NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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CD47 antagonist ALX-148
A variant of signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) that antagonizes the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, ALX148 binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and prevents the interaction of CD47 with its ligand SIRPa, a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. This prevents CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling and abrogates the CD47/SIRPa-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. This induces pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by the binding of the pro-phagocytic signaling protein calreticulin (CRT), which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP), expressed on macrophages. This results in macrophage activation and the specific phagocytosis of tumor cells. In addition, blocking CD47 signaling activates both an anti-tumor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response and T-cell-mediated killing of CD47-expressing tumor cells. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPa, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, which allows cancer cells to proliferate.
CD56-enriched CD3-positive donor lymphocytes
A population of CD3-positive lymphocytes expressing the CD56 surface antigen, with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon infusion of the CD56-enriched CD3-positive donor lymphocytes, these cells may facilitate the reconstitution of CD4-positive T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells, which may reduce the incidence of post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following haploidentical stem cell transplant (SCT). CD56 is a transmembrane glycoprotein also known as neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CD8+ and CD4+ donor memory T cells-expressing HA1-specific TCR
A preparation of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory (CM) T lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of a transplant donor and transduced with a lentiviral vector (LV) (pRRLSIN) expressing a minor H antigen (HA-1(H); HA1(H)) T-cell receptor (TCR) containing the suicide gene inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9 or iC9)-HA1 TCR2-RQR-CD8 transgene (pRRLSIN iC9-HA1 TCR2-RQR-CD8; HA-1 TCR LV), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the CD8+ and CD4+ donor memory T cells-expressing HA1-specific TCR are directed to and induce selective toxicity in HA1-expressing tumor cells. iCasp9 consists of a human FK506 drug-binding domain with an F36V mutation (FKBP12-F36V) linked to human caspase 9. If administration of the T cells lead to unacceptable side effects, a dimerizing agent rimiducid (AP1903), which binds to the FKBP12-F36V drug-binding domain and activates caspase 9, can be administered; caspase-9 activation results in the apoptosis of the administered TCR-modified T cells. HA1(H) is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that is selectively and highly expressed on leukemic stem cells and blasts, but not in normal non-hematopoietic cells. RQR includes a CD20 epitope, and a CD34 epitope that facilitates both purification and cell tracking of the transduced T cells with an anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CD8+NKG2D+ AKT cells
A preparation of human CD8-positive tumor-specific T lymphocytes engineered to express the natural killer cell activating receptor group 2D (NKG2D) and the serine/threonine kinase AKT, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of CD8+NKG2D+ AKT cells, these cells target and kill tumor cells. AKT-mediated signaling enhances the activation, differentiation, proliferation and cytokine production of tumor specific T cells, which enhances their anti-tumor effects; AKT activity in T cells is often downregulated in the tumor environment. NKG2D, a stimulatory lymphocyte receptor, mediates the recognition of tumors cells and promotes T-cell activation and T-cell-mediated tumor cell killing; NKG2D ligands are expressed on cancer cells, while they are minimally expressed by or absent from normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDA inhibitor E7727/decitabine combination agent ASTX727
An orally available combination agent containing the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor E7727 and the cytidine antimetabolite decitabine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of ASTX727, the CDA inhibitor E7727 binds to and inhibits CDA, an enzyme primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine and cytidine analogs. This prevents the breakdown of decitabine, increasing its bioavailability and efficacy while decreasing GI toxicity due to the administration of lower doses of decitabine. Decitabine exerts its antineoplastic activity through the incorporation of its triphosphate form into DNA, which inhibits DNA methyltransferase and results in hypomethylation of DNA. This interferes with DNA replication and decreases tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDC7 inhibitor TAK-931
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cell division cycle 7 (cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase; CDC7), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, TAK-931 binds to and inhibits CDC7; this prevents the initiation of DNA replication during mitosis, which causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis. This inhibits cell growth in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. CDC7, a serine/threonine kinase and cell division cycle protein, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and plays a key role in the activation of DNA replication and the regulation of cell cycle progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233
An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor BMS-863233 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. CDC7, a serine-threonine kinase overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication by activating origins of replication. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDC7 kinase inhibitor LY3143921 hydrate
The hydrated form of an orally bioavailable inhibitor of cell division cycle 7 (CDC7) kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of CDC7 kinase inhibitor LY3143921 hydrate, LY3143921 targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. The serine-threonine kinase CDC7 plays a key role in DNA replication by binding to and phosphorylating serine (Ser)-40 and 53 of MCM2 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 2), which is required for the initiation of DNA replication. Although expressed at low levels in healthy, normal cells, CDC7 is expressed at much higher levels in cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354
An orally bioavailable cell division cycle 7 homolog (CDC7) kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDC7 kinase inhibitor NMS-1116354 binds to and inhibits the activity of CDC7, which may result in the inhibition of DNA replication and mitosis, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in CDC7-overexpressing tumor cells. The serine-threonine kinase CDC7 initiates DNA replication by phosphorylating MCM2 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 2) at Ser40 and Ser53. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CD-expressing Bifidobacterium APS001F
A recombinant anaerobic bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum, encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon injection, the CD-expressing bifidobacterium preferentially localizes and grows in the hypoxic environment of the tumor and expresses CD, an enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of the prodrug flucytosine (5-FC) into the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Upon administration of 5-FC, and subsequent localized conversion into 5-FU and its cytotoxic active metabolites, the tumor is specifically exposed to cytotoxic agents while the exposure to normal tissues is minimal.
CDK inhibitor P276-00
A flavone and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. P276-00 selectively binds to and inhibits Cdk4/cyclin D1, Cdk1/cyclin B and Cdk9/cyclin T1, serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. Inhibition of these kinases leads to cell cycle arrest during the G1/S transition, thereby leading to an induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK inhibitor SNS-032
A 2-aminothiazole-derived, small-molecule cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK inhibitor SNS-032 selectively binds to CDKs 2, 7, and 9, preventing their phosphorylation and activation; inhibition of CDK activity may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis and decreased tumor cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cell populations. This agent has been shown to sensitize radioresistant tumor cells to ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK1 inhibitor BEY1107
An orally bioavailable, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CDK1 inhibitor BEY1107 targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK1. This may inhibit cancer stem cell (CSC) division, cause cell cycle arrest, and induce apoptosis. This may inhibit tumor cell proliferation. CDK1, an ATP-dependent serine/threonine kinase, plays a key role in regulating cell division, cell cycle progression and proliferation. It is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells.
