NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody AVE1642
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R/CD221) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody AVE1642 specifically binds to and blocks membrane-bound IGF-1R, preventing the binding of the natural ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT signal transduction, which may result in the induction of apoptosis and a decrease in cellular proliferation. Activation of IGF-1R , a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily overexpressed by various cancer cell types, stimulates cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IGF-1R recombinant monoclonal antibody BIIB022
A recombinant, human monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IGF-1R recombinant monoclonal antibody BIIB022 binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, preventing binding of the ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent triggering of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway; inhibition of this survival signaling pathway may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R, a tyrosine kinase and a member of the insulin receptor family, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been highly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-1 alpha monoclonal antibody CA-18C3
A "true human" (cloned from human B lymphocytes) monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IL-1 alpha monoclonal antibody CA-18C3 binds to IL1a and may block the activity of IL1a. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator, plays a key role in interleukin-mediated tumor cell activity such as angiogenesis, tissue matrix remodeling, metastasis and tumor cell invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-13 (IL-13) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-IL-13 humanized monoclonal antibody TNX-650 binds to and blocks the activity of IL-13, which may result in the inhibition of Hodkin lympoma cell proliferation. IL-13 cytokine, an important mediator in allergic inflammation, may be an autocrine growth factor for Hodgkin lymphoma cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody AMG 714
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody AMG 714 binds to and neutralizes IL-15, thereby preventing IL-15-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling. By inhibiting IL-15-mediated immune responses, AMG 714 decreases natural killer (NK) cell activation and proliferation, reduces T-cell infiltration, increases T-cell apoptosis, and may prevent the growth of IL-15-driven cancer cells. IL-15 plays a key role in inflammation and is associated with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as well as with cell proliferation in certain cancer types, such as T-cell lymphomas. IL-15 is required for the proliferation of certain T-cells and NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody CJM112
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody against the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A (IL-17A; IL-17), with potential anti-inflammatory activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody CJM112 selectively targets and binds to IL-17A, thereby neutralizing the IL-17A protein. This prevents binding of IL-17A to the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R), and inhibits IL-17A/IL-17R-mediated signaling and inflammation mediated by this pathway. IL-17A is mainly produced by inflammatory T helper 17 cells (Th17), and certain lymphocytes. IL-17A production is upregulated in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and multiple sclerosis (MS), and plays a key role in the development of inflammation and the immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-4/IL-13 combination agent QBX258
A combination agent composed of the two human monoclonal antibodies VAK694 (VAK296), targeting interleukin-4 (IL-4), and dectrekumab, targeting IL-13, that can potentially be used to block signaling mediated by IL-4 and IL-13. Upon intravenous administration of the anti-IL-4/IL-13 combination agent QBX258, the two antibodies VAK694 and dectrekumab target and block the activity of the two cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, respectively, which prevents IL-4/IL-13-mediated signaling. In patients with breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL), this agent may prevent lymphedema-associated effects, such as fibrosis, hyperkeratosis, the deposition of fibroadipose tissue, fluid accumulation, limb swelling, reduction of skin elasticity, and pain. By reducing the excess volume, QBX258 may improve lymphatic and arm functions. The development of lymphedema after lymphatic injury is associated with tissue inflammation, the infiltration of CD4-positive cells and their differentiation to the type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) phenotype. Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-13 that play a key role in the development of lymphedema-associated symptoms as well as other Th2-mediated diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibody HuMax-IL8
A human monoclonal antibody against the pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXCL8), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, HuMax-IL8 directly binds to IL-8, thereby inhibiting the binding of IL-8 to its receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. This inhibits activation of IL-8-mediated signaling transduction pathways, which decreases proliferation of susceptible tumor cells. Also, HuMax-IL8 effectively blocks binding of IL-8 to neutrophils and inhibits neutrophil activation and recruitment towards sites of inflammation, which reduces inflammation. IL-8, a member of the CXC chemokine family, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and inflammatory diseases; it plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, endothelial cell proliferation, and cancer stem cell (CSC) renewal. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ILDR2 monoclonal antibody BAY 1905254
A mouse/human cross-reactive immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) monoclonal antibody against the immune checkpoint immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 2 (ILDR2; Chromosome 1 Open Reading Frame 32; C1orf32), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BAY 1905254 targets, binds to and inhibits ILDR2, thereby blocking the immunosuppressive activity of ILDR2. This prevents ILDR2-mediated inhibition of T-cell activities and induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells. ILDR2, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to the B7 family of immunomodulatory receptors, negatively regulates T-cell responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ILT4 monoclonal antibody MK-4830
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory immune checkpoint receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4; leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 2; LILRB2; lymphocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 2; LIR2; monocyte/macrophage immunoglobulin-like receptor 10; MIR-10; CD85d), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-ILT4 monoclonal antibody MK-4830 targets and binds to ILT4. This prevents the binding of ILT4 ligands to their receptor and prevents ILT4-mediated signaling. This abrogates the immunosuppressive activities of ILT4 in the tumor microenvironment (TME), activates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and enhances a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response. ILT4, plays a key role in tumor immune evasion. ILT4, a transmembrane protein and inhibitory member of the immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) family of proteins, is expressed primarily by myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and granulocytes, and certain tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-inflammatory antibody ALXN1007
A proprietary antibody that targets the complement inflammatory pathway with potential immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-inflammatory antibody ALXN1007 modulates the complement inflammatory pathway through binding to an as of yet undisclosed target. This may help in the treatment of certain inflammatory-mediated disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This agent may also influence the progression of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-inflammatory/antimicrobial/analgesic aqueous mouth rinse
A water-based proprietary mouthwash with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic activities. Upon rinsing with this mouthwash, the unspecified ingredients may help prevent or reduce the symptoms and severity of mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-integrin monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate IMGN388
An immunoconjugate consisting of an anti-integrin monoclonal antibody covalently attached to the maytansinoid DM4, a derivative of the cytotoxic agent maytansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-integrin monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate IMGN388 binds to tumor cell surface integrins; upon internalization, the DM4 moiety is released from the immunoconjugate, binding to tubulin and disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, which may result in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of integrin-expressing tumor cells. Integrins, a class of transmembrane cell surface receptors, link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibody ALD518
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (Il-6) with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibody ALD518 binds to and blocks the activity of IL-6, which may mitigate the catabolic effects of IL-6. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-interleukin-1 alpha monoclonal antibody MABp1
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL1a) with potential antineoplastic, anti-cachectic and anti-angiogenic activities. Anti-IL1a monoclonal antibody MABp1 targets and binds to IL1a and prevents IL1a activity. This prevents IL1a-mediated tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. In addition, MABp1 abrogates IL1a-mediated cachexia. IL1a, an inflammatory mediator expressed on monocytes, platelets and overexpressed by certain tumors, plays a key role in the promotion of tumor cell growth, metastasis and invasion. In addition, IL1a stimulates metabolic activity in the central nervous system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-KIR monoclonal antibody IHP 2101
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the human inhibitory killer IgG-like receptor (KIR) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-KIR monoclonal antibody IPH 2101 binds to the KIR receptor expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells, which may prevent KIR-mediated inhibition of NK cells and permit NK cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity. KIRs are surface glycoproteins that bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I subtypes on target cells; binding of KIRs inhibits NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-KIR3DL2 monoclonal antibody IPH4102
A humanized monoclonal antibody against the immune receptor human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 2 (KIR3DL2), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-KIR3DL2 monoclonal antibody IPH4102 binds to KIR3DL2 expressed on certain tumor cells. This recruits natural killer (NK) cells and leads to lysis of KIR3DL2-expressing tumor cells. In addition, IPH4102 induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), thereby further eliminating tumor cells. KIR3DL2, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and inhibitory receptor of the KIR family, is specifically expressed in most subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) and expressed only on a fraction of normal NK cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding for an HLA class I histocompatibility antigen A*11:01 (HLA-A1101)-restricted murine T-cell receptor (mTCR) that recognizes the glycine (Gly, G) to aspartic acid (Asp, D) point mutation at position 12 (G12D) variant of K-RAS (KRAS), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. HLA-A1101-positive PBLs are harvested from a K-RAS G12D-expressing cancer patient and transfected with a retroviral vector that encodes anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these anti-K-RAS G12D mTCR-expressing PBLs target and bind to K-RAS G12D-overexpressing tumor cells, which results in both cytokine secretion, including interferon-gamma (IFN-g), and tumor cell lysis. K-RAS, a member of the RAS family of oncogenes, serves an important role in cell signaling, division and differentiation. Mutation of K-RAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with an HLA class I histocompatibility antigen A*11:01 (HLA-A1101)-restricted murine T-cell receptor (mTCR) that recognizes the glycine to valine point mutation at position 12 (G12V) variant of K-RAS, with potential antineoplastic activity. HLA-A1101 positive PBLs are harvested from a K-RAS G12V-expressing cancer patient and transfected with a retroviral vector that encodes anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these anti-K-RAS G12V mTCR-expressing PBLs target and bind to K-RAS G12V-overexpressing tumor cells, which results in both cytokine secretion and tumor cell lysis. K-RAS, a member of the RAS family of oncogenes, serves an important role in cell signaling, division and differentiation. Mutation of K-RAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody BI 754111
A monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; CD223). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody IBI-110
A monoclonal antibody targeting the co-inhibitory receptor lymphocyte-activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3; CD223), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody IBI110 targets and binds to LAG-3 expressed by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks the interaction between LAG-3 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and tumor cells. This prevents the negative regulation of T-cell activity that occurs via LAG-3-MHC II binding and enhances a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells, leading to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), negatively regulates both the proliferation and activation of T cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody LAG525
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody LAG525 binds to LAG-3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and expressed on various immune cells, negatively regulates cellular proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody MK-4280
A humanized, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody MK-4280 binds to LAG3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells, and negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody REGN3767
A monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3; CD223), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody REGN3767 binds to LAG-3 expressed by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks LAG-3 binding to tumor cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. This may activate antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells; its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression and the negative regulation of both cellular proliferation and T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3 monoclonal antibody Sym022
A recombinant, human Fc-inert monoclonal antibody targeting lymphocyte-activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, monoclonal antibody Sym022 binds to human LAG-3 and blocks the interaction between LAG-3 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and tumor cells. This prevents the negative regulation of T-cell activity that occurs via LAG-3-MHCII binding and enhances a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Additionally, Sym022 decreases LAG-3 surface levels through internalization and shredding. LAG-3 plays a key role in the activation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody TSR-033
A humanized, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3; LAG-3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody TSR-033 binds to LAG3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells, and negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAG-3/PD-L1 bispecific antibody FS118
A bispecific antibody directed against two immune checkpoint proteins, the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3; LAG-3) and the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. FS118 is generated by incorporating an anti-LAG-3 Fc-region with antigen binding (Fcab) into a PD-L1-specific antibody. Upon administration, FS118 simultaneously targets and binds to LAG3 expressed on T-cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. This prevents LAG3- and PD-L1-mediated signaling, reverses T-cell inactivation, activates the immune system and enhances cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune responses against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells, which together lead to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) on activated T-cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T-cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LAMP1 antibody-drug conjugate SAR428926
