NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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cixutumumab
A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Cixutumumab selectively binds to membrane-bound IGF-1R, thereby preventing the binding of the natural ligand IGF-1 and the subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Downregulation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway may result in the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and may decrease cancer cellular proliferation. IGF-1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor superfamily overexpressed by many cancer cell types, stimulates cell proliferation, enables oncogenic transformation, and suppresses apoptosis; IGF-1R signaling has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CK1alpha/CDK7/CDK9 inhibitor BTX-A51
The ditosylated salt of A51, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of casein kinase 1alpha (CK1alpha) and cyclin-dependent kinases 7 and 9 (CDK7 and CDK9), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, BTX-A51 binds to and inhibits the activity of CK1alpha, CDK7, and CDK9. Blocking the phosphorylation and kinase activity of CK1alpha prevents the enhanced binding of murine double minute X (MDMX) to p53, the formation of CK1alpha and MDM2 complex, and the resulting inhibition of p53. This induces p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, slowing tumor cell proliferation. Blocking the phosphorylation and kinase activity of CDK7 and CDK9 prevents the positive transcription elongation factor b (PTEFb)-mediated activation of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) and leads to the inhibition of gene transcription of various anti-apoptotic proteins. This also induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, slowing tumor cell proliferation. CK1alpha, a serine/threonine kinase and a leukemic stem cell target, acts as a tumor suppressor in several cancers through the negative regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and p53. It negatively regulates p53 by phosphorylating MDMX, thus enhancing binding of MDMX to p53, as well as by forming a complex with MDM2. CDK7, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a role in controlling cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and promotes the expression of key oncogenes such as c-Myc through the phosphorylation of RNA Pol II. CDK9, also a serine/threonine kinase, regulates elongation of transcription through phosphorylation of RNA Pol II at serine 2 (p-Ser2-RNAPII). It is upregulated in various tumor cell types and plays a key role in the regulation of RNA Pol II-mediated transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins. Tumor cells are dependent on anti-apoptotic proteins for their survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300
A synthetic peptide targeting the substrates of casein kinase 2 (CK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and nucleolar localization, CK2-targeting synthetic peptide CIGB-300 binds to phosphoacceptor sites on the CK2’s substrates, in particular the oncoprotein nucleophosmin (B23 or NPM1). This blocks the activation of B23 and induces apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth in susceptible tumor cells. CK2, a protein kinase often overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, appears to be correlated with malignant transformation, tumor growth and survival. Overexpression of B23 has been correlated with increased cellular growth and proliferation as well as inhibition of differentiation and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Kit inhibitor PLX9486
An orally bioavailable protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor of mutated forms of the tumor-associated antigen mast/stem cell factor receptor c-Kit (SCFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, c-Kit inhibitor PLX9486 binds to and inhibits specific c-Kit mutants. This may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cell types that overexpress these c-Kit mutations. c-Kit, a transmembrane protein and receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in solid tumors and hematological malignancies; it plays a key role in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cladribine
A purine nucleoside antimetabolite analogue. Cladribine triphosphate, a phosphorylated metabolite of cladribine, incorporates into DNA, resulting in single-strand breaks in DNA, depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and apoptosis. Because this agent is resistant to adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that inactivates some antineoplastic agents, it is selectively toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes which exhibit little deoxynucleotide deaminase activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Claforan
(Other name for: cefotaxime)
Claravis
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
Clarinol
(Other name for: conjugated linoleic acid)
clarithromycin
A semisynthetic 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic. Clarithromycin binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis in susceptible organisms. Clarithromycin has been shown to eradicate gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas, presumably due to the eradication of tumorigenic Helicobacter pylori infection. This agent also acts as a biological response modulator, possibly inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth through alterations in growth factor expression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Claritin
(Other name for: loratadine)
Class 1 PI3K family inhibitor XL147
An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Class 1 PI3K kinase family inhibitor XL147 reversibly binds to class 1 PI3Ks in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K signaling pathway; this may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents including genotoxic agents and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
class 1/4 histone deacetylase inhibitor OKI-179
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) subtypes 1 and 4, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, class 1/4 HDAC inhibitor OKI-179 targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of HDAC1/4. This results in an accumulation of highly acetylated chromatin histones, the induction of chromatin remodeling and an altered pattern of gene expression. This consequently results in a selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes, tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and an induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress HDAC1/4. HDAC, which is upregulated in many tumor cell types, deacetylates chromatin histone proteins and plays a key role in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle progression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion
An injectable phospholipid emulsion containing the butyrate salt of the synthetic, short-acting, dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel antagonist clevidipine with antihypertensive activity. Clevidipine specifically binds to calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting the influx of extracellular calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells. This results in dilatation of systemic arteries, a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and so a decrease in arterial blood pressure. This agent is metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues to an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cleviprex
(Other name for: clevidipine butyrate injectable emulsion)
clevudine
A synthetic pyrimidine analogue with activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Intracellularly, clevudine is phosphorylated to its active metabolites, clevudine monophosphate and triphosphate. The triphosphate metabolite competes with thymidine for incorporation into viral DNA, thereby causing DNA chain termination and inhibiting the function of HBV DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). Clevudine has a long half-life and shows significant reduction of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), therefore the patient is less likely to have a relapse after treatment is discontinued. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clindamycin phosphate
The phosphate salt form of clindamycin, a semi-synthetic, chlorinated broad spectrum antibiotic produced by chemical modification of lincomycin. Clindamycin phosphate is used in topical preparations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clindamycin/hydrocortisone lotion
A topical lotion, containing clindamycin and hydrocortisone, with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Clindamycin, a lincomycin antibiotic, binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. As a glucocorticoid agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
ClinOleic
(Other name for: olive oil/soya oil/egg lecithin-based emulsion)
Clinoril
(Other name for: sulindac)
Clino-San vaginal lubricant