CDK2/4/6/FLT3 inhibitor FN-1501
A small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) subtypes 2 (CDK2), 4 (CDK4), and 6 (CDK6) and FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, FLK2, STK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, CDK2/4/6/FLT3 inhibitor FN-1501 binds to and inhibits CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6, as well as FLT3. This may induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that overexpress these kinases. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases that assist in cell cycle regulation and cellular proliferation. FLT3, a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in many cancer types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK2/5/9 inhibitor CYC065
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases 2, 5 and 9 (CDK2/5/9), with potential antineoplastic and chemoprotective activities. Upon oral administration, CYC065 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK2, 5 and 9, which leads to inhibition of CDK2, 5 and 9-dependent cellular pathways, downregulation of genes involved in the pro-survival pathway, prevention of the activation of DNA double-strand break repair pathways, and induction of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This inhibits the proliferation of CDK2/5/9-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, CYC065 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), prevents myelosuppression, and preserves the function of the bone marrow. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in certain cancer cell types; they play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, the regulation of transcription, and DNA damage repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05
A protein kinase inhibitor specific for the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4 inhibitor P1446A-05 specifically inhibits CDK4-mediated G1-S phase transition, arresting cell cycling and inhibiting cancer cell growth. The serine/threonine kinase CDK4 is found in a complex with D-type G1 cyclins and is the first kinase to become activated upon mitogenic stimulation, releasing cells from a quiescent stage into the G1/S growth cycling stage; CDK-cyclin complexes have been shown to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) transcription factor in early G1, displacing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and blocking transcriptional repression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK4/6 inhibitor BPI-16350
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) types 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CDK4/6 inhibitor BPI-16350 selectively inhibits CDK4 and CDK6, which inhibits the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) early in the G1 phase, prevents CDK-mediated G1-S-phase transition and leads to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of both cell cycle progression from the G1-phase into the S-phase and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK4/6 inhibitor G1T38
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) types 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CDK4/6 inhibitor G1T38 selectively inhibits CDK4 and CDK6, which inhibits the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) early in the G1 phase, prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition and leads to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of both cell cycle progression from the G1-phase into the S-phase and tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK4/6 inhibitor SHR6390
A cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CDK4/6 inhibitor SHR6390 selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6). This inhibits retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation early in the G1 phase, which prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition and leads to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK7 inhibitor CT7001
An orally available, selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CT7001 selectively and competitively binds to the CDK7 ATP binding site, thereby inhibiting CDK7-mediated signaling. CDK7, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a role in controlling cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and promotes the expression of key oncogenes such as c-Myc through the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II. Inhibition of CDK7 may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in certain cancers that are dependent on CDK7-mediated transcriptional regulation and signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK7 inhibitor SY-1365
A selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, SY-1365 binds to and inhibits CDK7, thereby inhibiting CDK7-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits cell growth of CDK7-overexpressing tumor cells. CDK7, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a key role in cell proliferation; CDK7 is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDK9 inhibitor AZD4573
A selective, short-acting inhibitor of the serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), the catalytic subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) elongation factor positive transcription elongation factor b (PTEF-b; PTEFb), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, AZD4573 binds to and blocks the phosphorylation and kinase activity of CDK9, thereby preventing PTEFb-mediated activation of RNA Pol II, leading to the inhibition of gene transcription of various anti-apoptotic proteins. This induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and leads to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. CDK9 regulates elongation of transcription through phosphorylation of RNA Pol II at serine 2 (p-Ser2-RNAPII). It is upregulated in various tumor cell types and plays a key role in the regulation of Pol II-mediated transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins. Tumor cells are dependent on anti-apoptotic proteins for their survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDKI AT7519
An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. AT7519M selectively binds to and inhibits cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), which may result in cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are serine/theronine kinases involved in regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in some types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDKI R547
An orally bioavailable diaminopyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) with potential antineoplastic activity. CDKI R547 selectively binds to and inhibits CDKs, especially CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK4/cyclin D1. The inhibition of CDKs results in cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Through CDK inhibition, this agent also reduces phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, thus preventing activation of transcription factor E2F and so further suppressing tumor cell proliferation. CDKs are ATP-dependent serine/threonine kinases that are important regulators of cell cycle progression and are frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CDKs/JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor TG02 citrate
An orally bioavailable citrate salt form of TG02, a multi-kinase inhibitor for cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) subtypes 1, 2, 7 and 9, Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2), FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, FLK2, STK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CDK/JAK2/FLT3 Inhibitor TG02 binds to and inhibits the CDK subtypes, JAK2, and FLT3. TG02 also inhibits, to a lesser extent, TYK2, TYRO3, STAT5 and P38delta. This may result in both an induction of apoptosis and an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that overexpress these kinases. JAK2, often upregulated or mutated in a variety of cancer cells, mediates STAT3 activation and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. FLT3, a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage and acute myeloid leukemias. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccine
A plasmid vaccine encoding wild type human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) fused to a tetanus toxoid T helper epitope, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination and subsequent intradermal electroporation, CEA/tetanus toxoid T helper epitope fusion protein-expressing DNA plasmid vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. The tetanus toxoid helper peptide epitope, obtained from the bacterial Clostridium tetani toxoid, binds to class II MHC molecules and increases the helper T-cell response thereby inducing an increased and long-term immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CEA-MUC-1-TRICOM vaccine CV301
A cancer prime/boost vaccine-based immunotherapeutic consisting of a prime, which is comprised of a proprietary version of the recombinant vaccinia viral vector, modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN) and a recombinant fowlpox viral vector, used for the boosts, encoding both the two tumor-associated antigens (TAA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC-1), and TRICOM, which is comprised of three immune-enhancing co-stimulatory molecules, B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The administration of the vaccinia priming dose is followed by multiple boosting doses of the fowlpox vector. CEA-MUC-1-TRICOM vaccine CV301 may enhance presentation of CEA and MUC-1 to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and may activate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA- and MUC-1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, CV301 upregulates the expression of PD-L1 due to CTL-mediated tumor attack; additionally, when combined with a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, the antitumor effect may be increased. CEA and MUC-1 are overexpressed in certain cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CEA-Scan
(Other name for: arcitumomab)
CEA-targeting agent RG6123
An agent targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CEA-targeting agent RG6123 targets and binds to human CEA that is specifically expressed on certain tumor cells. This may, through an as of yet not elucidated mechanism of action, kill CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA is overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CeaVac
(Other name for: monoclonal antibody 3H1 anti-idiotype vaccine)
CEBPA-targeting saRNA MTL-CEBPA liposome
A lipid-based nanoparticle formulation composed of liposomes encapsulating a small oligonucleotide encoding a small activating RNA (saRNA) targeting the CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA; C/EBP‐a) gene, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action through which saRNAs exert their effect(s) is still largely being investigated, it appears that, upon administration, the CEBPA-targeting saRNA MTL-CEBPA liposome targets and binds to a specific DNA regulatory target region, most likely the promoter region, for the CEBPA gene. This restores CEBPA gene transcription, and increases both CEBPA mRNA levels and protein expression. This in turn activates the expression of tumor suppressor genes and may halt proliferation of susceptible tumor cells. Specifically, upregulation of CEBPA in liver cells abrogates liver cancer cell proliferation, prevents liver failure and normalizes liver function. CEBPA, a transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of the expression of genes with many functions, including those involved in cellular proliferation, metastasis and normal hepatocyte function, is found in many tissues, including liver cells, adipose tissue and myeloid cells. CEBPA is downregulated in certain types of cancer cells, such as liver cancer cells. saRNA is a short, double-stranded RNA that is structurally related to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs); saRNA is most likely to bind to a target site on the promoter of the CEBPA gene and upregulates its gene expression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cebranopadol
An orally available antagonist of the nociceptin receptor opioid receptor like -1 (ORL-1), with potential analgesic activity. Upon oral administration, cebranopadol binds to ORL-1 and prevents its interaction with nociceptin. This leads to a decrease of nociceptin/ORL-1-mediated signaling and interferes with the sensation of pain, which results in an analgesic effect. Nociceptin is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cecon
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
cedazuridine
An orally available synthetic nucleoside analog derived from tetrahydrouridine (THU) and cytidine deaminase inhibitor (CDAi), that can potentially be used to prevent the breakdown of cytidines. Upon oral administration, cedazuridine binds to and inhibits CDA, an enzyme primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine and cytidine analogs. Given in combination with a cytidine, such as the antineoplastic hypomethylating agent decitabine, it specifically prevents its breakdown and increases its bioavailability and efficacy. This also allows for lower doses of decitabine, which results in a decreased decitabine-associated GI toxicity.