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a monoclonal antibody against lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) conjugated, via the disulfide-containing cleavable linker N-succinimidyl-4-(2-pyridyldithio)butyrate (SPDB), to the cytotoxic maytansinoid DM4, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-LAMP1 ADC SAR428926, the anti-LAMP1 monoclonal antibody moiety targets and binds to the cell surface antigen LAMP1. After antibody-antigen interaction and internalization, the SPDB linker is selectively cleaved by proteases in the cytosol and the DM4 moiety is released. DM4 binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, thereby inhibiting both cell division and cell growth of LAMP1-expressing tumor cells. LAMP1, overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells, plays a key role in cell-cell adhesion and migration. The SPDB linker is resistant to cleavage in the bloodstream, which may increase stability and reduce toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LeY-CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Lewis-Y (LeY), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-LeY-CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and induce selective toxicity in LeY-expressing tumor cells. LeY, a difucosylated carbohydrate antigen, is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LGR5 monoclonal antibody BNC101
A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the anti-LGR5 humanized monoclonal antibody BNC101 targets and binds to LGR5, thereby inhibiting LGR5-mediated signal transduction pathways. This prevents proliferation of LGR5-expressing tumor cells. LGR5, a member of the Wnt signaling pathway, is a cancer stem cell (CSC) receptor overexpressed on certain cancer cells; it plays a key role in CSC proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LIF monoclonal antibody MSC-1
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody against leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, monoclonal antibody MSC-1 binds to LIF and inhibits LIF signaling by blocking the recruitment of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) to the LIF-LIF receptor (LIFR)-gp130 signaling complex. This inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling and inhibits tumor cell growth. In addition, the inhibition of LIF signaling abrogates the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) by decreasing immunosuppressive M2 macrophages and allows for the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumor cells. LIF, a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, is involved in many physiological and pathological processes and plays an important role in both creating the TME and promoting the activity of cancer-initiating cells (CICs). LIF is overexpressed in many tumor cell types and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-LOXL2 monoclonal antibody GS-6634
A humanized monoclonal antibody against lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-LOXL2 monoclonal antibody AB0024 targets and specifically binds to the scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain 4 (SRCR-4) on LOXL2, thereby preventing the crosslinking of collagen and inhibiting the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts. Inhibiting fibroblast activation and the subsequent production of growth factors and chemokines may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LOXL2, a member of the lysyl oxidase (LO) gene family, is an extracellular, copper-dependent enzyme overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, and contributes to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Ly6E antibody-drug conjugate DLYE5953A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of an antibody against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus E (Ly6E) and linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the antibody moiety of DLYE5953A targets and binds to Ly6E expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action, the Ly6E-expressing cancer cells. Ly6E, an interferon (IFN)-inducible glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell membrane protein, is expressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MAGE-A4 T-cell receptor/anti-CD3 scFv fusion protein IMC-C103C
A T-cell re-directing bi-specific biologic composed of a modified form of human T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human melanoma-associated antigen A4 (MAGE-A4) and fused to an anti-CD3 single-chain variable fragment (scFv), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of IMC-C103C, the TCR moiety of this agent targets and binds to MAGE-A4 on tumor cells and the anti-CD3 scFv moiety binds to CD3- expressing T lymphocytes. This selectively cross-links tumor cells and T lymphocytes and results in a CTL-mediated death of MAGE-A4-expressing tumor cells. MAGE-A4 is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MASP-2 monoclonal antibody OMS721
A monoclonal antibody against mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), with potential anti-thrombotic and immunomodulating activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, OMS721 binds to and inhibits MASP-2. This prevents the activation of MASP-2, the cleavage of certain complement components, and the activation of the complement lectin pathway. This inhibits complement deposition and complement-induced thrombus formation. MASP-2, a pro-inflammatory protein, plays a key role in the activation of the lectin complement pathway, which is a key component in the immune system, and is associated with complement-mediated diseases, such as thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), which includes hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-related TMA, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Anti-M-CSF monoclonal antibody MCS110
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) with potential anti-osteolytic activity. Anti-M-CSF monoclonal antibody MCS110 binds to M-CSF and blocks M-CSF-mediated signaling through the M-CSF receptor CD116 expressed on osteoclasts, which may result in inhibition of M-CSF-induced osteoclast differentiation and so osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts are derived through the fusion of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoblasts and stromal cells may react to bone metastases by producing M-CSF and its osteoclastogenic cofactor RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin antibody-drug conjugate BMS-986148
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein mesothelin and conjugated to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic drug, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of anti-mesothelin ADC BMS-986148 targets and binds to the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin. Upon internalization, the cytotoxic agent kills or prevents cellular proliferation of mesothelin-expressing tumor cells through an as of yet undescribed mechanism of action. Mesothelin is overexpressed by all mesotheliomas and a variety of other cancers, while it is minimally expressed in normal tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin CAR vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mesothelin single chain variable fragment (scFv), the intracellular CD3 zeta T-cell receptor domain and the 4-1BB (cd137) costimulatory domain, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. After isolation, transduction, expansion in culture, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-mesothelin CAR vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin cytolytic fusion protein LMB-100
An anti-mesothelin (MSLN) recombinant cytolytic fusion protein (cFP) composed of a humanized Fab fragment of anti-MSLN monoclonal antibody SS1 linked to a truncated and de-immunized 24 kDa fragment of the Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) (PE24), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of anti-MSLN-PE24 cFP LMB-100, the anti-MSLN moiety targets and binds to MSLN-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization through endocytosis, the toxin moiety ADP-ribosylates and inactivates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), preventing the elongation step of protein synthesis and leading to both an inhibition of protein synthesis and an induction of MSLN-expressing tumor cell apoptosis. MSLN, a tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and migration. The engineered PE24 portion of LMB-100 does contain the targeting domain and furin cleavage site, which are needed for cytotoxicity, but most of the translocation domain II is deleted and the catalytic domain III contains point mutations, which result in the deletion and silencing of most T- and B-cell epitopes; therefore, the immunogenicity and toxicity is reduced compared to non-engineered PE toxin, which allows for the administration of larger doses of LMB-100. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin iCasp9M28z CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Genetically modified, autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for mesothelin linked to the signaling domains for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD3 zeta, as well as the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9 or iC9), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-mesothelin iCasp9M28z CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes specifically target and kill mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If administration of the T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, a dimerizing agent can be administered which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug-binding domain and activates caspase 9, resulting in the apoptosis of the administered T-cells. Mesothelin, a tumor-associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-mesothelin-CAR mRNA-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous chimeric immune receptor (CIR) T cells transfected with anti-mesothelin chimeric T cell receptor mRNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. The anti-mesothelin mRNA encodes a single chain antibody variable fragment (ScFv), the intracellular CD 3 zeta T cell receptor domain and the 4-1BB (cd137) costimulatory domain. Upon intravenous administration, the anti-mesothelin-CAR mRNA-transduced autologous T lymphocytes may attach to cancer cells expressing mesothelin. This may stimulate the secretion of multiple cytokines and may result in cell lysis of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells. Mesothelin is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion and is overexpressed in many epithelial-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Met monoclonal antibody mixture Sym015
A mixture of two humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibodies, Hu9006 and Hu9338, which recognize non-overlapping epitopes in the extracellular domain of the human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET; HGFR; c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MET monoclonal antibody mixture Sym015 targets and binds to the extracellular domain of MET, thereby preventing the binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This may prevent activation of the receptor and MET-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits MET-dependent tumor cell proliferation. MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types; it plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Met/EGFR monoclonal antibody LY3164530
A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or c-Met), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-Met/EGFR MoAb LY3164530 targets and prevents the activation of EGFR and c-Met. This leads to a downstream inhibition of EGFR/c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways, and prevents cellular proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing EGFR and c-Met. EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surface of various solid tumor cell types. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antimetabolite FF-10502
An antimetabolite with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FF-10502 is able to enter the nucleus where it inhibits DNA polymerases, thereby preventing DNA synthesis and halting tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-minor histocompatibility complex donor T lymphocytes
A preparation of allogeneic, donor-derived T lymphocytes that are specific for a unique set of minor histocompatibility complex antigens (MiHA) exclusively found on the surface of malignant cells, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. T lymphocytes are derived from an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) donor. Ex vivo, these T cells are exposed to and primed against a select set of host-specific hematopoietic tissue-restricted MiHAs that are expressed on leukemic cells. Then the cells are subsequently expanded. After AHCT and infusion of the anti-MiHA T lymphocytes, these cells target and bind to MiHA antigens expressed on the host's leukemia cells, thereby killing these cancer cells. MiHA are small, cell-surface peptides that are associated with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The selected set of MiHAs is expressed mainly, or only, by hematopoietic cells, and overexpressed on leukemic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody GS-5745
A humanized monoclonal antibody against matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody GS-5745 binds to MMP-9 and inhibits its enzymatic activity. This results in an inhibition of extracellular matrix protein degradation and, potentially, the inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. MMP-9, a protein belonging to the MMP family, plays a key role in the degradation of collagens and proteoglycans; increased activity of MMP-9 has been associated with increased invasion and metastasis of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC1 CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) against the human tumor-associated epithelial antigen mucin 1 (MUC1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous PBLs from a patient with MUC1-positive cancer are transduced with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for MUC1. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, anti-MUC1 CAR-transduced autologous T lymphocytes target and induce selective toxicity in MUC1-expressing tumor cells. MUC-1 is a human, hypoglycosylated tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC16/CD3 bispecific antibody REGN4018
A bispecific, human monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. REGN4018 contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen that is part of the T-cell receptor complex, and one for human mucin 16 (MUC16, cancer antigen 125; CA125; FLJ14303), a member of the mucin family of glycoproteins that is overexpressed by several epithelial cancers, including ovarian cancer. Upon administration, REGN4018 binds to both T cells and MUC16-expressing tumor cells, which cross-links the T cells to the tumor cells, and may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the MUC16-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC16/MMAE antibody-drug conjugate DMUC4064A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against human mucin 16 (MUC16; cancer antigen 125; CA125; FLJ14303) conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MUC16/MMAE ADC DMUC4064A binds to MUC16 located on the tumor cell surface. After internalization of the agent, the MMAE moiety is released and binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. MUC16, a member of the mucin family glycoproteins, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-MUC17/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 199
A half-life extended (HLE), human bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human mucin 17 (MUC17), and one directed against human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-MUC17/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 199 binds to both CD3 on T cells and MUC17 expressed on tumor cells. This results in the cross-linking of T cells and tumor cells, and induces a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against MUC17-expressing tumor cells. MUC17, a member of the mucin family of glycoproteins, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells of epithelial origin and plays a key role in tumor cell dissemination. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-myeloma monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate BT-062
An immunoconjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody directed against a highly-expressed myleoma cell surface antigen covalently attached to the maytansinoid DM4, a derivative of the cytotoxic agent maytansine (DM1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-myeloma monoclonal antibody-DM4 immunoconjugate BT-062 binds to an unspecified cell surface antigen highly expressed on myeloma cells; upon internaliization the DM4 moiety is released, binding to tubulin and disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, which may result in the inhibition of cell division and cell growth of myeloma tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-myostatin monoclonal antibody LY2495655
A monoclonal antibody against myostatin (MSTN) with potential anti-cachexia activity. Upon administration, anti-myostatin monoclonal antibody LY2495655 binds to and neutralizes the MSTN protein, thereby blocking the MSTN signalling pathway. This may help decrease muscle protein breakdown and muscle weakness and may attenuate cancer cachexia. MSTN, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development.
