotein rarely expressed in adult tissues, is overexpressed in certain tumors of endodermal origin and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. AFP is processed into peptides and presented by class I major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on the surface of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-HLA-A*0201/AFP CAR-T cells ET1402L1
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a human monoclonal antibody specific for an immunogenic human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) epitope, AFP158-166, complexed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*02:01 (HLA-A*0201/AFP), fused to the co-stimulatory domains of CD28 and CD3zeta, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous anti-HLA-A*0201/AFP CAR-T cells ET1402L1 specifically recognize and selectively bind to the AFP158-166 peptide presented by HLA-A*0201. Upon binding to the AFP-MHC complex, the T cells release cytokines and induce selective toxicity in HLA-A*0201/AFP-positive tumor cells. AFP, an intracellularly expressed fetal glycoprotein rarely expressed in adult tissues, is overexpressed in certain tumors of endodermal origin and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. AFP is processed into peptides and presented by class I major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on the surface of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-HPV-16 E6 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that is specifically directed against the viral oncoprotein human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-HPV-16 E6 TCR gene-engineered PBLs bind to HPV-16 E6-expressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of HPV-16 E6-positive cancer cells. HPV-16 E6, a cell surface glycoprotein, is overexpressed by a variety of HPV-associated cancers and is absent from healthy human tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-MART-1 F5 T-cell receptor gene-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a melanoma antigen MART-1 epitope-determined T cell receptor (TCR) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are isolated from a melanoma patient and pulsed with a viral vector that encodes the TCR specific for an epitope of MART-1 (F5 TCR). After expansion ex vivo, the transduced autologous PBLs, expressing this specific TCR, are reintroduced into the patient, and bind to melanoma cells expressing the MART-1 antigen, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) killing of MART-1-expressing melanoma cells. MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1), also known as Melan-A, is a melanocyte lineage-specific transmembrane protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-mesothelin CAR-CD3zeta-4-1-BB-expressing T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-mesothelin M5 single chain variable fragment (scFv) fused to the costimulatory domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-mesothelin CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-expressing T cells specifically target and induce selective toxicity in mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.
autologous anti-mesothelin T-cell receptor fusion construct T cells TC-210
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to express a single-domain antibody that recognizes human mesothelin, fused to the N-terminus of the CD3-epsilon T-cell receptor (TCR) subunit which, upon expression is incorporated into the endogenous TCR complex, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the autologous anti-mesothelin TCR fusion construct (TRuC) T-cells TC-210 specifically target and bind to mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. This leads to T-cell activation and T-cell mediated lysis of mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Compared to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells, TRuCs may be associated with less pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and fewer adverse effects without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-MG7-CAR T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous, engineered T lymphocytes that express both a second-generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the human gastric carcinoma-associated antigen MG7, and the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, the autologous anti-MG7-CAR T lymphocytes target and attach to cancer cells expressing MG7. This induces selective toxicity in and causes lysis of MG7-expressing tumor cells. MG7, a glycosylated protein sequence from the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), plays a key role in the development of certain tumor cell types. 4-1BB enhances T-cell activation and signaling after recognition of MG7. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-MUC1*-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding a human CD8 alpha leader sequence, a humanized MNC2-single chain variable fragment (scFv) targeting the extracellular domain of the cleaved form of mucin-1 (MUC-1), known as MUC1*, portions of human CD8 hinge and transmembrane domains, and human 4-1BB and human CD3-zeta costimulatory domains, with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulating activities. Upon re-introduction into the patient, the autologous anti-MUC1*-CAR-4-1BB-CD3zeta-expressing T lymphocytes specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in MUC1*-expressing tumor cells. MUC1* is a post-translationally modified form of MUC1, a single pass type I transmembrane protein that is normally expressed in the glandular or luminal epithelial cells of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, uterus, prostate, and lungs, and may be aberrantly expressed in certain tumor types. MUC1* is a growth factor that is activated by ligand-induced dimerization of its extracellular domain, which may stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase, MAPK) signaling and promote tumor cell growth. MUC1* is frequently expressed in certain cancer types, with increased expression noted in higher grade lesions and tumor cells resistant to certain chemotherapies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-Muc1/CD33/CD38/CD56/CD123 gene-engineered CAR-T cells