cediranib maleate
The maleate salt of an indole ether quinazoline derivative with antineoplastic activities. Competing with adenosine triphosphate, cediranib binds to and inhibits all three vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-1,-2,-3) tyrosine kinases, thereby blocking VEGF-signaling, angiogenesis, and tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefazolin sodium
The sodium salt of cefazolin, a beta-lactam antibiotic and first-generation cephalosporin with bactericidal activity. Cefazolin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, which results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefepime hydrochloride
The hydrochoride salt of a semi-synthetic, beta-lactamase-resistant, fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived from an Acremonium fungal species with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Administered parenterally, cefipime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity, resulting in a reduction of bacterial cell wall stability and cell lysis. This agent is more active against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens compared to third-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefixime
A broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic derived semisynthetically from the marine fungus Cephalosporium acremonium with antibacterial activity. As does penicillin, the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in a reduction in bacterial cell wall stability and bacterial cell lysis. Stable in the presence of a variety of beta-lactamases, this agent is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria compared to second-generation cephalosporins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefmetazole sodium
The sodium salt of the second-generation, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam cephalosporin cefmetazole with antibacterial activity. Cefmetazole binds to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and prevents the crosslinking of peptidoglycan, which may result in the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, the loss of cell wall integrity, and bacterial cell wall rupture. PBPs are transpeptidases that are responsible for peptidoglycan crosslinking. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefotaxime
A third generation semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefotaxime inhibits mucopeptide synthesis by binding to and inactivating penicillin binding proteins thereby interfering with the final transpeptidation step required for cross-linking of peptidoglycan units which are a component of bacterial cell walls. This results in a reduction of cell wall stability and causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefoxitin sodium
The sodium salt form of cefoxitin, a beta-lactam, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefoxitin sodium binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cefpodoxime proxetil
A third generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin and a beta-lactam antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cefpodoxime's effect is dependent on its binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Binding results in the inhibition of the transpeptidase enzymes, thereby preventing cross-linking of the pentaglycine bridge with the fourth residue of the pentapeptide and interrupting consequent synthesis of peptidoglycan chains. As a result, cefpodoxime inhibits bacterial septum and cell wall synthesis formation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceftazidime sodium
The sodium salt of ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftazidime binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall, resulting in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftazidine also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceftazidime/avibactam sodium
A combination preparation containing the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and the sodium salt form of avibactam, a non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, with antibiotic and beta-lactamase inhibiting activity, respectively. Upon administration, ceftazidime binds to essential penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and inhibits cell wall synthesis in certain bacteria. Avibactam binds to and inactivates beta-lactamases, thereby protecting ceftazidime from degradation and increasing ceftazidime’s efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceftobiprole medocaril
A water-soluble prodrug of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin antibiotic, with bactericidal activity. Ceftobiprole binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), enzymes involved in the terminal stages of bacterial cell wall assembly and cell wall reshaping during bacterial growth and division. This agent exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Ceftobiprole is refractory to hydrolysis by class A and class C lactamases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceftolozane-tazobactam
A combination preparation containing ceftolozane, a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum, fifth-generation cephalosporin and tazobactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, with activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Upon intravenous administration, ceftolozane binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. This interferes with the final transpeptidation step required to form peptidoglycan chain cross-links, which are a key component of and provide strength and rigidity to the bacterial cell wall. This inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and reduces cell wall stability, which weakens the bacterial cell wall and causes bacterial cell lysis. Tazobactam irreversibly inhibits certain penicillinases and cephalosporinases and covalently binds to some chromosomal and plasmid-mediated bacterial beta-lactamases, thereby protecting ceftolozane from degradation and improving ceftolozane’s activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceftriaxone sodium
The sodium salt form of ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Ceftriaxone binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs participate in the terminal stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall, and in reshaping the cell wall during cell division. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to the second and first generation cephalosporins, ceftriaxone is more active against gram-negative bacteria and less active against gram-positive bacteria. Ceftriaxone also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Celebrex
(Other name for: celecoxib)
celecoxib
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a diaryl-substituted pyrazole structure. Celecoxib selectively inhibits cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity (COX-2); COX-2 inhibition may result in apoptosis and a reduction in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Celestone
(Other name for: betamethasone)
Celexa
(Other name for: citalopram hydrobromide)
Celiptium
(Other name for: elliptinium acetate)
cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83
A proprietary agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair antagonist IC83 IC83 inhibits cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes, which may result in enhanced cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents and diminished tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cell cycle checkpoint/DNA repair enzymes are involved in the recognition and repair of damaged DNA and are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cell division inhibitor AK-01
An orally bioavailable agent that inhibits cell division, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, AK-01 inhibits cancer cell division, through an as of yet not elucidated mechanism of action (MoA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cellcept
(Other name for: mycophenolate mofetil)
CEM regimen
A regimen containing carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan used for the treatment of childhood neuroblastoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
cemiplimab-rwlc
A human monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, PCD-1) protein, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, cemiplimab-rwlc binds to PD-1, inhibits its binding to the PD-1 ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and prevents the activation of its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of cytotoxic T cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated T cells, negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligand; it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cenersen
A phosphorothioate oligonucleotide harboring nucleotide sequences complementary to tumor suppressor p53 mRNA. Cenersen hybridizes with p53 mRNA molecules, and induces Rnase H dependent hydrolysis of p53 transcripts in the double stranded section of the hybrids, thereby resulting in loss of p53 production. Loss of p53 activity leads to sensitization of cancer cells to other therapeutics. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cenisertib
An orally bioavailable, synthetic, small-molecule multi-Aurora kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Cenisertib selectively binds to and inhibits multiple Aurora kinases (AKs), which may result in the inhibition of cell division and proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress AKs. Overexpressed in certain tumor cell types, AKs, a family of serine-threonine kinases, are important regulators of cell division and proliferation that are involved in controlling chromatid segregation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cenolate
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
CEOP regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, Oncovin (vincristine), and prednisone which may be used in the treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cepacol
(Other name for: dyclonine hydrochloride)
cephalexin
A beta-lactam, first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with bactericidal activity. Cephalexin binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis. Compared to second and third generation cephalosporins, cephalexin is more active against gram-positive and less active against gram-negative organisms. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceramide
One of a number of a class of sphingolipids, N-acyl derivatives with long chains. Ceramide is the core molecule for the synthesis of sphingomyelin, an essential lipid for myelination and neurotransmission; it may function as a second messenger to stimulate differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceramide nanoliposome
A lipid-based nanoparticle formulation composed of the apoptosis-inducing sphingolipid ceramide encapsulated within nanoliposomes, with potential apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, ceramide nanoliposomes accumulate in the tumor environment, due to the unique properties of the tumor vasculature, and easily enter tumor cells. This delivers ceramide inside the tumor cells, where ceramide induces apoptosis. Although the process is not completely understood, ceramide-dependent apoptosis most likely results from the downregulation of nutrient transporter proteins, which prevents cellular access to extracellular nutrients and causes tumor cell starvation. This selectively destroys tumor cells. Ceramide alone is insoluble and has a very short half-life; therefore, the nanoliposome formulation increases its solubility and half-life. Ceramide plays a key role in the regulation of autophagy, apoptosis, survival and proliferation. Serving as a tumor suppressor lipid, the expression of ceramide is inversely correlated with tumor cell growth, survival and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cerazette