A vaginal lubricant formulated as a topical gel used to prevent and treat vaginal dryness. With a pH similar to that of normal vaginal discharge, Clino-San vaginal lubricant may reduce dryness, pain and irritation often caused by insufficient vaginal discharge due to atrophy of the vulvovaginal mucosa. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clioquinol
An orally bioavailable, lipophilic, copper-binding, halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline with antifungal, antiparasitic and potential antitumor activities. Clioquinol forms a stable chelate with copper (copper (II) ions), which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome; consequently, ubiquitinated proteins may accumulate in tumor cells, followed by tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the clioquinol-copper complex appears to decrease the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human copper-enriched prostate cancer cells. Serum levels of copper are often elevated in patients with cancer; copper chelation may inhibit copper-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and tumor secretion of angiogenic factors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clobetasol propionate
The propionate salt form of clobetasol, a topical synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Clobetasol propionate exerts its effect by binding to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and subsequently activates glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene expression. This results in synthesis of certain anti-inflammatory proteins, while inhibiting the synthesis of certain inflammatory mediators. Specifically, clobetasol propionate appears to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, thereby controlling the release of the inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clodronate disodium
The disodium salt of a nitrogen-free bisphosphonate analog of naturally occurring pyrophosphate. Clodronate binds to calcium and inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and hydroxyapatite crystal formation and dissolution, resulting in a reduction of bone turnover. This agent may control malignancy-associated hypercalcemia, inhibit osteolytic bone metastasis and decrease pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clofarabine
A second generation purine nucleoside analog with antineoplastic activity. Clofarabine is phosphorylated intracellularly to the cytotoxic active 5'-triphosphate metabolite, which inhibits the enzymatic activities of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerase, resulting in inhibition of DNA repair and synthesis of DNA and RNA. This nucleoside analog also disrupts mitochondrial function and membrane integrity, resulting in the release of pre-apoptotic factors, including cytochrome C and apoptotic-inducing factor, which activate apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clofibrate
An aryloxyisobutyric acid derivate with antihyperlipidemic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been fully characterized, clofibrate may enhance the conversion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), decreasing the production of hepatic VLDL, inhibiting cholesterol production, and increasing fecal excretion of neutral sterols. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Clolar
(Other name for: clofarabine)
Clomid
(Other name for: clomiphene citrate)
clomiphene citrate
The citrate salt form of clomiphene, a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal ovulatory stimulant evaluated for antineoplastic activity against breast cancer. Clomiphene has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities that compete with estrogen for binding at estrogen receptor sites in target tissues. This agent causes the release of the pituitary gonadotropins follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), leading to ovulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clonidine hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, an imidazoline derivate and centrally-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist as well as antagonist with antihypertensive activity. Clonidine hydrochloride binds to and stimulates central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, thereby decreasing sympathetic outflow to the heart, kidneys, and peripheral vasculature. The reduction in sympathetic outflow, leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood pressure, and decreased heart rate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Clonidine Lauriad
(Other name for: clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet)
clonidine-containing mucoadhesive buccal tablet
An extended release, proprietary mucoadhesive buccal tablet formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of clonidine, the imidazoline derivative and adrenergic alpha 2 receptor agonist, with anti-inflammatory activity. Upon contact of the tablet with the buccal mucosa, clonidine binds to the adrenergic receptors on macrophages and lymphocytes and may reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). As a result, this agent may prevent chemoradiation therapy-induced mucositis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clopidogrel bisulfate
A thienopyridine with antiplatelet activity. Clopidogrel bisulfate irreversibly alters the platelet receptor for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thereby blocking the binding of ADP to its receptor, inhibiting ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein complex GPIIb/IIIa, and inhibiting fibrinogen binding to platelets and platelet adhesion and aggregation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cloretazine
(Other name for: laromustine)
Clostridium butyricum CBM 588 probiotic strain
A probiotic containing a specific strain of the anaerobic, butyric acid-forming Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum), with potential immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI (CBM) 588 is the 588th MIYAIRI strain, isolated from a soil sample in Japan in 1963. Upon oral administration of C. butyricum CBM 588 probiotic strain, C. butyricum modulates the composition of the normal gastrointestinal (GI) microflora, by increasing the beneficial bacteria and decreasing the harmful bacteria, and helps maintain adequate colonization of the GI tract, thereby improving digestion and preventing GI disturbances. These bacteria and the butyric acid produced by them create an environment unfavorable to pathogens by adhering to human epithelial cells and forming a protective mucosal barrier. This prevents attachment of pathogens and reduces the risk of infection. By restoring gut microbiota, these bacteria may restore or enhance intestinal immune responses. C. butyricum induces interleukin-10-producing macrophages in inflamed mucosa via the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) pathway, thereby decreasing inflammatory responses. In addition, CBM588 may exert antineoplastic activity by inducing the release of the endogenous cytokine tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) from intracellular stores in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), most likely involving matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and the Toll-like receptors (TLR)2/4 signaling pathways. This results in TRAIL-mediated induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Clostridium butyricum-containing probiotic
A probiotic containing the anaerobic, butyric acid-forming Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum), with potential immunomodulatory activity. Upon oral administration of C. butyricum-containing probiotic, C. butyricum modulates the composition of the normal gastrointestinal (GI) microflora and help maintain adequate colonization of the GI tract, thereby improving digestion and preventing GI disturbances. This bacterium creates an environment unfavorable to pathogens by adhering to human epithelial cells, thereby forming a protective mucosal barrier. This prevents attachment of pathogens and reduces the risk of infection. Dietary supplementation with this bacterium may restore or enhance intestinal immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Clostridium novyi-NT spores
Spores of Clostridium novyi-NT, an attenuated strain of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium novyi, with potential immunostimulating and oncolytic activities. Upon intravenous administration, Clostridium novyi-NT spores germinate exclusively in hypoxic tissue, such as avascular regions of tumors. Germination results in lysis and destruction of surrounding viable tumor cells. Although C. novyi-NT spores do not proliferate in oxygenated tumor regions, they may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytolytic immune response against tumor cells, both hypoxic and well-oxygenated. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clotrimazole