anti-NaPi2b monoclonal antibody XMT-1535
A proprietary humanized monoclonal antibody against human sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2B (SLC34A2; NaPi2b), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of XMT-1535, the antibody targets and binds to NaPi2b expressed on tumor cells. Although the tumor cell killing effects of XMT-1535 are not established, this binding may induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediated immune response against NaPi2b-expressing tumor cells, and/or may inhibit NaPi2b-mediated sodium and phosphate ion cotransport activity and ion-dependent tumor cell signaling. NaPi2b, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cells. It plays a key role in the transport of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NaPi2b/MMAE antibody-drug conjugate DNIB0600A
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2B (NaPi2b), and covalently linked to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of DNIB0600A binds to NaPi2b-expressing tumor cells and is internalized, thereby delivering MMAE intracellularly. Proteolytic cleavage releases MMAE, which then binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. NaPi2b, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a key role in transport of inorganic phosphate and the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-Nectin-4 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate AGS-22M6E
An antibody drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody AGS-22 targeting the cell adhesion molecule nectin-4 and conjugated, via a proprietary enzyme-cleavable linker, to the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) (AGS-22M6E), with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of AGS-22M6E selectively binds to nectin-4. After internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and induces apoptosis in nectin-4 overexpressing tumor cells. Nectin-4, a tumor associated antigen belonging to the nectin family, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including breast, bladder, lung and pancreatic cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplastic agent combination SM-88
An orally bioavailable, proprietary combination of four agents with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the four agents and their exact mechanisms of action are not publicly known, the components of SM-88 appear, upon oral administration, to work synergistically to increase the amount of free radicals in cancer cells, thereby inducing oxidative stress and selective killing of the cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplaston A10
A piperidinedione antineoplaston with potential antineoplastic activity. Antineoplaston A10 was originally isolated from human urine but is now synthetically derived. This agent intercalates into DNA, resulting in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, reduction of mitosis, and decreased protein synthesis. Antineoplaston A10 may also inhibit ras-oncogene expression and activate tumor suppressor gene p53, leading to cell differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antineoplaston AS2-1
A 4:1 mixture of phenylacetate and phenylacetylgluatmine, degradation products of the antineoplaston agent A10. Antineoplaston AS2-1 inhibits the incorporation of L-glutamine into tumor-cell proteins, leading to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and inhibition of mitosis. This agent may also inhibit RAS oncogene expression and activate tumor suppressor gene p53, resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-neuropilin-1 monoclonal antibody MNRP1685A
A human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against neuropilin-1 (NRP1), with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, MNRP1685A specifically targets and binds to NRP1; the antibody-NRP1 complex prevents the subsequent coupling of NRP1 to VEGFR2, thereby potentially inhibiting VEGF-mediated signaling and potentially preventing angiogenesis. In combination with other anti-VEGF therapies, MNRP1685A may enhance their anti-angiogenic effect. NRP1 is a membrane-bound co-receptor normally expressed by endothelial cells and overexpressed by certain tumor cells, and plays a role in angiogenesis, cell survival, migration, and invasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-nf-P2X7 antibody ointment BIL-010t
An ointment formulation composed of a purified sheep immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody against the non-functional form of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (nf-P2X7), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon topical application of the anti-nf-P2X7 antibody ointment BIL-010t, the antibody binds to nf-P2X7 and inhibits its antiapoptotic activity. This may induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of nf-P2X7-overexpressing cancer cells. P2X7, an ATP-gated cation-selective channel, plays a role in the induction of apoptosis; nf-P2X7, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types while not expressed on normal, healthy cells and is unable to form a large transmembrane, apoptotic pore upon exposure to ATP and prevents apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-nucleolin aptamer AS1411
A 26-base guanine-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer with potential apoptotic induction activity. Upon administration, anti-nucleolin aptamer AS1411 targets and binds to nucleolin, a nucleolar phosphoprotein which is overexpressed on the surface of certain cancer cells. Via binding to cell surface nucleolin, AS1411 is internalized and may prevent nucleolin from binding to and stabilizing mRNA of the anti-apoptotic BCL2, thereby destabilizing BCL2 mRNA, leading to a reduction in BCL2 protein synthesis. This may lead to the induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR LV-transduced autologous T cells TAEST16001
A preparation of human autologous T lymphocytes that are transduced with a lentiviral vector (LV) encoding an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon isolation, transduction, expansion ex vivo, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-NY-ESO-1 TCR LV-transduced autologous T cells TAEST16001 recognize and bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of NY-ESO-1-positive tumor cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types, and is not, or is minimally, expressed in normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NY-ESO1 TCR-transduced autologous CD62L+-derived T lymphocytes
Human autologous CD62L-positive T lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a T cell receptor (TCR) specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following leukapheresis, isolation of lymphocytes, expansion ex vivo, transduction, and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-NY-ESO1 TCR-transduced autologous CD62L+-derived T lymphocytes bind to NY-ESO-1-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated elimination of NY-ESO-1-positive cancer cells. NY-ESO-1, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is found in normal testis and on the surface of various tumor cell types. CD62L, also called L-selectin, is a lymphoid homing receptor and differentiation marker and is expressed on a subset of CD8-positive T-lymphocytes; it is involved in the migration of T-lymphocytes to lymph nodes and may improve the efficacy for ex vivo-expanded T-cells following adoptive cell therapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-NY-ESO1/LAGE-1A TCR/scFv anti-CD3 IMCnyeso
A bispecific molecule composed of a soluble, affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for human leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and L antigen family member 1 isoform A (LAGE-1A; LAGE-A1; CT6.2a), fused to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) specific for the T-cell surface antigen CD3, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon infusion, anti-NY-ESO1/LAGE-1A TCR/scFv anti-CD3 IMCnyeso specifically targets and binds with its TCR moiety to NY-ESO-1 and/or LAGE-1A expressed on tumor cells and with its scFv moiety to CD3 expressed on T-cells. This crosslinks tumor cells and T-cells, re-directs and activates T cells, and results in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated destruction of NY-ESO-1 and/or LAGE-1A-positive tumor cells. NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1A, members of the cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family, are overexpressed on the surface of various tumor cell types; they share a specific HLA-A*0201 epitope, 157-165, which is expressed on certain tumor cell types while its expression is not found on normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody ABBV-368
An agonistic humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 (CD134; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4; TNFRSF4), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon administration, anti-OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody ABBV-368 selectively binds to and activates OX40. This may induce the proliferation of memory and effector T-lymphocytes and inhibit the function of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on T lymphocytes and plays an essential role in T-cell activation and differentiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 antibody BMS 986178
An agonistic monoclonal antibody against the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 (CD134; TNFRSF4), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody BMS 986178 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, by mimicking the action of the endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). OX40 receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and effector T-lymphocytes. In the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this may promote an immune response against the TAA-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family (TNFRSF), is expressed on T-lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 antibody PF-04518600
An agonistic antibody that recognizes the co-stimulatory receptor OX40 (CD134;TNFRSF4), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon administration, anti-OX40 antibody PF-04518600 selectively binds to and activates OX40; which induces proliferation of memory and effector T-lymphocytes. In the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this may promote a T-cell-mediated immune response against TAA-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on T-lymphocytes and plays an essential role in T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody
An agonistic monoclonal antibody against receptor OX40 (CD134), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Mimicking the natural OX4 ligand (OX40L), anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor. Receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and effector T lymphocytes. In the presence of tumor associated antigens (TAAs), this may promote an immune response against the TAA-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is expressed by CD4 T cells and provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation.
anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody IBI101
An agonistic fully human anti-OX40 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4; TNFRSF4; CD134; OX40L receptor) with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody IBI101 selectively binds to and activates OX40. Receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and effector T lymphocytes and results in a T-cell-mediated immune response against tumor cells, which leads to tumor cell lysis. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on T lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal that promotes both the proliferation and survival of activated Tcells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI0562
An agonistic, humanized monoclonal antibody against receptor OX40 (CD134), with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI0562 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor. OX40 receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and effector T-lymphocytes. In the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this agent may promote an immune response against TAAs-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is expressed on T-lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MOXR0916
An agonistic humanized monoclonal antibody against the receptor, OX40 (CD134), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MOXR0916 selectively binds to and activates OX40, by mimicking the action of endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). OX40 activation induces proliferation of effector T lymphocytes and inhibits the activity of regulatory T cells. In the presence of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this may promote an immune response against the TAA-expressing tumor cells. OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed on T lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-p53 T-cell receptor-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes
Human autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with an anti-p53 T cell receptor gene with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are harvested from a patient and pulsed with a retroviral vector that encodes the T-cell receptor gene specific for a mutated form of p53. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these modified PBLs express the anti-p53 T cell receptor which binds to mutant p53-overexpressing tumor cells; PBL-mediated tumor growth inhibition may follow. Many tumor cell types overexpress mutant p53 proteins, which are associated with the loss of apoptosis regulation and abnormal cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor PF-06801591
An inhibitor of the human inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor PF-06801591 targets and binds to PD-1 and blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2). This prevents the activation of PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumor cells. PD-1, an inhibitory receptor belonging to the B7-receptor family, is expressed on activated T-lymphocytes, B-cells and NK cells; it functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands, and plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 fusion protein AMP-224
A recombinant B7-DC Fc-fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the PD-1 ligand programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2, B7-DC) and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-PD-1 fusion protein AMP-224 specifically binds to PD-1 on chronically stimulated T-cells and reduces their proliferation. This may restore immune function and may result in the activation of cytotoxic T-cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein of Ig superfamily and inhibitor receptor expressed on activated T-cells, negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands, and plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. AMP-224 does not bind normal activated T-cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AB122
A human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AB122 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274) and 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody AGEN2034
A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, PCD-1; PDCD1) protein, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AGEN2034 binds to PD-1, and thereby blocks its binding to the PD-1 ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and prevents the activation of its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of cytotoxic T cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligand; it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AK105
A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AK105 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AMG 404
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody AMG 404 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T-cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274) and 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody BCD-100
A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody BCD-100 binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody BI 754091
A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BI 754091 selectively binds to and blocks the activation of PD-1, an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily transmembrane protein, by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is primarily expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This results in the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and plays a key role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody F520
A human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody F520 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274) and 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody HLX10
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody HLX10 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody HX008
A recombinant human monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody HX008 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody JTX-4014
A human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody JTX-4014 targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody LZM009
A recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, LZM009 binds to PD-1 and inhibits the binding of PD-1 to the PD-1 ligands, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2). This prevents the activation of PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways, leading to the activation of both T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1 is a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily expressed on activated T cells that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands. PD-1 plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody MEDI0680
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody MEDI0680 binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T-cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the Ig superfamily expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody MGA012
A proprietary humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody MGA012 binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody Sym021
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 , PCD-1; PDCD1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody Sym021 binds to and inhibits PD-1 activation and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on T cells and functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2). Activated PD-1 plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 antibody mixture PSB205
A mixture of two engineered monoclonal antibodies produced by a single cell line of which one is directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and the other one is directed against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 antibody mixture PSB205 targets and binds to both PD-1 and CTLA4 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and inhibits the PD-1- and CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This restores immune function and activates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Both PD-1 and CTLA4 are selectively expressed on TILs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and negatively regulate the activation and effector functions of T cells. They play key roles in the downregulation of the immune system and tumor evasion from host immunity. Dual checkpoint blockade of PD1 and CTLA4 enhances T-cell activation and proliferation more than the blockade of either immune checkpoint receptor alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 DART protein MGD019
A hinge stabilized immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) tetravalent bispecific antibody-like protein directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA4 dual-affinity re-targeting (DART) protein MGD019 specifically binds to both PD-1 and CTLA4 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and inhibits the PD-1- and CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. Dual blockade of PD1 and CTLA4 pathways provides enhanced activity against PD1+CTLA4+ double positive cells and may increase T-cell activation and proliferation compared to the blockade of either immune checkpoint alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/anti-LAG-3 DART protein MGD013
An Fc-bearing, humanized antibody-like protein that specifically recognizes the immune checkpoint molecules programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PD1; PDCD1; CD279; Programmed Death 1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3; LAG3; CD223), with potential T-lymphocyte immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-PD-1/anti-LAG-3 dual-affinity re-targeting (DART) protein MGD013 specifically binds to both PD-1 and LAG-3, which are both expressed on T cells. The dual blockade of the PD-1 and LAG-3 pathways enables potent activation of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. PD-1 and LAG-3 play key roles in suppressing T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 bispecific antibody IBI318
A recombinant immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) bispecific antibody targeting both the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and its ligand, human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; CD274), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 bispecific antibody IBI318 simultaneously targets and binds to PD-1, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and PD-L1, which is expressed on tumor cells. This crosslinks PD-1-expressing T cells and PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. This prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor PD-1 and inhibits the PD-L1/PD-1-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 bispecific antibody LY3434172
A bispecific antibody targeting both the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and its ligand, human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; CD274), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 bispecific antibody LY3434172 simultaneously targets and binds to PD-1, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. This prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor PD-1 and inhibits the PD-L1/PD-1-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/CD47 infusion protein HX009
A bispecific antibody fusion protein directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential immunostimulating, phagocytosis-inducing and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-PD-1/CD47 infusion protein HX009, the agent simultaneously and selectively targets and binds to PD-1 expressed on T lymphocytes and CD47 on tumor cells. The CD47 binding by HX009 blocks the interaction of CD47 with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha), an inhibitory protein expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), which prevents CD47/SIRPalpha-mediated signaling and abrogates the CD47/SIRPalpha-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. This induces pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by the binding of calreticulin (CRT), which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP), expressed on macrophages, which results in macrophage activation and the specific phagocytosis of the CD47-expressing tumor cells. The binding of HX009 to PD-1 blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2). This prevents the activation of PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore effector T-cell functions and may further activate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor cell killing. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), widely expressed on normal, healthy cells, such as red blood cells and platelets, and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPalpha, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, which allows cancer cells to proliferate. By co-targeting CD47 and PD-1, HX009 has the potential to overcome the limitations of existing CD47-targeted therapies by possibly avoiding the side effects caused by binding to CD47 on healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which causes unwanted macrophage-mediated phagocytosis. PD-1, an inhibitory receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on activated T lymphocytes; it functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands, and plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 bispecific antibody AK104
A bispecific antibody directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1/CTLA4 bispecific antibody AK104 targets and binds to both PD-1 and CTLA4 expressed on tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs), and inhibits the PD-1- and CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This restores immune function and activates a sustained cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Both PD-1 and CTLA4 are selectively expressed on TILs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and negatively regulate the activation and effector functions of T cells. They play key roles in the downregulation of the immune system and tumor evasion from host immunity. Dual checkpoint blockade of PD-1 and CTLA4 with AK104 may enhance T-cell activation and proliferation more than the blockade of either immune checkpoint receptor alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD1/CTLA4 bispecific antibody XmAb20717
A Fc-engineered bispecific antibody directed against the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptors programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD1/CTLA4 bispecific antibody XmAb20717 targets and binds to both PD-1 and CTLA4 expressed on tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) and inhibits the PD-1- and CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This restores immune function and activates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Both PD-1 and CTLA4 are selectively expressed on TILs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and negatively regulate the activation and effector functions of T cells. They play key roles in the downregulation of the immune system and tumor evasion from host immunity. Dual checkpoint blockade of PD1 and CTLA4 with XmAb20717 may enhance T-cell activation and proliferation more than the blockade of either immune checkpoint receptor alone. The engineered Fc domain increases the stability and half-life of the antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD1/ICOS bispecific monoclonal antibody XmAb23104
A humanized, Fc-engineered bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both the human negative immunoregulatory checkpoint receptor, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PCD-1; CD279), and inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS; CD278), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD1/ICOS bispecific monoclonal antibody XmAb23104 targets and binds to both PD-1 and ICOS expressed on certain T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This prevents the activation of PD-1 by its ligands, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2), and stimulates ICOS-mediated signaling, which promotes the activation of T cells and enhances T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. Combined PD-1 blockade and ICOS stimulation may enhance T-cell activation and proliferation more than targeting each receptor individually. The engineered Fc domain increases the stability and half-life of the antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-1/TIM-3 bispecific antibody RO7121661
A bispecific antibody directed against both the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) and the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-1/TIM-3 bispecific antibody RO7121661 simultaneously targets and binds to both TIM-3 and PD-1 expressed on certain T cells. This blocks the interaction of TIM-3 with some of its physiologic ligands and prevents the activation of PD-1 by its ligands, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is often co-expressed with PD-1 on tumor-antigen-specific T cells. Dual checkpoint blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 may enhance T-cell activation and proliferation more than the blockade of either immune checkpoint receptor alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PDGFR alpha monoclonal antibody MEDI-575
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-PDGFR alpha monoclonal antibody MEDI-575 inhibits activation of the cell-surface tyrosine kinase PDGFR alpha subunit and subsequent triggering of mitogenic signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt, and MAP kinase pathways. PDGFR alpha acts as a mitogenic signaling receptor for cells of mesenchymal origin and inhibition of receptor activity may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody A167
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody A167 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; cluster of differentiation 279; CD279). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody BCD-135
A monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody BCD-135 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody BGB-A333
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-variant monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody BGB-A333 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-L1/PD-1 signaling, increases T-cell expansion and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, BGB-A333 blocks the interaction between PD-L1 and its other receptor, the immunostimulatory molecule cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80; B7-1). This prevents PD-L1/CD80 signaling and inhibits the induction of PD-L1-induced apoptosis of activated CD8+ T cells and increases T-cell proliferation. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CBT-502
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CBT-502 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, preventing the binding and subsequent activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-L1/PD-1 signaling, increases T-cell expansion and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T cells, is overexpressed in some cancer types and plays a significant role in immune evasion by tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CK-301
An immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), human monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CK-301 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CS1001
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CS1001 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody CS1001 mirrors natural immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), potentially reducing immunogenicity and other toxicities. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody FAZ053
A monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody FAZ053 binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), which may enhance the T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune response and reverse T-cell inactivation. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody HLX20
A recombinant human monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody HLX20 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; cluster of differentiation 279; CD279). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody IMC-001
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody IMC-001 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; cluster of differentiation 279; CD279). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody IMC-001 also induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells.