(Other name for: desogestral)
cereblon E3 ubiquitin ligase modulating agent CC-92480
A modulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing cereblon (CRL4-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, cereblon E3 ubiquitin ligase modulating agent CC-92480 specifically binds to cereblon (CRBN), thereby affecting the ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, and targeting certain substrate proteins for ubiquitination. This induces proteasome-mediated degradation of certain transcription factors, some of which are transcriptional repressors in T cells. This leads to modulation of the immune system, including activation of T lymphocytes, and downregulation of the activity of other proteins, some of which play key roles in the proliferation of certain cancer cell types. CRBN, the substrate recognition component of the CRL4-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, plays a key role in the ubiquitination of certain proteins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cereblon modulator CC-90009
A modulator of cereblon (CRBN), which is part of the cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL4-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase; CUL4-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase), with potential immunomodulating and pro-apoptotic activities. Upon administration, CC-90009 specifically binds to CRBN, thereby affecting the activity of the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. This leads to the ubiquitination of certain substrate proteins and induces the proteasome-mediated degradation of certain transcription factors, including Ikaros (IKZF1) and Aiolos (IKZF3), which are transcriptional repressors in T-cells. This reduces the levels of these transcription factors, and modulates the activity of the immune system, which may include the activation of T-lymphocytes. In addition, this downregulates the expression of other proteins, including interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and c-myc, which plays a key role in the proliferation of certain cancer cell types. CRBN, the substrate recognition component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, plays a key role in the ubiquitination of certain proteins. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cerebyx
(Other name for: fosphenytoin sodium)
Cereport
(Other name for: lobradimil)
Cerespan
(Other name for: papaverine hydrochloride)
cergutuzumab amunaleukin
A recombinant fusion protein comprised of cergutuzumab, a genetically engineered human immunoglobulin G1 kappa (IgG1k) monoclonal antibody directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5, CD66e), linked to amunaleukin, an engineered, mutated variant form of interleukin-2 (IL-2v), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of cergutuzumab amunaleukin, the cergutuzumab moiety recognizes and binds to CEA, thereby specifically targeting IL-2v to CEA-expressing tumor tissue. Subsequently, the IL-2v moiety stimulates a local immune response, which activates both natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, and eventually leads to tumor cell killing. CEA is a cell surface protein that is expressed on a wide variety of cancer cells. The mutations found in IL-2v inhibit its binding to IL-2 receptor-alpha (CD25, IL2Ra), which prevents the activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs); however, IL-2v is able to bind to and induce signaling through IL-2Rbetagamma, which allows the preferential expansion of NK cells and CD8-positive T cells. The Fc domain of cergutuzumab is modified to prevent Fc-gamma binding and downstream effector functions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ceritinib
An orally available inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ceritinib binds to and inhibits wild-type ALK kinase, ALK fusion proteins and ALK point mutation variants. Inhibition of ALK leads to both the disruption of ALK-mediated signaling and the inhibition of cell growth in ALK-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
certolizumab
A Fab fragment of a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon administration, certolizumab binds to TNF-alpha, preventing the interaction of this cytokine with endogenous cell surface receptors, thereby rendering TNF-alpha inactive and inhibiting TNF-mediated inflammatory responses. TNF-alpha is a protein involved in inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
certolizumab pegol
A Fab fragment of a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG), with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon administration, certolizumab binds to TNF-alpha and prevents the interaction of this cytokine with endogenous cell surface receptors, thereby rendering TNF-alpha inactive and inhibiting TNF-mediated inflammatory responses. TNF-alpha is a protein involved in inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Pegylation of certolizumab allows for an improved pharmacokinetic profile. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cerubidine
(Other name for: daunorubicin hydrochloride)
Cervarix
(Other name for: recombinant human papillomavirus bivalent vaccine)
Cervene
(Other name for: TGFa-PE38 immunotoxin)
cesium Cs 131
An unstable radioisotope of cesium (Cs) with radiocytotoxic application. Cs-131 is a gamma photon-emitting radionuclide with high energy and a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days. When used in prostate brachytherapy, Cs-131 demonstrated advantages over other commonly used isotopes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cesium Cs 137
A radioactive isotope of cesium with an atomic mass of 139 and potential application in radiotherapy. Cesium Cs 137 is prevalent due to its spontaneous production, which occurs as a result of nuclear fission of other radioactive materials, such as uranium and plutonium. This radionuclide has a relatively long half-life, 30 years, and decays by emitting beta particles. Both Cs 137 and its metastable nuclear isomer, barium-137m, emit gamma radiation of moderate energy and so are used in sterilization procedures in the food industry or in hospital environments. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cEt KRAS antisense oligonucleotide AZD4785
A proprietary formulation composed of a high affinity antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that contains 2'-4' constrained ethyl residues (cEt) and targets KRAS (K-RAS) transcripts, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, cEt KRAS antisense oligonucleotide AZD4785 targets and binds, with high affinity, to a unique genetic sequence within KRAS messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby inhibiting translation of KRAS protein, including forms containing activating mutations. Inhibition of KRAS protein synthesis prevents KRAS-dependent signaling and inhibits the proliferation of KRAS-driven tumor cells. KRAS, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is mutated in a variety of tumor cell types. It plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival and is associated with tumor initiation, metastasis and poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cetacort
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cetane
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
cetrelimab
A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1, PCDC-1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, cetrelimab binds to PD-1, and inhibits the interaction with its ligands, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, PD-1L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2, PD-1L2). The inhibition of ligand binding prevents PD-1-mediated signaling and results in both T-cell activation and the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily transmembrane protein and inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cetuximab
A recombinant, chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Cetuximab binds to the extracellular domain of the EGFR, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation and dimerization may result in an inhibition in signal transduction and anti-proliferative effects. This agent may inhibit EGFR-dependent primary tumor growth and metastasis. EGFR is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cetuximab-IR700 conjugate RM-1929
A chemical conjugate composed of the dye IR700 linked to cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon injection, the cetuximab moiety targets and binds to EGFR-expressing tumor cells, resulting in the internalization of the conjugate. Upon localized application of near-infrared (NIR) light, the IR700 dye becomes activated, disrupts the cell membrane and selectively kills the EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cetuximab-IRDye 800
An immunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab conjugated to the N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form of the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye IRDye 800CW (cetuximab-IRDye 800) with potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of cetuximab-IRDye 800 binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon binding, IRDye 800 may be detected using NIR imaging, which facilitates the visualization and quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cetuximab-loaded ethylcellulose polymeric nanoparticles decorated with octreotide
A preparation of ethylcellulose polymeric nanoparticles loaded with cetuximab, a recombinant, chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor (EGFR), and decorated with the somatostatin analog, octreotide, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the octreotide moiety directs the nanoparticles, which remain inert until a pH of 6.8 is reached, to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which are present on the cell membranes of many neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. At this pH, cetuximab is selectively released from the ethylcellulose polymer. Cetuximab may then bind to the extracellular domain of EGFR-expressing tumor cells, thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor. This may inhibit signal transduction and inhibit tumor cell proliferation in EGFR-dependent tumor cells. EGFR, a member of the EGFR receptor tyrosine kinase family, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CEV regimen
A chemotherapy regimen containing carboplatin, etoposide, and vincristine which may be used in the treatment of pediatric retinoblastoma (RB). (NCI Thesaurus)
Cevalin
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
cevimeline hydrochloride
A cholinergic analogue with glandular secretion stimulatory activity. Cevimeline binds to and activates muscarinic receptors, thereby increasing the secretions in exocrine salivary and sweat glands. This cholinergic agonist also increases the tone of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Cevimeline is being studied as a treatment for dry mouth caused by radiation therapy to the head and neck. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Ce-Vi-Sol
(Other name for: ascorbic acid)
cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382
A small molecule and orally available inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R; cFMS) with potential antineoplastic activity. cFMS tyrosine kinase inhibitor ARRY-382 binds to and inhibits the activity of cFMS. By preventing colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-cFMS signaling, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in cFMS-overexpressing tumor cells. cFMS, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and plays an essential role in macrophage differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation.