A synthetic, imidazole derivate with broad-spectrum, antifungal activity. Clotrimazole inhibits biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, thereby damaging and affecting the permeability of the cell membrane. This results in leakage and loss of essential intracellular compounds, and eventually causes cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
clozapine
A synthetic dibenzo-diazepine derivative, atypical antipsychotic Clozapine blocks several neurotransmitter receptors in the brain (dopamine type 4, serotonin type 2, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine receptors). Unlike traditional antipsychotic agents, it weakly blocks dopamine type 2 receptors. It relieves schizophrenic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, dementia). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytes
A preparation of autologous T-lymphocytes that have been electroporated with an mRNA encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-human hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR or cMet) scFv (single chain variable fragment) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (CD3-zeta) coupled to the co-stimulatory molecule 4-1BB (CD137), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, cMet CAR-mRNA electroporated autologous T lymphocytes direct T-cells to cMet-expressing tumor cells, which induces a selective toxicity in cMet-expressing tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of cMet. The inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity as compared to the inclusion of the CD3-zeta chain alone. The mRNA CAR is expressed for a limited amount of time, which can prevent serious, unforeseen side effects. cMet, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor ABN401
An orally bioavailable, highly selective inhibitor of the oncoprotein c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor; HGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ABN401 targets and binds to the c-Met protein, prevents c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-dependent signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor AL2846
An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of the oncoprotein c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor; HGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AL2846 targets and binds to the c-Met protein, prevents c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-dependent signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met or expressing constitutively activated c-Met. c-Met protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor AMG 208
A selective small-molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 208 inhibits the ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activation of c-Met, inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity, which may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress c-Met. C-Met encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, plays an important role in epithelial cell proliferation and has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor AMG 337
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor AMG 337 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein, the product of the proto-oncogene c-Met, is a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR); this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor CBT-101
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met; HGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CBT-101 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in c-Met-overexpressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor HS-10241
An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of the oncoprotein c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor; HGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, HS-10241 targets and binds to the c-Met protein, prevents c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-dependent signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605
An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor [HGFR]) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor JNJ-38877605 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR)) with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J selectively binds to c-Met, which inhibits c-Met phosphorylation and disrupts c-Met-mediated signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-Met inhibitor PLB1001
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor; HGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PLB1001 selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CMF regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, which may be used in the adjuvant setting for the treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer or alone for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)
CMV pp65 peptide
A peptide derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) internal matrix protein pp65. CMV pp65 peptide antigen is used in recombinant vaccinia virus as an HLA-A-restricted epitope to produce vaccines and specific CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses against CMV infection, a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In BMT, CMV infection may be prevented by passive immunization with donor-derived CMV-pp65-specific T-cell clones if provided early post-BMT. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CMV/EBV/ADV/BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (ADV) and BK virus (BKV), with potential antiviral and protective activities. T cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are exposed to and activated by dendritic cells (DCs) that are loaded with specific peptides from CMV, EBV, ADV and BKV. Upon infusion of the CMV/EBV/ADV/BKV-specific CTLs, these lymphocytes target and cause lysis of CMV-, EBV-, ADV- and/or BKV-infected cells and may prevent infection and complications from CMV-, EBV-, ADV- and BKV-driven viral diseases. Opportunistic infections caused by these viruses are often seen in immunosuppressed patients. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113
A poloxamer-formulated, bivalent DNA vaccine containing two plasmids encoding both the human cytomegaloviral (CMV) tegument phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), a major internal matrix protein, and glycoprotein B (gB), an important CMV component responsible for attachment and entry into cells, with potential immunostimulatory properties. Upon intramuscular injection of CMVpp65/gB plasmid vaccine ASP0113, the expressed proteins may activate the immune system to mount both cellular and humoral immune responses against CMV-positive cells. This results in cell lysis of CMV-infected cells and prevents both viral replication and the development of CMV disease. This vaccine also provides active immunization and protective immunity against CMV infection in CMV-negative patients exposed to infected donor cells or tissues in transplant recipients. CMV infection can cause serious complications in patients receiving either allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) or solid organ transplants. The poloxamer-based delivery system enhances DNA delivery. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine
A peptide-based cancer vaccine containing a mutated form of the HLA-A*0201-restricted cytomegaloviral epitope CMVpp65(495-503) with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-positive cells, resulting in cell lysis. HLA-A*0201 is an MHC class I molecule that presents antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells; epitope design restricted to epitopes that bind most efficiently to HLA-A*0201 may improve antigenic peptide immunogenicity. CMVpp65, a tegument protein of the herpes virus CMV, is the main viral antigen found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after viral infection and may activate cell-mediated immunity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
c-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460
A 24-base phosphorothiolate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) for the proto-oncogene c-myb with potential antineoplastic activity. C-myb antisense oligonucleotide G4460 binds to codon sequences 2 to 9 of c-myb mRNA, inhibiting translation of the transcript. Suppression of c-myb expression with this agent may result in the restoration of normal differentiation pathways, increased antiproliferative effects, and the induction of apoptosis in early progenitor hematopoietic cells and in tumor cells that overexpress c-myb. Tumor-cell overexpression of c-myb blocks differentiation, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CNDO-109-activated allogeneic natural killer cells
A preparation of non-interleukin-2 primed, tumor activated allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells with potential immunostimulating activity. The allogeneic NK cells obtained from a first or second degree relative of the patient are co-incubated with a lysate from the CTV-1 cell line, a minimally differentiated myeloid line derived from an acute myelogenous leukemia patient. Infusion of CNDO-109-activated allogeneic NK cells may be able to lyse and destroy NK-resistant tumor cells and a broad spectrum of tumor cells.