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody KN035
An injectable formulation of a monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody KN035 binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), which may enhance the T-cell-mediated immune response to neoplasms and reverse T-cell inactivation. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T-cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody MDX-1105
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) with immune checkpoint inhibitory and potential antineoplastic activities. Anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody MDX-1105 binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), which may enhance the T-cell-mediated immune response to neoplasms and reverse T-cell inactivation. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T-cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody MSB2311
A second-generation, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. The anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody MSB2311 contains a unique, not as of yet elucidated, pH-dependent antigen binding property allowing the antibody to only bind to PD-L1 within the acidic tumor microenvironment (TME), while it is not able to bind to PD-L1 in normal, healthy tissue. Upon administration, once able to bind to PD-L1 in the TME, MSB2311 blocks the binding of PD-L1 to and activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-L1/PD-1 signaling, increases T-cell expansion and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody SHR-1316
An immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody SHR-1316 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody TG-1501
A monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody TG-1501 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; cluster of differentiation 279; CD279). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody ZKAB001
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody ZKAB001 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1, blocking its binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; cluster of differentiation 279; CD279). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed by many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. PD-1, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on activated T cells, is a negative regulator of the immune system that limits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1/4-1BB bispecific antibody INBRX-105
A recombinant, humanized, bispecific antibody targeting both the human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) receptor and 4-1BB (CD137; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1/4-1BB bispecific antibody INBRX-105 simultaneously targets and binds to 4-1BB, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T lymphocytes, and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. Through 4-1BB binding, INBRX-105 acts as a conditional 4-1BB agonist, resulting in T-cell co-stimulation and enhanced anti-tumor activity. At the same time, INBRX-105 prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. 4-1BB, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1/anti-4-1BB bispecific monoclonal antibody GEN1046
A recombinant, Fc-silenced immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) bispecific antibody targeting both the human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 4-1BB (CD137; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1/4-1BB bispecific antibody GEN1046 simultaneously targets and binds to 4-1BB, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T lymphocytes, and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. Through 4-1BB binding, GEN1046 acts as a conditional 4-1BB agonist, resulting in T-cell co-stimulation and enhances T-lymphocyte-mediated anti-tumor activity. At the same time,GEN1046 prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. 4-1BB, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1/CD137 bispecific antibody MCLA-145
A full-length, Fc-silenced immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) bispecific antibody targeting both the human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD137 (4-1BB; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1/CD137 bispecific antibody MCLA-145 simultaneously targets and binds to CD137, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T lymphocytes, and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells, thereby crosslinking PD-L1-expressing tumor cells and T lymphocytes. Through CD137 binding, MCLA-145 acts as a conditional CD137 agonist, resulting in T-cell co-stimulation and enhanced anti-tumor activity. At the same time, MCLA-145 prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. CD137, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. Crosslinking of PD-L1-expressing tumor cells and activated T-lymphocytes may enhance T-lymphocyte-mediated lysis of PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1/CTLA-4 bispecific antibody KN046
A bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both the immunosuppressive ligand, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PD-L1/CTLA-4 bispecific monoclonal antibody KN046 targets and binds to both PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells and CTLA-4 expressed on T cells. This prevents the binding of PD-L1 to its receptor, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, CD279), and inhibits the PD-1 and CTLA-4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation and proliferation. This restores immune function and activates a sustained cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. Both PD-L1, which is overexpressed in many human cancer cell types, and CTLA-4, an inhibitory T-cell receptor, play a role in the downregulation of the immune system and tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PD-L1/TIM-3 bispecific antibody LY3415244
A bispecific antibody directed against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2) and the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, LY3415244 simultaneously targets and binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. This blocks the interaction of TIM-3 with some of its physiologic ligands and prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is often co-expressed with PD-1 on tumor-antigen-specific T cells. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antiperspirant cream F511
A cream formulation containing aluminum chlorohydrate with astringent and antiperspirant activities. Upon topical application of F511 cream, aluminium chlorohydrate forms a gel matrix in the sweat gland which subsequently reduces, then stops the flow of water. In addition, this agent exerts an astringent effect, thereby further preventing sweat formation. Hyperhidrosis appears to play a role in the development of certain mucocutaneous reactions, such as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), upon administration of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and capecitabine. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PGF monoclonal antibody RO5323441
A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the placenta growth factor (PGF), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-PGF monoclonal antibody RO5323441 binds to both PGF-1 and -2, thereby inhibiting the binding of PGF-1 and -2 to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) and subsequent VEGFR-1 phosphorylation. This may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. PGF, a member of the VEGF sub-family and a key molecule in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PKN3 siRNA Atu027
A lipoplexed formulation consisting of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against protein kinase N3 (PKN3) encapsulated in catiogenic and fusiogenic lipids with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, catiogenic and fusiogenic lipids promote anti-PKN3 siRNA Atu02 uptake by tumor cells; the siRNAs moieties are subsequently released once inside the cell. The siRNAs bind to PKN3 mRNAs, which may result in the inhibition of translation and expression of the PKN3 protein and, so, growth inhibition of tumor cells that overexpress PKN3. The protein kinase C-related molecule PKN3, downstream in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, is upregulated in many tumor cells and plays an important role in invasive cell growth and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PLGF monoclonal antibody TB-403
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against placental growth factor (PLGF) with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic acivities. Anti-PLGF monoclonal antibody TB-403 binds to PLGF, inhibiting the binding of PLGF to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. PLGF is a protein that belongs to the family of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PR1/HLA-A2 monoclonal antibody Hu8F4
A T-cell receptor (TCR)-like monoclonal antibody against PR1, a 9 amino-acid (VLQELNVTV) human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted leukemia-associated antigen (LAA) derived from the myeloid leukemia-associated antigens proteinase 3 (P3) and neutrophil elastase (NE), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PR1/HLA-A2 monoclonal antibody Hu8F4 selectively binds to a combined epitope of the PR1/HLA-A2 complex expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and leukemic stem cells (LSC), and prevents PR1/HLA-A2-mediated signaling. This induces complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), to a lesser extent, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and CDC/ADCC-independent cytolysis of myeloid leukemia cells. This results in a reduction of cellular proliferation in PR1/HLA-A2-overexpressing leukemic cells. PR1 in combination with the HLA-A2 molecule is highly expressed on AML blasts and LSCs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PRAME T-cell receptor/anti-CD3 scFv fusion protein IMC-F106C
A T-cell re-directing bi-specific biologic composed of a modified form of human T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and fused to an anti-CD3 single-chain variable fragment (scFv), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of IMC-F106C, the TCR moiety of this agent targets and binds to PRAME on tumor cells and the anti-CD3 scFv moiety binds to CD3- expressing T lymphocytes. This selectively cross-links tumor cells and T lymphocytes and results in a CTL-mediated death of PRAME-expressing tumor cells. The TAA PRAME is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PRL-3 monoclonal antibody PRL3-zumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody against phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3; PTP4A3), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PRL-3 monoclonal antibody PRL3-zumab targets, binds to and blocks PRL-3 expressed on tumor cells. Although the exact mechanism of action through which this antibody kills tumor cells has yet to be fully elucidated, PRL3-zumab binds to PRL-3. This prevents PRL-3-mediated signaling in, inhibits the proliferation of and induces apoptosis in PRL-3-expressing tumor cells. PRL-3, a member of the PRL family of protein tyrosine kinases, is upregulated in a variety of tumor cells. Its expression is associated with increased invasiveness, higher metastatic potential, increased tumor cell survival and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody expressing pluripotent killer T lymphocytes
A specific population of pluripotent killer (PIK) T cells that have been induced to express high levels of antibodies against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential antitumor activity. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which PIK-PD-1 cells exert their effects has yet to be elucidated, upon infusion, these cells secrete antibodies that target PD-1 expressed on the surface of activated T cells and tumor cells. This may block the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, PD-1L1; CD274) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2, PD-1L2; CD273). The inhibition of ligand binding prevents PD-1-mediated signaling and results in both T-cell activation and the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily transmembrane protein and inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates T-cell activation; PD-L1 is overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and PD-L2 is primarily expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-prolactin receptor antibody LFA102
A neutralizing antibody against the prolactin receptor (PRLR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-prolactin receptor antibody LFA102 binds to PRLR and prevents the binding of the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) to its receptor. This binding induces an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and may eventually prevent tumor cell proliferation in PRLR-positive cancer cells. PRLR/PRL signaling pathway is frequently overexpressed in breast and prostate cancer.
anti-PSCA fully human monoclonal antibody AGS-1C4D4
An IgG1k fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the human prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-PSCA fully human monoclonal antibody AGS-1C4D4 selectively targets and binds to PSCA, triggering complement-dependent cell lysis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in tumor cells expressing PSCA. PSCA is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface antigen found in cancers of the bladder, pancreas, and prostate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody MDX1201-A488
A recombinant, human monoclonal antibody targeting an extracellular epitope of human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that is conjugated with a fluorescent dye A488, with potential imaging activity. Upon intravenous administration, the MDX1201 moiety of anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody MDX1201-A488 targets PSMA expressed on cancer cells. Subsequently, the A488 moiety can then be visualized by fluorescence-based imaging and the amount of PSMA-expressing tumor cells can be assessed. A488 is a photostable fluorescent dye with a high quantum yield. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and overexpressed on prostate tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA monoclonal antibody-MMAE conjugate
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), conjugated via a stable, enzyme-cleavable linker to monomethylauristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of this conjugate selectively binds to PSMA, a protein which is abundantly expressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/CD28 bispecific antibody REGN5678
A bispecific antibody directed against both the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the co-stimulatory T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-PSMA/CD28 bispecific antibody REGN5678, this bispecific antibody binds to both CD28 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and PSMA found on PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to PSMA-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/CD3 bispecific antibody CCW702
A bispecific antibody that targets both the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-PSMA/CD3 bispecific antibody CCW702, this bispecific antibody binds to both CD3 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and PSMA found on PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to PSMA-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/CD3 bispecific antibody JNJ-63898081
A bispecific antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), fused to one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-PSMA/CD3 bispecific antibody JNJ-63898081, this bispecific antibody binds to both CD3 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and PSMA found on PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to PSMA-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 160
A half-life extended (HLE), bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody composed of two single-chain variable fragments (scFv), one directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), fused to one that is directed against the CD3 antigen found on T lymphocytes, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of anti-PSMA/CD3 BiTE antibody AMG 160, this bispecific antibody binds to both CD3 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and PSMA found on PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This activates and redirects CTLs to PSMA-expressing tumor cells, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.