chamomile
The flower-heads of either the plant Anthemis nobilis or the plant Matricaria chamomilla. Chamomile has a warm aromatic odour and a very bitter taste and contains volatile oils which are a mixture of butyl and amyl angelates and valerates. Due to its coumarin constituents, large doses may interfere with coagulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chantix
(Other name for: varenicline)
checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762
A synthetic small molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases (Chks) with potential chemosensitizing activity. AZD7762 binds to and inhibits Chks, which may prevent cell cycle arrest and subsequent nucleotide excision repair in DNA-damaged tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Chks are protein kinases that regulate either G1/S or G2/M transitions in the cell cycle. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, Chks become activated and initiate cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or the completion of DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chemet
(Other name for: succimer)
Chemophase
(Other name for: recombinant human hyaluronidase)
chewing gum
A semi-solid composed of synthetic, polymerized polysaccharide and flavorings, intended to be chewed to release active and/or inert ingredient(s). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chiauranib
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of select serine-threonine kinases, including aurora kinase B (aurora B), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT), and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, chiauranib binds to and inhibits the activity of aurora B, VEGFRs, c-kit and PDGFRs, which may result in a decrease in the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. These kinases are overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chimeric costimulatory converting receptor-modified NK-92 cells
A preparation of genetically-modified natural killer (NK) cells derived from the allogeneic NK-92 cell line that are transduced with an as of yet unspecified chimeric costimulatory converting receptor (CCCR) for cancer retargeting purposes, with potential cytolytic, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon infusion of the CCCR-modified NK-92 cells, the redirected NK cells recognize and bind to tumor cells. This leads to the secretion and release of perforins, granzymes, cytokines and chemokines, which results in selective tumor cell lysis. The NK-92 cells are derived from a human cytotoxic cell line composed of allogeneic, activated, interleukin-2-(IL-2) dependent-NK cells from a 50-year old male patient with rapidly progressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. As NK-92 cells are devoid of killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs; also called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors), which are negative regulators of NK cell activity, cancer cells are unable to suppress the cancer cell killing ability of the NK-92 cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chimeric fibril-reactive monoclonal antibody 111F4
A chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically targeting human immunoglobulin light chain (LC)-related fibrils, which may potentially be used in the treatment of light chain-associated (AL) amyloidosis. Upon administration, chimeric fibril-reactive monoclonal antibody 111F4 targets and binds to the amyloid-related, conformational epitope on LC-related fibrils. This inhibits fibrillogenesis, induces an Fc-mediated cellular inflammatory response, increases degradation and elimination of AL amyloidomas, and prevents systemic LC-associated amyloid deposits. In AL amyloidosis the amyloid fibrils are composed of immunoglobulin light chain fragments. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chimeric humanized anti-CD47 antibody
A humanized, high-chimeric antibody targeting the human cell surface antigen CD47, with potential phagocytosis-inducing and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, chimeric humanized anti-CD47 antibody selectively binds to CD47 expressed on tumor cells and blocks the interaction of CD47 with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa), a protein expressed on phagocytic cells. This prevents CD47/SIRPa-mediated signaling and abrogates the CD47/SIRPa-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. This induces pro-phagocytic signaling mediated by the binding of calreticulin (CRT), which is specifically expressed on the surface of tumor cells, to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1), expressed on macrophages. This results in macrophage activation and the specific phagocytosis of tumor cells. In addition, blocking CD47 signaling activates both an anti-tumor T-lymphocyte immune response and T cell-mediated killing of CD47-expressing tumor cells. CD47, also called integrin-associated protein (IAP), is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on normal, healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and overexpressed on the surface of a variety of cancer cells. Expression of CD47, and its interaction with SIRPa, leads to the inhibition of macrophage activation and protects cancer cells from phagocytosis, thereby allowing cancer cells to proliferate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chinese herbal formulation LC09
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction containing Herba Epimedii that can be used for chemotherapy-induced hand-foot syndrome (HFS; Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia; PPE). Soaking of the affected hands and feet with TCM Formula LC09 may reduce the severity of HFS and may decrease HFS-associated pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chinese herbal formulation PHY906
An oral traditional Chinese herbal formulation in powder form containing a spray dried aqueous extract from the herbs Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba and Paeonia lactiflora with potential immunomodulating and chemoprotective activities. Although the mechanism of actions remain to be fully elucidated, PHY906 possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities such as the enhancement of oral uptake of pharmacologically active agents, inhibition of CYP3A4, modulation of certain cytokines, macrophages and lymphocytes, and inhibition of expression of MMP, NF-kB, beta-glucuronidase, the NK-1 receptor, and the delta-opioid receptor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chinese herbal medicine YQ1
A Chinese herbal medicine, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Although the mechanism of action is currently unknown, upon administration, YQ1 may cause an induction of apoptosis and an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. YQ1 might target cancer stem cells (CSCs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chinese herbs
Herbs used in Chinese Herbal Therapy for toxicity attenuation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ChiNing decoction
A decoction of Liang Ge San, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, with potential anti-inflammatory and anti-stomatitis activities. Although the complete mechanism of action through which the ChiNing decoction works has yet to be fully elucidated, upon oral administration, the active ingredients may inhibit the inflammatory response, possibly by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa), in the saliva. This may protect the oral mucosa against these inflammatory mediators, and may reduce and relieve radiation-induced stomatitis and the associated pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ChiRhoStim
(Other name for: synthetic human secretin)
Chirocaine
(Other name for: levobupivacaine hydrochloride)
chitin oligosaccharides supplement T-ChOS
A proprietary, nutritional supplement comprised of chitooligosaccharides extracted from deproteinized and demineralized crustacean shells. Upon administration, chitin oligosaccharides supplement T-ChOS may increase stamina and boost energy. In addition, the chitooligosaccharides may stimulate chondrocyte growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chk1 inhibitor CCT245737
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1), with potential antineoplastic and chemosensitization activities. Upon oral administration, chk1 inhibitor CCT245737 selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing chk1 activity and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA, inhibition of cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. CCT245737 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control and is essential for DNA repair; it plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by repairing DNA damage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chk1 inhibitor GDC-0425
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1), with potential antineoplastic and chemosensitization activities. Upon oral administration, chk1 inhibitor GDC-0425 selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing activity of chk1 and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA, inhibition of cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. GDC-0425 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, an ATP-dependent serine/threonine kinase, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control, is essential for DNA repair, and plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chk1 inhibitor GDC-0575
A small molecule inhibitor of cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), with potential chemosensitization activity. Chk1 inhibitor GDC-0575 specifically binds to and inhibits Chk1; this may result in tumor cells bypassing Chk1-dependent cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases, which permits the cells to undergo DNA repair prior to entry into mitosis. Therefore, Chk1 inhibition may sensitize tumor cells to the DNA damaging effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1 is an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates cdc25 phosphatases in response to DNA damage. This results in both inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin complexes and cell cycle arrest, which facilitates DNA damage repair. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chk1 inhibitor PF-477736
A proprietary compound targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential chemopotentiation activity. Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 inhibits chk1, an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that is a key component in the DNA replication-monitoring S/G2 checkpoint system. By overriding the last checkpoint defense against DNA damaging agent-induced lethal damage, chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents against tumor cells with intrinsic checkpoint defects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776
An agent targeting cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) with potential radiosensitization and chemosensitization activities. Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 specifically binds to and inhibits Chk1, which may result in tumor cells bypassing Chk1-dependent cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases to undergo DNA repair prior to entry into mitosis; tumor cells may thus be sensitized to the DNA-damaging effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1 is an ATP-dependent serine-threonine kinase that in response to DNA damage phosphorylates cdc25 phosphatases, resulting in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and cell cycle arrest. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorambucil
An orally-active antineoplastic aromatic nitrogen mustard. Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, resulting in disruption of DNA function, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorambucil-prednisone regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of chlorambucil and prednisone used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chloraprep
(Other name for: chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol mouthwash)
chlorhexidine
A biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity. Chlorhexidine is positively charged and reacts with the negatively charged microbial cell surface, thereby destroying the integrity of the cell membrane. Subsequently, chlorhexidine penetrates into the cell and causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Since gram positive bacteria are more negatively charged, they are more sensitive to this agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorhexidine gluconate