CNGRC peptide-TNF alpha conjugate
A cytokine-peptide conjugate composed of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) chemically linked to the peptide CNGRC. The peptide moiety CNGRC, a ligand for the membrane-bound metalloprotease CD13, binds to endothelial cells of the angiogenic vasculature that express CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N); subsequently, the TNF-alpha moiety induces apoptosis in endothelial cells expressing CD13, thereby inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cobalamin
An essential nutrient and natural water-soluble vitamin of the B-complex family that must combine with an intrinsic factor for absorption by the intestine, Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is necessary for hematopoiesis, neural metabolism, DNA and RNA production, and carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. B12 improves iron functions in the metabolic cycle and assists folic acid in choline synthesis. B12 metabolism is interconnected with that of folic acid. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic lesions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cobavite
(Other name for: cyanocobalamin)
cobimetinib fumarate
The fumarate salt of an orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 or MEK1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Cobimetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the catalytic activity of MEK1, resulting in inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation and activation and decreased tumor cell proliferation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells bearing a B-RAF mutation, which has been found to be associated with many tumor types. A threonine-tyrosine kinase and a key component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that is frequently activated in human tumors, MEK1 is required for the transmission of growth-promoting signals from numerous receptor tyrosine kinases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cobomarsen
A locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based oligonucleotide inhibitor of microRNA (miRNA) 155 (miR-155), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, cobomarsen targets, binds to and inhibits miR-155. This silences miR-155 and prevents the translation of certain tumor promoting genes, which leads to the induction of cancer cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor cell growth. miR-155, an oncogenic single-stranded, non-coding RNA that is critical to the regulation of gene expression, is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types. Up-regulation of miR-155 plays a key role in increased tumor cell proliferation and survival. The LNA is an RNA analog in which the ribose ring is locked in a particular confirmation that increases stability. Compared to the unmodified oligonucleotide, the LNA-modified oligonucleotide shows increased affinity for its target miR-155. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract
A homeopathic herbal formulation with potential anti-emetic activity. Cocculus/nux vomica/tabacum/petroleum extract contains equal homeopathic units of the following extracts: extract of Cocculus indicus (fish berry), the fruit of the southeast Asian/Indian climbing plant Anamirta cocculus; extract of the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica (poison nut), an evergreen tree native to southeast Asia; extract of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); and petroleum. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action for this formulation has yet to be fully elucidated, alkaloids in these plant extracts have been shown to relieve nausea, vomiting, and, in some cases, dizziness. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cocoa extract
A dietary supplement containing cocoa extract derived from the cacao bean, with potential vasodilating, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing and chemopreventive activities. Cocoa extract contains flavonoids, including high levels of epicatechin, catechin, procyanidins and xanthines, such as theobromine. Upon oral administration, the bioactive ingredients in the cocoa extract inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and increase the production of nitric oxide (NO) through the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This causes vasodilation, improves blood flow, and decreases blood pressure. The cocoa extract also improves insulin sensitivity, enhances cognition, and decreases the production of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, this extract exerts antioxidant effects and is able to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a result, healthy cells are protected from oxidative stress and DNA damage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
codeine phosphate
The phosphate salt of codeine, a naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine’s action on the cough center in the medulla. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
coenzyme Q10
A naturally occurring benzoquinone important in electron transport in mitochondrial membranes. Coenzyme-Q functions as an endogenous antioxidant; deficiencies of this enzyme have been observed in patients with many different types of cancer and limited studies have suggested that coenzyme-Q may induce tumor regression in patients with breast cancer. This agent may have immunostimulatory effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CoFactor
(Other name for: folitixorin)
Coffea arabica extract
An orally bioavailable dietary supplement composed of an extract from the beans of green coffee (Coffea arabica), which are unprocessed and unroasted, with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Coffea arabica extract contain high amounts of phenolic compounds and their derivatives, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), and alkaloids, such as caffeine. As many of the active components in the Coffea arabica are antioxidant compounds, upon administration, they scavenge free radicals, protect against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and inhibit cell damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This inhibits oxidative stress and protects against DNA damage. The components in the extract also inhibit enzymes involved in inflammation, cell replication and DNA synthesis, and induce the expression of antioxidant enzymes. They also induce anti-inflammatory-mediated pathways, decrease nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-kB) activation and decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This may inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In addition, Coffea arabica extract upregulates the expression of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adipocytokines), such as adiponectin, and reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), leptin and interleukin 6 (IL-6), thereby further preventing inflammation and inflammation-induced cancer. Adipokines are normally secreted by adipose tissue and play a key role in the regulation of glucose and fat metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
coffee dietary supplement
A dietary supplement containing coffee, with potential gastrointestinal (GI) tract stimulating activity. Following consumption of the dietary supplement, the coffee may both stimulate peristalsis and increase bowel movement. The supplement may also stimulate the central nervous system, suppress appetite and cause weight loss. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
colchicine
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale with anti-gout and anti-inflammatory activities. The exact mechanism of action by which colchicine exerts its effect has not been completely established. Colchicine binds to tubulin, thereby interfering with the polymerization of tubulin, interrupting microtubule dynamics, and disrupting mitosis. This leads to an inhibition of migration of leukocytes and other inflammatory cells, thereby reducing the inflammatory response to deposited urate crystals. Colchicine may also interrupt the cycle of monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint tissues, thereby also preventing the resultant inflammatory response. Overall, colchicine decreases leukocyte chemotaxis/migration and phagocytosis to inflamed areas, and inhibits the formation and release of a chemotactic glycoprotein that is produced during phagocytosis of urate crystals. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131
An I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, manufactured with a proprietary process, with radioisotopic and potential antineoplastic activities. cold contaminant-free iobenguane I 131 (MIBG) localizes to adrenergic tissue and may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that accumulate and metabolize norepinephrine. This agent is manufactured using a technology that avoids the production of unwanted "cold contaminants" (i.e., carrier molecules), which may cause undesirable side effects and compete with MIBG for binding on target receptor sites. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
COLD-fX
(Other name for: North American ginseng extract AFX-2)
colesevelam hydrochloride
A hydrochloride salt form of colesevelam, a non-absorbed polymer that binds bile acids in the intestine and lowers serum lipids. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
colistimethate sodium
The sodium salt of colistimethate, a broad-spectrum polymyxin antibiotic against most aerobic Gram-negative bacteria except Proteus bacteria. Colistimethate sodium contains the pentasodium salt of the penta(methanesulfonic acid) derivative of colistin A as the major component and a small proportion of the petasodium salt of the pentamethanesulfonate derivative of colistin B. Colistins are cyclic polypeptides produced from Bacillus colistinus or B. polymyxa and function as a surfactant which penetrates into and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane, thereby resulting in bactericidal effect. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel
A topical preparation containing collagen, aloe vera, vitamin E, and lidocaine hydrochloride with wound-healing activity. The four ingredients of collagen/aloe vera/vitamin E/lidocaine topical hydrogel may promote wound repair and new tissue growth in which : collagen, a structural protein in connective tissue, provides a connective tissue matrix for the attachment of various cells involved in wound repair; aloe vera carbohydrate polymers provide a moist wound environment; vitamin E promotes blood vessel formation; and lidocaine acts as a local anesthetic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
collagenase
Collagenases are enzymes that degrade collagen fibers. These enzymes play an important role in connective tissue metabolism and are produced by specific cells involved in both repair and remodeling processes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
colloidal gold-bound tumor necrosis factor
A nanoparticle delivery system for recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) consisting of recombinant TNF bound to pegylated colloidal gold nanoparticles with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, colloidal gold-bound recombinant human TNF travels through the bloodstream, avoiding immune detection and uptake by the reticuloendothelial system because of nanoparticle pegylation. Due to their size, the colloidal gold nanoparticles exit the circulatory system only at hyperpermeable tumor neovasculature sites; TNF then binds to and activates tumor cell TNF receptors, which may result in an increase in tumor cell apoptosis and a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Compared to the administration of unbound TNF, colloidal gold-bound TNF may improve the efficacy and safety of TNF administration by delivering TNF specifically to tumor tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
colloidal modified fluid gelatin plasma substitute
A colloidal, isotonic, physiologically balanced, plasma volume substitute containing succinylated gelatine and electrolytes, with potential nephroprotective properties. Upon intravenous administration, colloidal modified fluid gelatin plasma substitute expands the blood volume, restores intravascular volume and increases blood flow, thereby preventing hypovolemia, hypotension and shock and may decrease the accumulation of nephrotoxic agents in the kidneys. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
colloidal oatmeal cream
A colloidal oatmeal-based skin cream with potential moisturizing and skin protecting activity. Upon application to the skin, colloidal oatmeal cream forms a protective barrier and thereby prevents water loss, provides moisture to the skin and protects the skin from damage.