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T cells transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specific for the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) mucin 1 (Muc1; MUC1), cluster of differentiation 33 (CD33), CD38, CD56 and CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain or IL3RA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, autologous anti-Muc1/CD33/CD38/CD56/CD123 gene-engineered CAR-T cells are directed to and induce selective toxicity in Muc1/CD33/CD38/CD56/CD123-expressing tumor cells. Muc1/CD33/CD38/CD56/CD123 are present on certain tumor cell types and are minimally expressed on normal, healthy cells. Expression of these TAAs are correlated with poor prognosis. CD28, CD137 and CD27, T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecules included in the CARs, are required for full T-cell activation and enhance both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-NY-ESO-1 mTCR retroviral vector-transduced PBLs
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding both alpha and beta chains of a murine T-cell receptor (mTCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-NY-ESO-1 mTCR retroviral vector transduced PBLs bind to NY-ESO-1 expressed on tumor cells. This may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of NY-ESO-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 TCR-transduced c259 T lymphocytes GSK3377794
Human autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and L antigen family member 1 (LAGE-1; Cancer/Testis Antigen 2; CTA2; CT2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Following leukapheresis, isolation of lymphocytes, expansion ex vivo, transduction, and reintroduction into the patient, the autologous anti-NY-ESO1/LAGE-1 TCR-transduced c259 T-lymphocytes GSK3377794 specifically target and bind to NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1, members of the cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family, are overexpressed on the surface of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-PD-1 antibody-activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) activated by an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) antibody, with potential immunomodulating activity. The autologous TILs are isolated from an autologous tumor sample and ex-vivo activated in the presence of anti-PD-1 antibody. Upon infusion of the autologous anti-PD1 antibody-activated TILs back into the patient, the cells specifically target and kill the patient's tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-PSCA-CAR-4-1BB/TCRzeta-CD19t-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been immunomagnetically depleted of CD14+ myeloid cells and CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, and transduced with a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector (LV) encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific, humanized and affinity matured A11 single chain variable fragment (scFv), a human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Fc spacer lacking the CH2 domain, a human CD4 transmembrane domain, a costimulatory human 4-1BB (CD137) cytoplasmic signaling domain linked to the zeta chain of the human T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex (CD3zeta), and a truncated human CD19 sequence (CD19t), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous infusion, the autologous anti-PSCA-CAR-4-1BB/TCRzeta-CD19t-expressing T lymphocytes recognize and induce selective toxicity in PSCA-expressing tumor cells. PSCA, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface antigen, is uniquely and highly expressed in certain cancers including bladder, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Co-expression of CD19t provides an inert, non-immunogenic surface marker that allows for measurement of genetically modified cells and tracking of T cells following adoptive transfer. The costimulatory signaling domains improve T-cell function, selectivity, expansion and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-PSMA gene-modified T-cells
Autologous prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) gene-modified T lymphocytes with potential antineoplastic activity. Human autologous T-lymphocytes are isolated and transduced ex vivo with a retrovirus encoding a chimeric immune receptor (CIR) consisting of an antibody fragment against PSMA fused with signaling domains of the T cell. Upon reintroduction into the patient, autologous anti-PSMA gene-modified T-cells bind to PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells, which may result in specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) tumor cell killing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous anti-SLAMF7 CAR-expressing T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing human SLAM family member 7 (SLAMF7; CD319 CRACC; CS-1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the autologous anti-SLAMF7 CAR-expressing T cells target and induce selective toxicity in SLAMF7-expressing tumor cells. SLAMF7 is a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of transmembrane receptors that modulate the function of immune cells through immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs) and intracellular adaptor proteins. SLAMF7 is highly expressed on certain malignant plasma cells and is minimally expressed on healthy immune cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous AXL-targeted CAR-T cells CCT301-38
A preparation of genetically modified autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL, with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, and expansion in culture, the CCT301-38 cells are reintroduced into the patient and are activated within the tumor microenvironment (TME) using proprietary Conditionally Active Biologic (CAB) technology. Upon activation, CAB antibodies bind to a proprietary T-cell signaling domain, promoting T-cell recognition and killing of AXL-expressing tumor cells. AXL is a RTK and oncogene that is overexpressed in many cancer types and is involved in the stimulation of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous B-cell/monocyte-presenting HER2/neu antigen vaccine BVAC-B