The gluconate salt form of chlorhexidine, a biguanide compound used as an antiseptic agent with topical antibacterial activity. Chlorhexidine gluconate is positively charged and reacts with the negatively charged microbial cell surface, thereby destroying the integrity of the cell membrane. Subsequently, chlorhexidine gluconate penetrates into the cell and causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Since gram positive bacteria are more negatively charged, they are more sensitive to this agent. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol mouthwash
A mouthwash containing the biguanide chlorhexidine and ethyl alcohol, with topical antibacterial activity. Upon rinsing the oral cavity with the chlorhexidine/ethyl alcohol mouthwash, the positively charged chlorhexidine cation exerts its antibacterial activity through binding to the negatively charged microbial cell surface, which destroys the integrity of the cell membrane. This causes leakage of intracellular components leading to cell death. Ethyl alcohol denatures bacterial proteins, and dissolves and disrupts the bacterial lipid membrane, thereby killing the bacteria. This reduces oral colonization with harmful bacteria and may prevent oral mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorine dioxide sterilization
A sterilization process that uses chlorine dioxide at ambient temperatures to kill microorganisms. This process can be used in large spaces. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorogenic acid
A polyphenol and the ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid that is found in coffee and black tea, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Chlorogenic acid scavenges free radicals, which inhibits DNA damage and may protect against the induction of carcinogenesis. In addition, this agent may upregulate the expression of genes involved in the activation of the immune system and enhance activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells. Chlorogenic acid also inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chloroquine
A 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. This agent may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Chloroquine's potential chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities in cancer may be related to its inhibition of autophagy, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide
A chlorinated heterocyclic sulfanilamide with potential antineoplastic activity and potential immunosuppressive activity. Chloroquinoxaline sulfonamide poisons topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta, thereby causing double-stranded breaks in DNA, accumulation of unrepaired DNA, and apoptosis. This agent also exhibits lymphotoxicity by inhibiting lymphocyte activation in a cell cycle-specific manner. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorotoxin-indocyanine green imaging Agent BLZ-100
A tumor-targeting imaging agent composed of the tumor-specific peptide chlorotoxin (CTX), a 36-amino acid neurotoxin found in the venom of the Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion, linked to the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG), with potential tumor imaging activity using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging system. Upon intravenous administration of BLZ-100, the CTX moiety of BLZ-100 specifically binds to and is internalized by cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin. Using a NIR imaging system, the ICG, which emits light in the NIR range, permits the intraoperative visualization of tumor cells. This leads to the clear distinction of healthy tissues from tumor cells, and facilitates the surgical removal of tumor tissue while sparing normal, healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorozotocin
A glucose-linked chloroethylnitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Chlorozotocin alkylates DNA and proteins, induces the formation of interstrand DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks, and causes DNA strand breakage, thereby damaging DNA and resulting in cell death. This agent has been shown to exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory effects in cell lines and animal models. Chlorozotocin is a mutagen and is less myelotoxic than other nitrosoureas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorpromazine
A phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity. Chlorpromazine exerts its antipsychotic effect by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in cortical and limbic areas of the brain, thereby preventing the excess of dopamine in the brain. This leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Chlorpromazine appears to exert its anti-emetic activity by blocking the dopamine receptors in the chemical trigger zone (CTZ) in the brain, thereby relieving nausea and vomiting. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorpropamide
A long-acting, first-generation sulfonylurea with hypoglycemic activity. Compared to other sulfonylureas, chlorpropamide has an increased risk of prolonged hypoglycemia because of its long half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chlorzoxazone
A benzoxazolone derivative with mild sedative and centrally-acting muscle relaxant activities. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, chlorzoxazone (CZ) appears to act at the spinal cord and subcortical levels of the brain to inhibit multisynaptic reflex arcs involved in producing and maintaining muscle spasms. This agent is extensively hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (HCZ),11,12 which is subsequently glucuronidated and eliminated renally. Highly selective for CYP2E1, CZ may be used as a selective probe for phenotyping CYP2E1 in humans; the ratio of HCZ-to-CZ plasma concentrations obtained 2 to 4 hours after oral administration of CZ may be used as a phenotypic measure of CYP2E1 enzymatic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cholecalciferol
A steroid hormone produced in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light or obtained from dietary sources. The active form of cholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) plays an important role in maintaining blood calcium and phosphorus levels and mineralization of bone. The activated form of cholecalciferol binds to vitamin D receptors and modulates gene expression. This leads to an increase in serum calcium concentrations by increasing intestinal absorption of phosphorus and calcium, promoting distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increasing osteoclastic resorption. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cholecalciferol/d-alpha tocopherol/L-selenomethionine/green tea extract/saw palmetto berry extract/daidzein/genistein/lycopene prostate health supplement
A dietary supplement consisting of a blend of 8 natural ingredients with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. This dietary supplement contains vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol), vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol), selenium (as L-selenomethionine), epigallocatechin (green tea extract), saw palmetto (berry extract), lycopene, and the isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein. This combination preparation may decrease prostate cell growth and inhibit prostate carcinogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cholecalciferol/whey protein isolate/EPA/DHA-based nutritional supplement
A gluten-free, energy-rich, non-complete nutritional supplement drink composed of juice from the concentrates of apple pear, pomegranate, purple chokeberry and passion fruit, plus fish oil derived from salmon and cod, the minerals potassium, phosphorus and iodine, whey protein isolate derived from cow’s milk, tocopherols (vitamin E), and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) with potential anti-cachexic activity. Upon oral intake of the cholecalciferol/whey protein isolate/EPA/DHA-based nutritional supplement, the protein components maintain digestive health throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reduce the risk of digestive complications. The essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the fish oil are incorporated into cell membranes and affect the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, which elicits an anti-inflammatory effect. Cholecalciferol plays an important role in maintaining bone mineralization and regulating blood calcium and phosphorus levels. Tocopherols neutralize free radicals, thereby protecting tissues and organs from oxidative damage. In particular, alpha-tocopherol gets incorporated into biological membranes, maintains cell membrane integrity and protects the cell against damage. This nutritional supplement may prevent both malnutrition and weight loss. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CholestaGel
(Other name for: colesevelam hydrochloride)
Choletec
(Other name for: technetium Tc 99m mebrofenin)
cholic acid-24-13C
A preparation of carbon C 13-labeled cholic acid with potential diagnostic applications. Upon intravenous administration, cholic acid-24-13C levels may be used to measure first pass hepatic extraction of cholate, which is influenced primarily by portal blood flow and portal-systemic shunt. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cholic-2,2,4,4-D4 acid
A deuterated form of cholic acid with potential diagnostic applications. Upon intravenous administration, cholic-2,2,4,4-D4 acid levels may be used to measure first pass hepatic extraction of cholate, which is influenced primarily by portal blood flow and portal-systemic shunt. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
choline kinase alpha inhibitor TCD-717
A small-molecule inhibitor of choline kinase alpha (CHKA), with potential antineoplastic activity. TCD-717 targets and binds to CHKA, an enzyme that plays a key role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Blockade of this enzyme induces cells to activate a different route for phospholipid production which causes a toxic effect and eventually leads to cell destruction. CHKA, overexpressed in human cancer cells while only minimally expressed in normal cells, appears to play a significant role in cellular proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, increased cell motility and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
choline magnesium trisalicylate
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) belonging to the salicylate family. Choline magnesium trisalicylate inhibits inflammation-related prostaglandin synthesis. This agent's analgesic effect is mediated through peripheral and central pathways, resulting in a decrease in pain perception; its antipyretic effect is mediated via the hypothalamic heat regulation center. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CHOP regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride (doxorubicin hydrochloride), vincristine and prednisone used to treat both indolent and aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001
A peptide cancer vaccine containing nanoparticles of cholesteryl hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) complexed with the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 protein, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CHP-NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine IMF-001 may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. The self-aggregating CHP, composed of a pullulan backbone and cholesterol branches, forms stable colloidal nanoparticles in water. NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis, is upregulated in various cancers, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
chromomycin A3
A glycosidic antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. Chromomycin A3 reversibly binds to guanine-cytosine (G-C) base pairs in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis. This agent is used as a fluorescent chromosome dye. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cialis
(Other name for: tadalafil)
cibisatamab
An anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/anti-CD3 bispecific monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Cibisatamab contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T-cell surface antigen, and one for human CEA, a tumor-associated antigen that is specifically expressed on certain tumor cells. Upon intravenous administration, cibisatamab binds to both T cells and CEA-expressing tumor cells, which cross-links the T cells with the tumor cells. This may result in a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA is overexpressed in many cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ciclopirox olamine lotion