colorectal cancer peptide vaccine PolyPEPI1018
A peptide cancer vaccine consisting of a combination of six synthetic polypeptides directed against cancer testis antigens (CTAs) frequently expressed in colorectal cancers, with potential antineoplastic and immunostimulatory activities. Colorectal cancer peptide vaccine PolyPEPI1018 potentially elicits a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against colorectal tumors expressing the CTAs associated with the vaccine, which may result in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Colprosterone
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
Coly-Mycin
(Other name for: colistimethate sodium)
Combidex
(Other name for: ferumoxtran-10)
Combotox
(Other name for: deglycosylated ricin A chain-conjugated anti-CD19/anti-CD22 immunotoxins)
combretastatin A1 diphosphate
The diphosphate prodrug of the stilbenoid combretastatin A1, originally isolated from the plant Combretum caffrum, with vascular-disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, combretastatin A1 diphosphate (CA1P) is dephosphorylated to the active metabolite combretastatin A1 (CA1), which promotes rapid microtubule depolymerization; endothelial cell mitotic arrest and apoptosis, destruction of the tumor vasculature, disruption of tumor blood flow and tumor cell necrosis may ensue. In addition, orthoquinone intermediates, metabolized from combretastatin A1 by oxidative enzymes found to be elevated levels in some tumor types, may bind to tumor cell thiol-specific antioxidant proteins and DNA, and stimulate oxidative stress by enhancing superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production. CA1 binds to tubulin at the same site as colchicine but with higher affinity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cometriq
(Other name for: cabozantinib-s-malate)
Commit
(Other name for: nicotine lozenge)
complement factor D inhibitor ACH-4471
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of complement factor D (FD; CFD), a serine protease that cleaves complement factor B, with potential complement system inhibiting activity. Upon administration, complement FD inhibitor ACH-4471 targets, binds to and blocks the activity of FD, and thereby inhibits cleavage of complement factor B into Ba and Bb in the alternative pathway of the complement cascade. This inhibits FD-mediated signaling and activation of the alternative complement pathway (ACP), blocks complement-mediated hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and prevents ACP-induced tissue damage. FD plays a key role in the activation of the ACP. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
compound Kushen injection
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation composed of compound Kushen injection (CKI) containing aqueous extracts from the roots of Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) and Baituling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. CKI contains numerous chemicals including alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, flavonoids, alkylxanthones, quinones, triterpene glycosides, fatty acids, and essential oils. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which CKI exerts its effects has yet to be fully elucidated, CKI is able to interfere with the activation of various signal transduction pathways, such as the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and block the activity of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). CKI induces apoptosis in and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion of tumor cells. CKI also modulates the production of inflammatory mediators. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
compound sodium lactate solution
A multiple electrolyte, isotonic, crystalloid solution for intravenous infusion containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride dihydrate, and sodium lactate, which can restore the electrolyte balance, normalize pH, and provide water for hydration. Upon intravenous administration, the compound sodium lactate solution will replace any lost body fluids and electrolytes thereby providing hydration as well as normalizing electrolyte concentrations. In addition, conversion of sodium lactate to bicarbonate increases plasma bicarbonate levels, which facilitates the removal of hydrogen ions from the blood stream, raises blood pH and normalizes the acid-base balance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Comtan
(Other name for: entacapone)
conatumumab
A fully human monoclonal agonist antibody directed against the extracellular domain of human TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) receptor 2 (TR-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Conatumumab mimics the activity of native TRAIL, binding to and activating TR-2, thereby activating caspase cascades and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. TR-2 is expressed by a variety of solid tumors and cancers of hematopoietic origin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
conbercept
A recombinant, soluble, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) protein composed of the second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of VEGFR-1, the third and fourth Ig domains of VEGFR-2, and the constant region (Fc) of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with potential anti-angiogenic activities. Upon intravitreal injection, conbercept, functioning as a soluble decoy receptor, binds with high affinity to all VEGF-A isoforms, VEGF-B, as well as placenta growth factor (PlGF)-1 and PlGF-2. This prevents the binding of these growth factors to their endogenous receptors, potentially inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Concentraid
(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
concentrated beet crystals
A formulation containing concentrated beetroot crystals, with potential antioxidant and protective activities. Concentrated beetroot crystals contain antioxidants, including betacyanin, which scavenge free radicals, and high levels of nitrates and folic acid. Intake of concentrated beetroot crystals leads to the conversion of nitrate to nitric oxide (NO). This may have a beneficial effect on blood flow and blood pressure through the stimulation of NO-mediated vasodilation. Additionally, this agent may decrease fatigue and increase physical performance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
concentrated lingzhi mushroom extract
A nutritional supplement and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composed of a highly concentrated extract of the fruiting body of the red reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum; lingzhi), with potential immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, the concentrated lingzhi mushroom extract may support the body's immune function and may support the immune system to eliminate tumor cells. The lingzhi mushroom extract contains high amounts of G. lucidum polysaccharides and G. lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
concentrated, fortified, collagen protein hydrolysate liquid supplement