An autologous vaccine composed of the antigen presenting cells (APCs) B lymphocytes and monocytes presenting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu; HER-2; EGFR2; ErbB2). Upon administration of the autologous B-cell- and monocyte-presenting HER2/neu antigen vaccine BVAC-B, the APCs may stimulate the immune system to mount a HER2/neu-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response as well as a natural killer (NK) cell, and antibody-mediated immune response against HER-2/neu-positive tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death and decreased tumor growth. HER-2, a tyrosine kinase receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF), is overexpressed by a variety of tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous BCMA/TACI-targeted CAR T cells AUTO2
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are genetically engineered to contain a dual-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which includes the natural protein a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL; TNFSF13), that targets the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; TNFRSF17) and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI; TNFRSF13B), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous BCMA/TACI-targeted CAR T cells AUTO2 bind to BCMA and TACI expressed on tumor cells and induce selective cytotoxicity in those cells. In addition, AUTO2 carries the universal RQR8 safety "off" switch, which allows selective removal of the T cells through both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) following administration of rituximab if unacceptable side-effects occur. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous BCMA-4-1BBz-targeted CAR T cells
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that have been ex vivo transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a single chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17) fused to the co-stimulatory domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the CD3-zeta (CD3z) T-cell signaling domain (4-1BBz), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous BCMA-4-1BBz-targeted CAR-T cells specifically recognize and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). BCMA is found on the surfaces of plasma cells; it is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells, and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous BCMA-targeted CAR T cells LCAR-B4822M
A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTLs) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17; TNFRSF17), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, autologous BCMA-targeted CAR T cells LCAR-B4822M specifically recognize and kill BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a key role in plasma cell survival; it is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous beta-A(T87Q)-globin gene-transduced CD34-positive cells
A preparation of autologous, CD34-positive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transduced ex vivo with the BB305 recombinant replication-defective, self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding for an engineered form of human beta-globin (hemoglobin-beta, HBB) gene, beta-A-T87Q (b-A-T87Q) where the threonine at position 87 has been substituted with glutamine, with potential to restore beta-globin expression and function. Autologous CD34-positive stem cells are isolated from the patient's own bone marrow and the cells are transduced with the lentiviral vector. Upon re-infusion of the b-A-T87Q-globin gene transduced CD34-positive cells back into the patient, these cells express b-A-T87Q-globin, thereby allowing the body to make normal hemoglobin and thus normal, healthy red blood cells. Beta-globin, the beta-chain of the most common form of hemoglobin, is encoded by the HBB gene; mutations in this gene prevent normal beta-globin production and are associated with beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. The b-A-T87Q form of beta-globin has increased antisickling activity compared to the wild type protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous bi-epitope BCMA-targeted CAR T cells JNJ-68284528
A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced, ex vivo, with a lentiviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing two bispecific anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) variable fragments of llama heavy-chain murine antibodies fused to the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The antigen-binding region of the CAR is a non-scFv structure targeting two distinct regions of BCMA. Upon intravenous administration back into the patient, the autologous bi-epitope BCMA-targeted CAR T cells JNJ-68284528 are directed to cells expressing BCMA, bind to two different epitopes on BCMA and induce selective toxicity in BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF), is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and plays a key role in plasma cell survival. BCMA is overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
autologous bispecific CD19/CD22-targeted CAR-T cells GC022F
A preparation of autologous human T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric T-cell receptors (chimeric antigen receptors or CARs) targeting the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) CD19 and CD22 and fused to as of yet not fully elucidated co-stimulatory domains, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the autologous bispecific CD19/CD22-targeted CAR-T cells GC022 bind to CD19 and CD22 on the surface of, and induce selective toxicity against, tumor cells expressing CD19 and CD22. CD19 and CD22, both transmembrane phosphoglycoproteins expressed on the surface of cells in the B lineage, are overexpressed on malignant B cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)