A lotion preparation of the olamine salt of ciclopirox, a synthetic hydroxypyridone derivative with broad-spectrum antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ciclopirox may chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+ and Al3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential metal co-factors for enzymes, which may result in a loss of enzyme activities that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure, and other crucial cell functions in a wide variety of fungal species. This agent may also disrupt DNA repair, cell division signals and mitotic spindles as well as some elements of intracellular transport in susceptible fungi. Ciclopirox exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ciclopirox olamine oral
An aqueous suspension of the olamine salt form of ciclopirox, a synthetic, broad-spectrum hydroxypyridone antifungal agent with additional antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Although the exact mechanism of action of ciclopirox has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent is able to chelate trivalent cations, such as Fe3+, thereby inhibiting the availability of essential co-factors for enzymes. This may lead to a loss of activity of enzymes that are essential for cellular metabolism, organization of cell wall structure and other crucial cell functions. In addition, ciclopirox exerts its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (COX). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ciclopirox prodrug CPX-POM
A phosphoryloxymethyl (POM) ester-based prodrug of ciclopirox (CPX), a synthetic, broad-spectrum antifungal agent with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration of CPX-POM, the POM moiety is cleaved off by phosphatases and the active metabolite CPX is released. Although its exact anticancer mechanism is not yet fully elucidated, CPX has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and reduce tumor cell mobility in certain cancer types. CPX inhibits Notch1 activation and inhibits the Notch1-mediated signaling pathway, which is upregulated in many cancer cell types. This inhibits Notch downstream target proteins, inhibits the expression of gamma-secretase complex proteins, and prevents proliferation in susceptible cancer cells. CPX inhibits the iron-containing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, which facilitate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative stress. CPX also inhibits the iron-dependent enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, which is essential in DNA synthesis. CPX downregulates protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1, as well as their enzymatic counterparts cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 2 (CDK4 and CDK2), which may inhibit tumor cell proliferation by slowing cell cycle progression from G1/G0 to S phase. Further, CPX may induce apoptosis by downregulating the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xL and survivin, and increasing cleavage of Bcl-2. Additionally, CPX may inhibit tumor cell proliferation, survival and motility by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), two downstream effector molecules of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The CPX-POM prodrug improves the solubility of CPX and increases systemic efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cidan herbal capsule
A capsule-based formulation containing artificial bezoar, Strychni pulveratum (strychnos powder), camphol alcohol (borneol or borneo camphor) and extracts from Zedoary rhizome (Rhizoma curcumae), Pseudobulbus cremastrae seu pleiones (dried pseudobulb of Cremastra appendiculata), Yatantzu (seed of Brucca javanica), beehive, Bombyx mori (Bombyx batryticatus or silkworm), Danshen (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza or red sage root), Radix astragali, and Angelica, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of the cidan herbal capsule, the active ingredients in the plant extracts may induce tumor cell apoptosis and reduce tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cidofovir
A synthetic, acyclic, monophosphate nucleotide analog of deoxycytidine with antiviral activity, and mostly used against cytomegalovirus (CMV). After incorporation into the host cell, cidofovir is phosphorylated by pyruvate kinases to its active metabolite cidofovir diphosphate. Cidofovir diphosphate, bearing structural similarity to nucleotides, competes with deoxycytosine-5-triphosphate (dCTP) for viral DNA polymerase and gets incorporated into the growing viral DNA strands. As a result, it prevents further DNA polymerization and disrupts DNA replication of viruses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cilengitide
A cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide with potential antineoplastic activity. Cilengitide binds to and inhibits the activities of the alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrins, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell-cell interactions, endothelial cell-matrix interactions, and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cimetidine
A histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist. Enhancing anti-tumor cell-mediated responses, cimetidine blocks histamine's ability to stimulate suppressor T lymphocyte activity and to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell activity and interleukin-2 production. Cimetidine also may inhibit tumor growth by suppressing histamine's growth-factor activity and blocking histamine-induced stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic growth factor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cimzia
(Other name for: certolizumab pegol)
cinacalcet hydrochloride
The orally bioavailable hydrochloride salt of the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Cinacalcet increases the sensitivity of calcium-sensing receptors on chief cells in the parathyroid gland to extracellular calcium, thereby reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. A reduction in PTH levels inhibits osteoclast activity, which may result in a decrease in cortical bone turnover and bone fibrosis, and normalization of serum calcium and phosphorus levels. In addition, by reducing PTH levels, cinacalcet may reduce PSA levels; PTH appears to raise PSA levels and may increase prostate cancer cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cinnamomum cassia capsules
A formulation containing Cassia cinnamon obtained from the dried inner bark of the evergreen tree Cinnamomum (C.) cassia (Chinese cassia; Chinese cinnamon), that is used as a nutritional supplement for a variety of purposes. Upon oral administration of the C. cassia (C. aromaticum) capsules, the cinnamon may be able to improve the menstrual cycle and induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, cinnamon may be able to improve metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It may also improve insulin sensitivity and help maintain blood glucose levels. It also has some activity against bacteria and fungi. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cinobufagin
A bufadienolide compound extracted from the dried venom secreted by the parotid glands of toads and one of the glycosides in the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the mechanism of action of cinobufagin is still under investigation, it has been found to suppress cancer cell proliferation and cause apoptosis in cancer cells via a sequence of apoptotic modulators that include mitochondrial Bax and cytosolic chromosome c, and caspases 3, 8, and 9. Possible upstream mediators of cinobufagin-induced apoptosis include Fas and p53. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cinobufotalin
A bufadienolide isolated from toad venom and utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for its cardiotonic, diuretic and hemostatic effects, with potential cytotoxic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration and although the exact mechanism of action(s) (MoAs) through which this agent exerts its effects have yet to be fully discovered, cinobufotalin causes DNA fragmentation, decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increases intracellular calcium (Ca2+) ion concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, upregulates Fas protein and activates cytochrome C, various caspases, Bid and Bax. This causes cell cycle arrest, induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor cell growth and survival. In addition, cinobufotalin inhibits the activity of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and induces pro-apoptotic ceramide production, which further promotes tumor cell apoptosis. Cinobufotalin also induces mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D (Cyp-D)-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which may contribute to cinobufotalin-induced non-apoptotic death of certain tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cintredekin besudotox
A recombinant chimeric protein with potent antitumor activity. Cintredekin besudotox is composed of interleukin-13 (IL13), a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine, linked to a mutated form of pseudomonas exotoxin A; this agent targets and kills tumor cells that express the IL13 receptor (IL13R).The IL13 moiety attaches to the IL13R on the tumor cell membrane, facilitating the entry of the exotoxin. The exotoxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cipro
(Other name for: ciprofloxacin)
ciprofloxacin
A synthetic broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme essential for DNA replication. This agent is more active against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Circadin
(Other name for: therapeutic melatonin)
cirmtuzumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of the human receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, cirmtuzumab binds to ROR1 and blocks ROR1-mediated signaling. This prevents tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells overexpressing ROR1. ROR1, also known as neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor-related 1 (NTRKR1), is normally expressed during embryogenesis. It is overexpressed in certain leukemias and solid tumors, but minimally expressed in healthy cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cisatracurium besylate
A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant of the benzylisoquinolinium class. Cisatracurium besylate acts as a competitive acetylcholine antagonist that binds to nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Compared to other neuromuscular blocking agents, it is intermediate in its onset and duration of action. Cisatracurium besylate is used to maintain neuromuscular relaxation during major surgical procedures, primarily to facilitate endotracheal intubation. Cisatracurium besylate can cause bronchospasms, hypotension, and bradycardia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cisplatin
An inorganic platinum agent (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) with antineoplastic activity. Cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cisplatin transmucosal patch
A transmucosal patch containing cisplatin, an inorganic platinum agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon mucosal application to the tumor site in the oral cavity, and upon subsequent release from the patch, cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and growth inhibition of tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cisplatin/vinblastine/cell penetration enhancer formulation INT230-6
A formulation composed of three agents in a fixed ratio: two chemotherapeutic agents, the platinum compound cisplatin and the vinca alkaloid vinblastine, and a proprietary amphiphilic excipient that acts as a penetration enhancer, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intra-tumoral (IT) injection of INT230-6, the dispersion/cell penetration enhancer excipient of INT230-6 facilitates dispersion of the two drugs throughout the tumor tissue and enables increased cellular uptake of these agents into tumor cells. Once inside the cell, cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, which results in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Vinblastine kills the tumor cells through binding to tubulin and thereby inhibits microtubule formation, resulting in disruption of the mitotic spindle assembly and cell cycle arrest of tumor. In addition, the tumor cell killing leads to recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) and induces a tumor-specific T-cell-mediated immune response that attacks both the injected tumor and distant tumor lesions. Local administration of both cisplatin and vinblastine, without the diffusion/penetration enhancer, results in to poor diffusion and a lack of cellular uptake of the agents; INT230-6 increases the intracellular concentration of cisplatin and vinblastine, thereby improving efficacy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cisplatin-e therapeutic implant