A liquid-based nutritional supplement containing enzyme-hydrolyzed concentrated protein derived from collagen, and fortified with L-tryptophan, with potential anti-cachexic and wound-healing activities. The concentrated, fortified, collagen protein hydrolysate liquid supplement contains all essential and non-essential amino acids. Upon oral administration, this supplement may improve both gastric functioning and gastrointestinal (GI) health, thereby reducing vomiting and diarrhea. The hydrolyzed protein helps to alleviate the digestive burden and allows for fast and efficient absorption and utilization of the protein. This may prevent both malnutrition and weight loss. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Concerta
(Other name for: methylphenidate hydrochloride)
conditionally active biologic anti-AXL antibody-drug conjugate BA3011
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a conditionally active biologic (CAB) antibody against AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL; UFO) conjugated to an as of yet undisclosed cytotoxic agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of CAB-AXL-ADC BA3011, the anti-AXL antibody becomes activated through an as of yet not fully elucidated process only under the unique microphysical conditions that are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) as a result of the glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells, and not in the microenvironment of normal, healthy tissues. Upon selective binding to AXL-expressing tumor cells and internalization, the cytotoxic agent kills the tumor cells through an as of yet undisclosed mechanism of action (MoA). AXL, a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases normally expressed on many normal, healthy cells and overexpressed by many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis; its expression is associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. The CAB antibody allows for efficient and reversible binding to AXL-expressing tumor cells under conditions that are present only in the TME, thereby maximizing efficacy while minimizing toxicity by avoiding activation and thus binding of the antibody to normal, healthy AXL-expressing cells under normal conditions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
conditionally replicative adenovirus 5/3-delta24
A replication competent, oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) with its knob domain of fiber protein substituted by that of the serotype 3 (Ad5/3-delta24), with potential oncolytic activity. Upon administration, oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 binds to specific Ad3 receptors that are highly expressed on certain tumor cells. This results in the replication of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-delta24 in tumor cells and induces tumor cell lysis which may potentially result in the activation of a systemic immune response against tumor-associated antigens. The Ad5/3-delta24 has a 24 base-pair deletion in constant region 2 of the E1A gene which allows for selective replication in cells that are defective in the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (CDKN2A or p16INK4a). As most tumor cells are defective in the Rb/p16 pathway, this virus selectively replicates in these cells. The replacement of the Ad5 fiber knob, which mediates viral-cell receptor binding, allows for a Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR)-independent infection of tumor cells; CAR expression is often deficient on cancer cells.
conjugated estrogens
Purified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene
A combination preparation of conjugated estrogens and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene that can be used for hormone replacement purposes. The conjugated estrogens increase the diminishing levels of estrogen in menopausal and postmenopausal women by binding to and activating estrogen receptors (ERs), which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes; this results in the transcription of estrogen-regulated genes. Maintaining adequate estrogen levels decreases symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, irregular menstruation, fat redistribution, mood swings, sleep disorders, vaginal dryness and osteoporosis. Bazedoxifene specifically binds to and activates ERs in certain tissues, including liver, bone, breast, and endometrium, and also promotes the transcription of estrogen-regulated genes in these tissues. However, bazedoxifene acts as an estrogen antagonist in uterine and breast tissue, thereby blocking the proliferative effects of estrogen-binding to ER-positive cells in these tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
conjugated linoleic acid
A slightly altered form of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid important to human health found in beef and dairy fats. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Constant-T
(Other name for: theophylline)
Contego
(Other name for: autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes LN-144)
contrast agent CS-1000
An aqueous colloidal nanoemulsion containing perfluorocarbon (PFC) polymers that can be used as a tracer for cell tracking purposes during fluorine-19 (19F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon administration of the contrast agent CS-1000 to cells ex vivo, this agent freely enters the cells. Upon introduction of these cells into the patient and subsequent 19F MRI, the amount of fluorine can be detected and cellular persistence, survival and distribution of the treated cells can be assessed. The emulsion allows for fast entry of the fluorinated polymers into cells; the polymers do not degrade and remain in the cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copanlisib hydrochloride
The dihydrochloride salt form of copanlisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Copanlisib hydrochloride inhibits the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
COPDAC regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, prednisone and dacarbazine used for the treatment of male children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). (NCI Thesaurus)
Copiktra
(Other name for: duvelisib)
COPP regimen
A derivative of the original MOPP regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone used as an initial treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Also used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
COPP-ABV regimen
A regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone and procarbazine (COPP) alternating with doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine (ABV), used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper chloride formulation
A formulation containing the compound copper chloride (CuCl2), that can potentially be used to enhance Cu levels in cancer cells in order to elevate the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents that are dependent on Cu for their activity. Upon intravenous administration of CuCl2, the mineral Cu is selectively taken up by and accumulates in cancer cells. In the presence of certain chemotherapeutic agents whose mechanism of action (MoA) is dependent on Cu, this formulation may enhance their cytotoxic activity.