anti-PSMA/CD3 BiTE monoclonal antibody MT112
A recombinant T-cell engaging bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiTE) directed against human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the CD3 epsilon subunit of the T cell receptor complex, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Anti-PSMA/CD3 BiTE monoclonal antibody MT112 possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for PSMA, and one for the CD3 complex, a group of T cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T cell receptor (TCR). This bispecific monoclonal antibody brings PSMA-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) together, which may result in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing cells. PSMA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/CD3 monoclonal antibody MOR209/ES414
An anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)/anti-CD3 bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-PSMA/CD3 monoclonal antibody MOR209/ES414 possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of prostate tumor cells. Upon intravenous administration of MOR209/ES414, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T-cells and PSMA-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking PSMA-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This results in CTL-mediated cancer cell lysis of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PSMA/PBD ADC MEDI3726
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of an engineered version of anti-human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591 conjugated, via a valine-alanine dipeptide linker, to tesirine, a cytotoxic, DNA minor groove crosslinking agent and pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of anti-PSMA/PBD ADC MEDI3726, the antibody moiety targets the cell surface antigen PSMA, which is found on prostate cancer cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding, internalization and lysosome-mediated cleavage of the dipeptide linker, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. In turn, the imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces DNA strand breaks, inhibits DNA replication, leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest, induces cell death, and inhibits the proliferation of PSMA-overexpressing tumor cells. PSMA is overexpressed by prostate cancers; its expression is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PTK7/Auristatin-0101 antibody-drug conjugate PF-06647020
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a humanized monoclonal antibody against human inactive tyrosine-protein kinase 7 (PTK7) linked, via a cleavable valine-citrulline linker, to an analog of the auristatin microtubule inhibitor dolastatin 10, auristatin-0101, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-PTK7/Auristatin-0101 ADC PF-06647020 targets and binds to PTK7 expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding, internalization and cleavage, auristatin-0101 binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of PTK7-expressing tumor cells. PTK7, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-PVRIG monoclonal antibody COM701
A humanized, hybridoma monoclonal antibody against the poliovirus receptor-related immunoglobulin (PVRIG; PVR Related Immunoglobulin Domain Containing Protein; CD112R), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-PVRIG monoclonal antibody COM701 targets and binds to PVRIG expressed on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). This blocks the interaction of PVRIG with its ligand nectin cell adhesion molecule 2 (poliovirus receptor-related 2; PVRL2; CD112), which is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Inhibiting the activation of PVRIG, abrogates the PVRIG-induced inhibition of T-lymphocyte and NK-cell activation. This activates CTLs and NK cells, enhances anti-tumor responses and immune-mediated tumor cell killing, and inhibits tumor cell proliferation. PVRIG, a member of the B7/CD28 family and immune checkpoint receptor that, upon activation, negatively regulates the activation of various immune cells. It plays a key role in immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-ROR1 ADC VLS-101
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) linked to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of VLS-101 targets and binds to ROR1 expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, the cytotoxic agent is released and kills the ROR1-expressing cancer cells, through an as of yet unknown mechanism of action. ROR1, also known as neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor-related 1 (NTRKR1), is expressed during embryogenesis and by certain leukemias. It plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-RSPO3 monoclonal antibody OMP-131R10
An immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human R-spondin 3 (RSPO3), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, the anti-RSPO3 monoclonal antibody OMP-131R10 targets and binds to RSPO3 expressed on tumor cells. This prevents the activation of RSPO3, and inhibits both the binding of RSPO3 to leucine-rich repeat-containing G-coupled receptors (LGRs) and the activation of the RSPO-LGR pathway. This may result in an inhibition of both cancer stem cell (CSC) survival and the proliferation of cancer cells in which this pathway is overactivated. The RSPO-LGR pathway is a CSC pathway activated in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-RSV nanobody ALX-0171
A trivalent nanobody composed of three monovalent Nb017 moieties linked with glycine-serine (GS) linkers, directed against the fusion protein (F protein) of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), with potential activity against RSV infections. Upon administration via nebulization and inhalation, the anti-RSV nanobody ALX-0171 targets and binds to RSV F protein, neutralizing the virus, and preventing viral entry into host cells. RSV F protein is a small envelope glycoprotein required for cytopathic syncytia formation that results from cell-to-cell fusion. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-S15 monoclonal antibody NC318
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody targeting sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15; SIGLEC15; S15), a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin type lectins, with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulatory activities. Upon administration, anti-S15 monoclonal antibody NC318 targets and binds to S15 on the surface of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and certain tumor cells. Binding to S15 may disrupt TAM-mediated activities such as promotion of tumor initiation and metastasis of tumor cells, inhibition of T-cell responses, and stimulation of tumor angiogenesis and disease progression. S15, a highly conserved type 1 cell surface protein, normally involved in osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling, may play a role in the survival and differentiation of TAMs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-sCLU monoclonal antibody AB-16B5
A humanized, immunoglobulin (Ig) G2 monoclonal antibody against the secreted form of human clusterin (sCLU) expressed by tumor cells, with potential antineoplastic and anti-metastatic activities. Upon administration, anti-sCLU monoclonal antibody AB-16B5 specifically binds to tumor-associated sCLU and inhibits its activity. This inhibits both the sCLU-mediated signal transduction pathways and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to the inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion. In addition, AB-16B5 enhances chemo-sensitivity. sCLU, a heterodimeric disulfide-linked glycoprotein overexpressed by various types of cancer cells, contributes to proliferation and survival of cancer cells, and stimulates tumor cell EMT. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antisecretory factor-enriched egg yolk powder supplement
A dietary supplement composed of dried egg yolk powder that is highly enriched in the protein anti-secretory factor (AF), with anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, immunomodulating and chemo-adjuvant activities. Upon intratumoral administration of the AF-enriched egg yolk powder supplement, AF is able to normalize fluid flow by regulating the ion and fluid balance across the cell membranes, and decreases high interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). As elevated IFP presents a barrier to drug uptake and poor perfusion in solid tumors, reducing IFP levels allows for increased uptake and an enhanced effect of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, AF may be able to modulate the immune system and may have immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells. It may also modulate the secretion of immunomodulatory agents from tumor cells. In addition, AF may affect the secretion of various pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2; CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1a), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1b). AF, a 41 kilodalton (kDa) endogenous and essential protein secreted in plasma and other tissue fluids in mammals, is increased after exposure to bacterial toxins and endogenous triggers of inflammation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-SEMA4D monoclonal antibody VX15/2503
A humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against the semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D; CD100) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-SEMA4D monoclonal antibody VX15/2503 binds to and neutralizes SEMA4D, thereby preventing binding of SEMA4D to its receptor plexin-B1 (PLXNB1). By blocking the interaction of SEMA4D and PLXNB1, VX15/2503 may cause an inhibition of endothelial cell activation and migration, eventually leading to an inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Semaphorin 4D, a large cell surface antigen found on the resting T-cell and overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays an important role in vascular growth, tumor progression, invasion and immune cell regulation.
antisense oligonucleotide QR-313
A twenty-one nucleotide-containing antisense oligonucleotide (AON) with potential use in the treatment of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) due to mutations in exon 73 of the COL7A1 gene. Upon topical administration, QR-313 hybridizes to a specific sequence in COL7A1 pre-mRNA, resulting in exclusion of exon 73 from mRNA and translation of a functional type VII collagen protein. This may restore functionality of integument anchoring fibrils, prevent blistering, and improve wound healing in patients with DEB. Type VII collagen is a major component of anchoring fibrils, attachment structures that mediate dermal-epidermal adherence in human skin. DEB is an inherited mechano-bullous disorder caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene, which lead to perturbations in anchoring fibrils. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-SIRPa monoclonal antibody CC-95251
A monoclonal antibody targeting signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa; CD172a) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, anti-SIRPa monoclonal antibody CC-95251 targets and binds to SIRPa, a cell surface protein expressed on macrophages, thereby blocking the interaction between SIRPa and cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) expressed on tumor cells. This prevents CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling and abrogates the CD47/SIRPa-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. This induces pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by the binding of calreticulin (CRT), which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP), expressed on macrophages. This results in macrophage activation and the specific phagocytosis of tumor cells. In addition, blocking CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling activates both an anti-tumor T-lymphocyte immune response and T-cell-mediated killing of CD47-expressing tumor cells. SIRPa, also known as tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type substrate 1, mediates negative regulation of phagocytosis, mast cell activation and dendritic cell activation. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPa, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, which allows cancer cells to proliferate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-SLITRK6 monoclonal antibody-MMAE conjugate AGS15E
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against SLIT and NTRK-like protein 6 (SLITRK6), covalently linked to the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of AGS15E binds to SLITRK6 expressed on tumor cells, which facilitates both AGS15E internalization and the intracellular delivery of MMAE. Upon cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, which results in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. SLITRK6, a member of the Slitrk family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) neuronal transmembrane proteins, is minimally expressed in normal tissue but overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, some forms of lung cancer, breast cancer and glioblastoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-SSTR2/CD3 monoclonal antibody XmAb18087
A humanized, Fc domain-containing, bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on certain cancer cells, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-SSTR2/CD3 monoclonal antibody XmAb18087 binds to both T cells and SSTR2-expressing cancer cells. The resulting cross-linkage may trigger a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the SSTR2-expressing cancer cells. The inclusion of an Fc domain on the antibody prolongs the half-life of the bispecific antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody CC49-streptavidin conjugate
An immunoconjugate containing CC49, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72), conjugated to streptavidin, a nonglycosylated homotetrameric protein that has four high affinity binding sites for biotin, with potential use in pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). Upon administration of anti-TAG-72 MAb CC49-streptavidin conjugate, the MAb moiety targets and binds to TAG-72 expressed on cancer cells. Upon subsequent administration of a biotin-based radioconjugate, such as yttrium Y 90 DOTA-biotin, the biotin moiety of the radioconjugate binds to the streptavidin moiety of MAb CC49-streptavidin conjugate, which localizes the biotin-conjugated radionuclide to the tumor site. Upon cellular internalization, a cytotoxic does of radiation may be specifically delivered to TAG-72-expressing tumor cells. TAG-72, a human pancarcinoma antigen, is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TF monoclonal antibody ALT-836
A recombinant human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against human tissue factor (TF), with potential antiangiogenic, anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon administration, anti-TF monoclonal antibody ALT-836 binds to TF or the TF-Factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex preventing binding and activation of Factor X (FX) and Factor IX (FIX). This may prevent thrombin formation and cancer-associated venous thromboembolism, and may inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. TF, a transmembrane protein and procoagulant, is overexpressed in many tumor cell types, and is correlated with metastasis, angiogenesis, tumor growth and tumor-associated thrombosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody NIS793
A monoclonal antibody directed against human transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody NIS793 specifically targets and binds to TGF-beta, thereby preventing the activation of TGF-beta-mediated signaling pathways. TGF-beta, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is mutated and/or overexpressed in a number of cancer cell types, is involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration, and tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody SAR-439459
A monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against human transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta; TGFb), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody SAR-439459 specifically targets and binds to TGF-beta, thereby preventing the activation of TGF-beta-mediated signaling pathways. This may inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in which TGF-beta is overactivated. TGF-beta, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is mutated and/or overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, is involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration, and in tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TGF-beta RII monoclonal antibody IMC-TR1