An injectable gel comprised of a collagen matrix containing the inorganic platinum (Pt) agent cisplatin and the sympathomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, cisplatin forms highly reactive, positively charged, platinum complexes, which covalently bind to nucleophilic groups in DNA, preferably at the N7 position of guanine bases. This induces both intra- and inter-strand DNA cross-links. In addition, cisplatin forms DNA-Pt-protein cross-links. Cross-link formation results in both the induction of apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to both enhance the penetration of cisplatin into tumor tissue and reduce its dispersion into the surrounding tissues. Intratumoral injection of cisplatin-E therapeutic implant may increase local chemotherapeutic efficacy, as compared to the systemic administration of cisplatin, while reducing its systemic toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cistane
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
cis-urocanic acid
A derivative of the amino acid histidine, formed in the mammalian skin from trans-urocanic acid upon ultraviolet radiation, and protodynamic agent, with potential anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity. Upon intravesical instillation of cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), this agent is protonated at the imidazolyl moiety in the mildly acidic extracellular tumor environment and penetrates into the cancer cell. Once inside the cell and due to the slightly alkaline pH inside the tumor cell, cis-UCA is deprotonated, i.e. the imidazolyl proton is released into the cytosol which eventually raises the intracellular acidity. This acidification impairs many cellular processes, such as metabolic activity, and may lead to cell cycle arrest, an induction of cellular apoptosis and necrotic cell death. In addition, cis-UCA enhances ERK and JNK signaling pathways by inhibiting the activity of serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
citalopram hydrobromide
The orally bioavailable hydrobromide salt of the racemic bicyclic phthalene derivative citalopram with antidepressant activity. As a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram selectively inhibits the CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin, thereby potentiating serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). This agent has minimal effects on the CNS neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Citanest
(Other name for: prilocaine hydrochloride)
citatuzumab bogatox
A fusion protein immunotoxin consisting of a humanized, single-chain monoclonal antibody Fab fragment specific for the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) conjugated with a modified bouganin cytotoxin with potential antineoplastic activity. Citatuzumab bogatox binds to EpCAM, delivering modified bouganin cytotoxin directly to EpCam-positive tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell protein synthesis and tumor cell death. EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Bouganin is a plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), a toxic plant N-glycosidase that depurinates the universally conserved alpha-sarcin loop of ribosomal rRNA, inactivating the ribosome and preventing protein synthesis. Compared to unmodified bouganins, modified bouganins may have a reduced propensity to activate human T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
citicoline
A nutritional supplement and source of choline and cytidine with potential neuroprotective and nootropic activity. Citicoline, also known as cytidine-5-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline, is hydrolyzed into cytidine and choline in the intestine. Following absorption, both cytidine and choline are dispersed, utilized in various biosynthesis pathways, and cross the blood-brain barrier for resynthesis into citicoline in the brain, which is the rate-limiting product in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. This agent also increases acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, citicoline is involved in the preservation of sphingomyelin and cardiolipin and the restoration of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Citicoline also increases glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity, and exerts antiapoptotic effects.
Citracal
(Other name for: calcium citrate)
Citroma
(Other name for: magnesium citrate)
Civacir
(Other name for: hepatitis C immune globulin intravenous)
cixutumumab
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Cixutumumab selectively binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, thereby preventing the binding of the natural ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Downregulation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway may result in the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and may decrease cancer cellular proliferation. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily overexpressed by many cancer cell types, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300
A synthetic peptide targeting the substrates of casein kinase 2 (CK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and nucleolar localization, CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300 binds to phosphoacceptor sites on the CK2’s substrates, in particular the oncoprotein nucleophosmin (B23 or NPM1). This blocks the activation of B23 and induces apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth in susceptible tumor cells. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival. Overexpression of B23 has been correlated with increased cellular growth and proliferation as well as inhibition of differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Kit inhibitor PLX9486
An orally bioavailable protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor of mutated forms of the tumor-associated antigen mast/stem cell factor receptor c-Kit (SCFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, c-Kit inhibitor PLX9486 binds to and inhibits specific c-Kit mutants. This may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cell types that overexpress these c-Kit mutations. c-Kit, a transmembrane protein and receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in solid tumors and hematological malignancies; it plays a key role in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cladribine
A purine nucleoside antimetabolite analogue. Cladribine triphosphate, a phosphorylated metabolite of cladribine, incorporates into DNA, resulting in single-strand breaks in DNA, depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and apoptosis. Because this agent is resistant to adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that inactivates some antineoplastic agents, it is selectively toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes which exhibit little deoxynucleotide deaminase activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Claforan
(Other name for: cefotaxime)
Claravis
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
Clarinol
(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)
clarithromycin
A semisynthetic 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic. Clarithromycin binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis in susceptible organisms. Clarithromycin has been shown to eradicate gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas, presumably due to the eradication of tumorigenic Helicobacter pylori infection. This agent also acts as a biological response modulator, possibly inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth through alterations in growth factor expression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Claritin
(Other name for: loratadine)
Class 1 PI3K family inhibitor XL147
An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Class 1 PI3K kinase family inhibitor XL147 reversibly binds to class 1 PI3Ks in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K signaling pathway; this may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents including genotoxic agents and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion
An injectable phospholipid emulsion containing the butyrate salt of the synthetic, short-acting, dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel antagonist clevidipine with antihypertensive activity. Clevidipine specifically binds to calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting the influx of extracellular calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells. This results in dilatation of systemic arteries, a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and so a decrease in arterial blood pressure. This agent is metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cleviprex
(Other name for: clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion)
clevudine
A synthetic pyrimidine analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Intracellularly, clevudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolites, clevudine monophosphate and triphosphate. The triphosphate metabolite competes with thymidine for incorporation into viral DNA, thereby causing DNA chain termination and inhibiting the function of HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). Clevudine has a long half-life and shows significant reduction of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), therefore the patient is less likely to have a relapse after treatment is discontinued. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clindamycin phosphate
The phosphate salt form of clindamycin, a semi-synthetic, chlorinated broad spectrum antibiotic produced by chemical modification of lincomycin. Clindamycin phosphate is used in topical preparations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clindamycin/hydrocortisone lotion
A topical lotion, containing clindamycin and hydrocortisone, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Clindamycin, a lincomycin antibiotic, binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. As a glucocorticoid agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ClinOleic
(Other name for: olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion)
Clinoril
(Other name for: sulindac)
Clino-San vaginal lubricant
A vaginal lubricant formulated as a topical gel used to prevent and treat vaginal dryness. With a pH similar to that of normal vaginal discharge, Clino-San vaginal lubricant may reduce dryness, pain and irritation often caused by insufficient vaginal discharge due to atrophy of the vulvovaginal mucosa. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clioquinol
An orally bioavailable, lipophilic, copper-binding, halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline with antifungal, antiparasitic and potential antitumor activities. Clioquinol forms a stable chelate with copper (copper (II) ions), which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome; consequently, ubiquitinated proteins may accumulate in tumor cells, followed by tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the clioquinol-copper complex appears to decrease the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human copper-enriched prostate cancer cells. Serum levels of copper are often elevated in patients with cancer; copper chelation may inhibit copper-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and tumor secretion of angiogenic factors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clobetasol propionate
The propionate salt form of clobetasol, a topical synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Clobetasol propionate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators. Specifically, clobetasol propionate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clodronate disodium
The disodium salt of a nitrogen-free bisphosphonate analog of naturally occurring pyrophosphate. Clodronate binds to calcium and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and hydroxyapatite crystal formation and dissolution, resulting in a reduction of bone turnover. This agent may control malignancy-associated hypercalcemia, inhibit osteolytic bone metastasis and decrease pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clofarabine
A second generation purine nucleoside analog with antineoplastic activity. Clofarabine is phosphorylated intracellularly to the cytotoxic active 5'-triphosphate metabolite, which inhibits the enzymatic activities of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerase, resulting in inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis of DNA and RNA. This nucleoside analog also disrupts mitochondrial function and membrane integrity, resulting in the release of pre-apoptotic factors, including cytochrome C and apoptotic-inducing factor, which activate apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clofibrate
An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Clolar
(Other name for: clofarabine)