A monoclonal antibody directed against transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II (TGF-beta RII) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-TGF-beta RII monoclonal antibody IMC-TR1 specifically targets and binds to TGF-beta R11, thereby preventing the activation of TGF-beta RII-mediated signaling pathways. TGF-beta RII is mutated in a number of cancer cell types and is involved in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-thymocyte globulin
A purified gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) with immunosuppressive activity. Obtained from rabbits that have been immunized with human thymocytes, antithymocyte globulin specifically recognizes and destroys T lymphocytes. Although the exact mechanism of action is not completely understood, it appears to involve T lymphocyte clearance from the circulation and modulation of T lymphocyte activity. Administering antithymocyte globulin with chemotherapy prior to stem cell transplantation may reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-thyroglobulin mTCR-transduced autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes
Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with a gene encoding for a thyroglobulin (TG)-specific murine T-cell receptor (mTCR), with potential antineoplastic activity. PBLs are harvested from a thyroid cancer patient, and transfected with a retroviral vector that encodes the mTCR gene specific for the human TG antigen. The transduced PBLs are then expanded in culture. When reintroduced to the patient, these anti-TG mTCR-expressing PBLs target and bind to TG-overexpressing tumor cells, which results in both cytokine secretion and tumor cell lysis. TG is a thyroid-specific protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody BMS-986207
A human monoclonal antibody targeting the co-inhibitory molecule and immune checkpoint inhibitor T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin (Ig) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domains (TIGIT), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory activity. Upon administration, anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody BMS-986207 binds to TIGIT expressed on various immune cells, particularly on tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs), thereby preventing the interaction of TIGIT with its ligands CD112 (nectin-2; poliovirus receptor related-2; PVRL2) and CD155 (poliovirus receptor; PVR; nectin-like protein 5; NECL-5). This enhances the interaction of CD112 and CD155 with the costimulatory receptor CD226 (DNAX Accessory molecule-1; DNAM-1), which is expressed on immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, and leads to CD226 dimerization and CD226-mediated signaling. This activates the immune system to exert a T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells. TIGIT, a member of the Ig super family and an immune inhibitory receptor, plays a key role in the suppression of T-cell proliferation and activation; it is involved in tumor cell immune evasion, and the inhibition of antiviral immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody OMP-313M32
A monoclonal antibody targeting the human co-inhibitory molecule and immune checkpoint inhibitor T-cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin (Ig) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domains (TIGIT), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory activity. Upon administration, anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody OMP-313M32 binds to TIGIT expressed on various immune cells, including T cells, and prevents the interaction of TIGIT with its ligands CD112 (nectin-2; poliovirus receptor related-2; PVRL2) and CD155 (poliovirus receptor; PVR; nectin-like protein 5; NECL-5). This enhances the interaction of CD112 and CD155 with the costimulatory receptor CD226 (DNAX Accessory molecule-1; DNAM-1), which is expressed on immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and CD8-positive T cells, and leads to CD226 dimerization and CD226-mediated signaling. This activates the immune system to exert a T-cell-mediated immune response against cancer cells. TIGIT, a member of the Ig super family and an immune inhibitory receptor, plays a key role in the suppression of T-cell proliferation and activation; it is involved in tumor cell immune evasion and the inhibition of antiviral immune responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM-3 antibody BMS-986258
An antibody against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Following administration, anti-TIM-3 antibody BMS-986258 binds to TIM-3 that is expressed on certain T cells, including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which together result in decreased tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody BGB-A425
A humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BGB-A425 binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), thereby preventing the engagement of TIM-3 by its ligands, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and galectin-9. This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody INCAGN02390
A fully human Fc-engineered immunoglobulin G1 kappa (IgG1kappa) antibody directed against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, INCAGN02390 forms a high-affinity interaction with TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, thereby preventing the engagement of TIM-3 by its ligands, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and galectin-9. This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, INCAGN02390 elicits TIM-3 receptor internalization, potentially preventing interactions with other ligands.TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor expressed on certain lymphocytes, including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM3 monoclonal antibody LY3321367
A monoclonal antibody against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody LY3321367 binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM3 monoclonal antibody SHR-1702
A monoclonal antibody against the inhibitory T-cell receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-TIM3 monoclonal antibody SHR-1702 targets and binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T-cells, including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody Sym023
A recombinant, fully human monoclonal antibody against the inhibitory T-cell receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody Sym023 binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody TSR-022
A monoclonal antibody against the inhibitory T-cell receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3; TIM3; hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; HAVCR2), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody TSR-022 binds to TIM-3 expressed on certain T cells, including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which results in a reduction in tumor growth. TIM-3, a transmembrane protein and immune checkpoint receptor, is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-tissue factor monoclonal antibody MORAb-066
A humanized monoclonal antibody against human tissue factor (TF), with potential antiangiogenic, anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon administration, anti-TF monoclonal antibody MORAb-066 binds to TF and prevents Factor VIIa (FVIIa) from binding, thereby interfering with the activation of Factor X (FX) into FXa. This may prevent thrombin formation and cancer-associated venous thromboembolism, and may inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. TF, a transmembrane protein and initiator of the coagulation cascade, is overexpressed in many tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells; its expression is correlated with metastasis, angiogenesis, tumor cell growth and tumor-associated thrombosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody OPN-305
A humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody directed against toll-like receptor type 2 (TLR2), with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, OPN-305 binds to the ligand-binding site on the TLR2 receptor and blocks the activation of TLR2-mediated innate immunity signaling. This prevents the TLR2-mediated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and prevents inflammation. TLR2, a member of the TLR family primarily found on leukocytes, plays a key role in the activation of innate immunity; it is overexpressed in various inflammatory diseases and in certain types of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-transthyretin siRNA ALN-TTR02
A lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-based formulation consisting of small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against transthyretin (TTR)-encapsulated in lipids, which has potential use in the treatment of TTR-mediated amyloidosis (ATTR). Upon intravenous administration of ALN-TTR02, the lipid formulation promotes the uptake by cells. The siRNAs bind to TTR mRNAs, which may result in the inhibition of both the translation and expression of the TTR protein. ATTR is caused by mutations in the TTR gene and results in the formation of abnormal amyloid proteins that accumulate in and cause damage to various body organs and tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TRBC1-CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-RQR8-expressing autologous T lymphocytes AUTO4
Autologous human T lymphocytes that are genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing an anti-T-cell receptor beta constant 1 (TRBC1; T-cell receptor beta-1 chain C region) single chain variable fragment (scFv) and the co-stimulatory domain 4-1BB (CD137) coupled to the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-TRBC1-CAR-CD3zeta-4-1BB-RQR8-expressing autologous T lymphocytes AUTO4 targets and binds to the TRBC1 expressed on tumor cell surfaces. Subsequently, TRBC1-expressing tumor cells are lysed. In addition, AUTO4 carries the universal RQR8 safety "off" switch, which allows selective removal of the T-cells through both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) following administration of rituximab if unacceptable side-effects occur. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TROP2 antibody-drug conjugate BAT8003
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigen (TAA) trophoblast cell surface protein 2 (trophoblast antigen 2; calcium signal transducer 2; TROP2; TROP-2; TACSTD2; GA733-1; M1S1) conjugated via an uncleavable linker to an as of yet undisclosed maytansine derivative toxin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-TROP2 ADC BAT8003, the anti-TROP2 antibody targets and binds to TROP2 expressed on tumor cells. Upon cellular uptake, the cytotoxic maytansine derivative binds to tubulin, thereby affecting microtubule assembly and disassembly dynamics. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation of TROP2-expressing tumor cells. TROP2 is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in various tumors. Its expression is associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, drug resistance and increased tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TROP2 antibody-drug conjugate SKB264
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigen (TAA) trophoblast cell surface protein 2 (trophoblast antigen 2; calcium signal transducer 2; TROP2; TROP-2; TACSTD2; GA733-1; M1S1) conjugated to an as of yet undisclosed toxin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-TROP2 ADC SKB264, the anti-TROP2 antibody targets and binds to TROP2 expressed on tumor cells. Upon cellular uptake, the undisclosed toxin exerts, through an as of yet not disclosed mechanism of action, its cytotoxic effect. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation of TROP2-expressing tumor cells. TROP2 is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in various tumors while its expression is low and/or restricted in normal, healthy tissues; its expression is associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, drug resistance and increased tumor cell survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TROP2/DXd antibody-drug conjugate DS-1062a
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a humanized monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigen (TAA) trophoblast cell surface protein 2 (calcium signal transducer 2; TROP2; TROP-2; TACSTD2) conjugated, via an enzymatically cleavable tetrapeptide-based linker, to the cytotoxic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor and exatecan (DX-8951) derivative DXd (MAAA-1181a; MAAA-1181), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the anti-TROP2/DXd ADC DS-1062a, the anti-TROP2 antibody targets and binds to TROP2 expressed on tumor cells. Upon cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of the linker, DXd targets and binds to DNA topoisomerase I, thereby stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks, inhibition of DNA replication and apoptosis. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation of TROP2-expressing tumor cells. TROP2 is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in various tumors while its expression is low and/or restricted in normal, healthy tissues. Its expression is associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, drug resistance and increased tumor cell survival. The ADC allows for reduced systemic exposure and enhanced delivery of the cytotoxic agent DXd. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
antitumor B key active component-alpha
An orally available concentrated preparation of antitumor B (ATB, Zeng Sheng Ping), a Chinese herbal formula comprised of Sophora tonkinensis, Polygonum bistorta, Prunella vulgaris, Sonchus brachyotus, Dictamnus dasycarpus, and Dioscorea bulbifera, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, antitumor B key active component-alpha (ATB-KAC-alpha) may, through a not yet fully elucidated mechanism, inhibit tumorigenesis and prevent the development of certain cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibody RO5458640
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the apoptotic ligand TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibody RO5458640 binds to TWEAK and prevents the binding of TWEAK to its receptor, FGF-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14), thereby blocking the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling. This may prevent tumor cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. TWEAK has pleiotropic effects, mediating proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic activity as well as stimulation of invasion, migration, and survival mediated via its receptor Fn14; Fn14 is expressed at relatively low levels in normal tissues, but is elevated in tumor cells and locally in injured and diseased tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGF anticalin PRS-050-PEG40
A pegylated, proprietary lipocalin that targets human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with potential antineoplastic activity. Pegylated anti-VEGF anticalin PRS-050 specifically targets and binds to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 or KDR), thereby preventing its activity. This may inhibit angiogenesis and eventually reduce tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody hPV19
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody hPV19 targets and binds to VEGFR at a unique binding site and inhibits VEGF binding to its receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, thereby preventing VEGF/VEGFR-mediated signaling. This prevents the growth and maintenance of tumor blood vessels. This decreases nutrient supply to tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death. Increased VEGF/VEGFR signaling is associated with increased invasiveness and decreased survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGF/ANG2 nanobody BI 836880
A nanobody directed against angiopoietin-2 (Ang2; ANGPT2)- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-derived peptides, with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Anti-VEGF/ANG2 nanobody BI 836880 binds to Ang2 and VEGF and inhibits receptor binding; this prevents Ang2- and VEGF-mediated signaling and inhibits both tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Both VEGF and Ang2 are upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and each plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. The nanobody is based on functional fragments of single-chain antibodies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGF-C monoclonal antibody VGX-100
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the human vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC or Flt4 ligand) with potential antiangiogenic activity. Anti-VEGFC monoclonal antibody VGX-100 specifically binds to and inhibits VEGFC protein, thereby preventing its binding to VEGFR3 (FLT4) or VEGFR2 (KDR or FLK1). This may prevent VEGFC-mediated signaling and may lead to the inhibition of vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation. The inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis may eventually decrease tumor cell proliferation and prevent metastasis. VEGFC is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells, and is associated with increased invasiveness and decreased survival.
anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody HLX06
A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) with potential anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody HLX06 specifically binds to and inhibits VEGFR-2, which may inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. VEGFR-2, a tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in angiogenesis and the proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation of endothelial cells, is overexpressed in certain tumor types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGFR2-CAR retroviral vector-transduced autologous T lymphocytes
Autologous human CD8-positive T-lymphocytes transduced with a recombinant retroviral vector encoding a chimeric T cell receptor (chimeric antigen receptor or CAR) consisting of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) scFv (single chain variable fragment), linked to the transmembrane domain of human CD8alpha and coupled to the costimulatory signaling domains of both CD28 and 4-1BB (CD137), and the CD3 zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from a patient with VEGFR2-positive cancer are pulsed with a retroviral vector that encodes the CAR gene specific for VEGFR2. After expansion in culture and reintroduction into the patient, the anti-VEGFR2 CAR-gene engineered CD8+ lymphocytes express anti-VEGFR2-CAR on their cell surfaces and bind to the VEGFR2 antigen on tumor cell surfaces. Subsequently, VEGFR2-expressing tumor cells are lysed. VEGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types, belongs to the VEGFR superfamily and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and tumor angiogenesis. The co-stimulatory molecules are required for optimal T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VEGFR3 monoclonal antibody IMC-3C5
A fully-human monoclonal antibody directed against human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3; Flt-4) with antiangiogenic activity. Anti-VEGFR-3 monoclonal antibody IMC-3C5 specifically binds to and inhibits VEGFR-3, which may result in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and a decrease in tumor nutrient supply. VEGFR-3 plays a critical role in the embryonic vascular system development but is restricted postnatally to endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels and found to be expressed in many solid and hematologic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Antivert
(Other name for: meclizine hydrochloride)
antiviral agent CSJ148
An antiviral agent that can potentially be used to prevent replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-VISTA monoclonal antibody JNJ 61610588
A human monoclonal antibody against the protein V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA; programmed death 1 homolog; PD1H; PD-1H), with potential negative checkpoint regulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, JNJ 61610588 targets and binds to VISTA. This inhibits VISTA signaling, abrogates the VISTA-induced suppression of T-lymphocyte-mediated immune responses, enhances cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells and inhibits tumor cell growth. VISTA, mainly expressed on hematopoietic cells, plays a key role in immunosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
anti-von Willebrand factor nanobody
A humanized, bivalent anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) nanobody with potential anti-platelet activity. Anti-von Willebrand factor nanobody specifically binds to the A1 domain of the VWF molecule, thereby inhibiting and neutralizing VWF activity. This prevents the interaction of VWF with the platelet glycoprotein (Gp)Ib-IX-V receptor and prevents VWF-mediated platelet aggregation. VWF is a glycoprotein and plays a key role in blood coagulation. Increased VWF, which is seen in a number of diseases, is associated with an increased risk in thrombosis. The nanobody formulation allows for rapid distribution, onset of action and clearance. The nanobody is based on the smallest functional fragments of single-chain antibodies that naturally occur in the Camelidae family. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Antrin
(Other name for: motexafin lutetium)
Antrodia cinnamomea supplement
A dietary supplement containing extract from the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea with potential antiangiogenic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. The components in Antrodia cinnamomea supplement are rather complex, however, rich in triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides (adenosine) nucleic acids, superoxide dismutase, other small molecular weight proteins and steroid like compounds. Neutral sugars in this supplement show inhibitory activity on endothelial tube formation, while maleimide and maleic anhydride derivative components in the extract, such as antrodin B and antrodin C and their metabolites, exhibit significant cytotoxic effects on tumor cells and hepatitis C virus. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
AO+ Mist
(Other name for: topical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria-based probiotic solution)
apadamtase alfa
A recombinant human form of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) that may be used as a replacement therapy for ADAMTS13 with indirect anti-thrombotic and anti-thrombocytopenic activities. Upon administration, apadamtase alfa acts similarly as endogenous ADAMTS13 and mediates the cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF) at the Tyr1605–Met1606 bond in the A2 domain. The cleavage of ultralarge (UL) VWF multimers into smaller forms helps regulate the size of VWF multimers, preventing the binding of platelets to UL VWF and the resulting thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). ADAMTS13 plays a key role in the proteolysis of VWF multimers. VWF is involved in platelet adhesion and blood coagulation. 
apalutamide
A small molecule and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Apalutamide binds to AR in target tissues thereby preventing androgen-induced receptor activation and facilitating the formation of inactive complexes that cannot be translocated to the nucleus. This prevents binding to and transcription of AR-responsive genes. This ultimately inhibits the expression of genes that regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in AR-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apatinib
An orally bioavailable, small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Apatinib selectively binds to and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, which may inhibit VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and proliferation and decrease tumor microvessel density. In addition, this agent mildly inhibits c-Kit and c-SRC tyrosine kinases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apatorsen
A second-generation antisense oligonucleotide targeting heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) with potential antitumor and chemosensitizing activities. Apatorsen suppresses tumor cell expression of Hsp27, which may induce tumor cell apoptosis and enhance tumor cell sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. Hsp27, a chaperone belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHsp) group of proteins, is a cytoprotective protein that supports cell survival under conditions of stress; it has been found to be over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apaziquone
An indolequinone bioreductive prodrug and analog of mitomycin C with potential antineoplastic and radiosensitization activities. Apaziquone is converted to active metabolites in hypoxic cells by intracellular reductases, which are present in greater amounts in hypoxic tumor cells. The active metabolites alkylate DNA, resulting in apoptotic cell death. This agent displays activity towards both hypoxic solid tumors, which exhibits higher expression of cytochrome P450 reductase, and well-oxygenated malignant cells that overexpress the bioreductive enzyme NQO1 (NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase). Apaziquone may selectively sensitize hypoxic tumor cells to radiocytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
APC8015F
A cell-based vaccine composed of previously frozen autologous antigen-presenting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (enriched for a dendritic cell fraction) that have been exposed to a recombinant protein consisting of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) fused to prostatic-acid phosphatase (PAP), a protein expressed by prostate cancer cells. Upon administration, the vaccine may stimulate an antitumor T-cell response against tumor cells expressing PAP. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
APE1/Ref-1 redox inhibitor APX3330
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/reduction-oxidation (redox) effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1; APEX1), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the APE1/Ref-1 Inhibitor APX3330 selectively targets and binds to APE1/Ref-1. This inhibits the redox-dependent signaling activity of APE1/Ref-1, by preventing the reduction and activation of numerous APE1/Ref-1-dependent oncogenic transcription factors (TFs), such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), AP-1, STAT3, p53, NRF2 and HIF-1alpha, that are involved in signaling, cell proliferation, tumor progression and survival of cancer cells. Therefore, this agent inhibits the activation of multiple TF-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits tumor cell proliferation and survival. APE1/Ref-1, a multifunctional protein overexpressed in many cancer cell types, plays a key role as a redox regulator of transcription factor activation and in base excision repair upon DNA damage. It drives cancer cell proliferation, migration, drug resistance, angiogenesis and inflammation and its expression level correlates with increased tumor aggressiveness and decreased patient survival. APX3330 specifically blocks the redox activity of APE1/Ref-1 and does not affect its ability to act as a DNA repair endonuclease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
APF530
A controlled-release formulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) antagonist granisetron, in which granisteron is encapsulated in a biodegradable poly(ortho ester) polymer, with antiemetic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, APF530 slowly erodes and releases the active ingredient granisetron over a period of approximately 5 days. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, granisetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-HT3 receptors, resulting in the suppression of nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apilimod dimesylate capsule
A capsule containing the dimesylate salt form of apilimod, an inhibitor of the class III PI kinase phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulatory activities. Upon oral administration of apilimod dimesylate capsule, apilimod selectively binds to and inhibits PIKfyve. The inhibition leads to disruption of PIKfyve-mediated signal transduction pathways and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in PIKfyve-overexpressing tumor cells. Also, PIKfyve inhibition by apilimod inhibits the toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of various cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23, thereby preventing IL-12/IL-23-mediated immune responses. PIKfyve, a lipid kinase dysregulated in various tumor types, plays a key role in TLR signaling and tumor cell migration, proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
apixaban
An orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa with anticoagulant activity. Apixaban directly inhibits factor Xa, thereby interfering with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and preventing formation of cross-linked fibrin clots. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)