copper Cu 62 ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone)
A radiopharmaceutical composed of the nonspecific perfusion agent ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone) (ETS) linked to the beta-emitting, radioisotope copper Cu 62, with potential tumor imaging activity upon positron emitting tomography (PET). Upon injection, copper Cu 62-ETS distributes to various organs, especially the kidneys and the myocardium. Upon PET imaging, tumor blood flow can be visualized and the efficacy of antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutics can be assessed. Cu62-ETS has a short half life of 9.74 minutes. ETS has an enhanced hyperemic response compared to other perfusion agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 62-ATSM
A radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic, neutral, bioreductive copper-bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, copper-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM), labeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 62, with hypoxia-selective and positron emitting tomography (PET) radioimaging activities. With a high membrane permeability and low reduction potential, copper Cu 62-ATSM easily enters cells. This agent can only be reduced by mitochondria found in hypoxic cells with abnormally high electron concentrations. This chemical reaction traps Cu 62-ATSM in the cell, which allows for the selective accumulation of this agent in hypoxic cells compared to normoxic cells. The extent of copper Cu 62-ATSM retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia with PET. This provides information about diagnosis, prognosis, treatment options and outcomes for certain cancers. The short half-life of copper Cu 62 (9.7 minutes) reduces the amount of radiation a patient is subjected to and allows for several imaging studies to be performed. Hypoxic tumors are associated with increased malignancy and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 62-PTSM
A radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic, bioreductive copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, copper-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM), linked to the beta-emitting, radioisotope copper Cu 62, with potential perfusion and positron emitting tomography (PET) tumor imaging activities. Upon injection, the distribution of copper Cu 62-PTSM correlates with blood flow. This agent’s high membrane permeability allows for rapid diffusion into cells. Once it enters the cell, 62Cu-PTSM is then reduced by the mitochondria, which prevents diffusion of the agent out of the cell. Upon PET imaging, tumor blood flow can be visualized and tumor perfusion can be assessed. Compared with other copper radionuclides, the short half-life of copper Cu 62 (9.7 minutes) reduces the amount of radiation a patient is subjected to and allows for several imaging studies to be performed. PTSM lacks selectivity for hypoxic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody M5A
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human carcinoembryonic antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEA or CEACAM5), which is conjugated with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 via the chelator tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA), with potential use as an imaging agent during positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the antibody moiety of copper Cu 64 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody M5A specifically binds to cells expressing CEA. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety can be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CEA-expressing tumor cells. CEA, a tumor associated antigen and a member of the CEA family of proteins, plays a key role in cell migration, cell invasion, and cell adhesion and is overexpressed by a variety of cancer types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 DOTA-daratumumab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing daratumumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa (IgG1k) monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD38, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA), and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-daratumumab specifically targets and binds to cell surface antigen CD38. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on various hematopoietic cells and is overexpressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 NOTA-PSMAi-PEG-Cy5.5-C' dots
An imaging agent composed of silica-based nanoparticles labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore, cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5), and surrounded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains attached to a human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor (PSMAi) and labeled with, via the macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA), the radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential tumor-selective diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Upon administration of the copper Cu 64 NOTA-PSMAi-PEG-Cy5.5-C' dots, the PSMAi moiety selectively targets and binds to PSMA expressed on tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, PSMA-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and assessed. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and overexpressed on prostate tumor cells. The nanoparticle formulation may allow for enhanced uptake in PSMA-positive tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 plerixafor
A radioconjugate labeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope, copper Cu 64, and also composed of plerixafor, a bicyclam and hematopoietic stem cell-mobilizing agent that targets the chemokine receptor CXCR4, with tumor imaging potential using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Upon administration, the plerixafor moiety blocks the binding of stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha or CXCL12) to the cellular receptor CXCR4. In turn, the CXCR4-expressing tumor cells can be visualized using PET/CT and the resulting images could be used to predict a tumor's response to certain treatments. The expression of CXCR4 on cancer cells has been correlated with increased tumor cell survival, tumor progression, and increased metastatic potential. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 TP3805
A peptide analog of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) radiolabeled with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic ability upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The peptide moiety of copper Cu 64 TP3805 is able to bind to vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide receptors 1 (VPAC1). Upon PET imaging, the cancer cells expressing VPAC1 can be visualized and this may allow for early detection. The oncogenic product VPAC1 is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, moreover, it is overexpressed in 100% of breast tumors at the onset of the cancer. Compared to other positron-emitting radioisotopes, Cu 64 has a longer half life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64 trastuzumab
A diagnostic radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the positron-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 64. Copper Cu 64 trastuzumab binds to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), allowing the detection of HER2 distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-ATSM
A radioconjugate consisting of a lipophilic copper(II)bis(thiosemicarbazone) labeled with the positron- and beta-emitting isotope (64)Cu with hypoxia-selective and antineoplastic activities. With a high membrane permeability and redox potential, copper Cu 64-ATSM is preferentially taken up by hypoxic cells compared to normoxic cells; the extent of retention in tissue is inversely related to the state of tissue oxygenation allowing the quantitation of tissue hypoxia by positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, the radioactive copper moiety of this agent may deliver a selective cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to hypoxic tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-CB-TE1A1P-PEG4-LLP2A
A radioconjugate containing LLP2A, a high-affinity peptidomimetic ligand for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) very-late-antigen-4 (VLA-4; VLA 4; alpha4beta1 integrin; CD49d/CD29), conjugated, via the chelator 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1-(methane phosphonic acid)-8-(methane carboxylic acid) (CB-TE1A1P), to the radioisotope copper Cu 64, and conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains that can potentially be used as a diagnostic imaging agent of VLA-4-expressing tumor cells using positron-emitting tomography (PET). Upon administration, copper Cu 64-CB-TE1A1P-PEG4-LLP2A targets, binds to and is taken up by VLA-4-expressing tumor cells. Upon PET, the VLA-4-expressing tumor cells can be visualized, and the tumor can be assessed. VLA-4, a transmembrane adhesion receptor overexpressed and activated on various tumor cell types and surrounding stroma, plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, drug resistance and immune responses. Pegylation optimizes the pharmacokinetic profile of 64Cu-LLP2A. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-DOTA B-Fab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing a bivalent monospecific tandem immunoglobulin fragment (B-Fab) derived from the humanized monoclonal antibody DS6 targeting the tumor-associated mucin-1 (MUC1)-sialoglycotope CA6 conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with potential use as an imaging agent for CA6-expressing tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). The B-Fab moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA B-Fab binds, with high affinity, to the cell surface antigen CA6. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CA6-expressing tumor cells. This tracer could be used to select patients who could benefit from and to monitor efficacy of CA6-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Compared to DS6, the antibody fragment allows for increased tumor penetration, faster blood clearance, and more rapid renal elimination. The CA6 epitope is found on a variety of solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105
A radiotracer composed of AE105, a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) peptide antagonist, conjugated with DOTA and labeled with the radionuclide copper Cu 64, with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the AE105 moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-AE105 targets and binds to uPAR-expressing tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, the copper Cu 64 moiety can be visualized, uPAR-expressing tumor cells can be quantified and the degree of tumor aggressiveness can be assessed. uPAR expression is correlated with increased tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness as well as a poor prognosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287
A radioimmunoconjugate of the fully human monoclonal antibody against the third member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER3 or ERBB3, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody U3-1287 binds to and blocks the activation of HER3, thereby resulting in the inhibition of EGFR-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling and the subsequent inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. The Cu 64 moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER3-expressing tumor cells. HER3, which lacks the kinase domain conveying ligand-binding signaling by forming heterodimers with other EGFR members that have kinase activity, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-DOTA-ECL1i
A radiotracer composed of ECL1i (extracellular loop 1 inverso; d(LGTFLKC)), an allosteric peptidic modulator of CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radionuclide copper Cu 64, with potential imaging activity upon positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, the ECL1i moiety targets and allosterically binds to CCR2 expressing tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, the copper Cu 64 moiety can be visualized, thereby allowing the quantification of CCR2-expressing cells. CCR2, a G-protein coupled receptor expressed on the surface of monocytes and macrophages, stimulates the migration and infiltration of these cell types, and plays a significant role in angiogenesis, inflammation, tumor cell migration, and proliferation. Quantification of CCR2 may help predict chemotherapy resistance and identify early metastatic disease in certain cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 64-DOTA-rituximab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing rituximab, a recombinant chimeric murine/human antibody directed against the human CD20 antigen, conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-Rituximab specifically binds to cell surface antigen CD20. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CD20-expressing tumor cells. CD20 is a non-glycosylated phosphoprotein that is exclusively expressed on B cells during most stages of B cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies.
copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab
A radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of copper Cu 64-DOTA-trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography (PET), thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase and client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu 67 Tyr3-octreotate
A radioconjugate consisting of the tyrosine-containing somatostatin analog Tyr3-octreotate (TATE) conjugated with the bifunctional chelator 5-(8-methyl-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaaza-bicyclo[6.6.6]icosan-1-ylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acid (MeCOSar) and radiolabeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope copper Cu 67, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, copper Cu 67 Tyr3-octreotate binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), with high affinity to type 2 SSTR, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR-positive cells. TATE is an octreotide derivative in which phenylalanine at position 3 is substituted by tyrosine and position 8 threoninol is replaced with threonine. SSTRs have been shown to be present in large numbers on NET and their metastases, while most other normal tissues express low levels of SSTRs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper Cu-64-DOTA-alendronate
A radioconjugate containing the biphosphonate alendronate conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the radioisotope copper Cu 64, with potential use as an imaging agent for microcalcifications in mammary tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration of the copper Cu-64 alendronate, the alendronate moiety targets and binds to hydroxyapatite crystals found in malignant tumors. Upon binding and PET imaging, the radioisotope moiety is detected, thereby allowing differentiation between malignant tumors, benign tumors and normal tissue, as the highest uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate occurs in malignant tumors while the lowest uptake occurs in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper gluconate
The orally bioavailable copper salt of D-gluconic acid. In addition to its roles as an enzyme cofactor for cytochrome C oxidase and superoxide dismutase, copper forms complexes with the thiocarbamate disulfiram (DSF) forming DSF-copper complexes, which enhances the DSF-mediated inhibition of the 26S proteasome; proteasome inhibition may result in inhibition of cellular protein degradation, cessation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cellular proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
copper supplement
An element with atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cord blood-derived CAR T cells
A preparation of umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived T lymphocytes that are genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that targets an as of yet unidentified tumor-associated antigen (TAA), with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the cord blood derived CAR T cells, the T cells target, bind to and induce selective cytotoxicity in tumor cells expressing the TAA. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cord blood-derived CMV/AdV/EBV/BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A population of allogeneic expanded cord blood (CB)-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that are specifically reactive to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (AdV), and human polyomavirus type I (BKV), with potential antiviral activity. Infusion of the CB-derived CMV/AdV /EBV/BKV-specific CTLs into CB hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients may provide virus-specific cellular immunity, thereby preventing the infection or reactivation of certain viral-associated diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cord blood-derived expanded allogeneic natural killer cells
A preparation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived and ex vivo-expanded allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells, with immunomodulating and cytotoxic activities. Upon infusion of the cord blood-derived expanded allogeneic NK cells, these cells recognize and bind to tumor cells, and secrete perforins, granzymes, and cytokines, which cause cancer cell lysis.
Cordarone
(Other name for: amiodarone hydrochloride)
cordycepin
A purine nucleoside antimetabolite and antibiotic isolated from the fungus Cordyceps militaris with potential antineoplastic activity. Cordycepin is an adenosine analogue, which is readily phosphorylated to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate intracellularly. Triphosphate cordycepin can be incorporated into RNA, and inhibits transcription elongation and RNA synthesis due to the absence of a hydroxyl moiety at the 3' position. Because it can be converted to an inactive metabolite by adenosine deaminase, this agent must be administered with an adenosine deaminase inhibitor in order to be effective. Cordycepin has displayed cytotoxicity against some leukemic cell lines in vitro. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Coreg
(Other name for: carvedilol)
Coreg CR
(Other name for: carvedilol phosphate extended-release capsule)
Corgard
(Other name for: nadolol)
Coriolus versicolor extract
An extract derived from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor, containing polysaccharide K (PSK) and polysaccharide-peptide (PSP), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Coriolus versicolor extract has been shown to stimulate the production of lymphocytes and cytokines, such as interferons and interleukins, and may exhibit antioxidant activities. However, the precise mechanism of action(s) of this agent is unknown. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Corlanor
(Other name for: ivabradine hydrochloride)
corn starch
A starch derived from corn grain and used as food or food ingredient, with potential anti-hypoglycemic activity. Upon ingestion, corn starch is broken down and releases glucose in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Glucose is taken up in the bloodstream and maintains as well as stabilizes glucose levels. This may prevent or improve hypoglycemia in patients with glycogen storage disease or insulinomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cortalone
(Other name for: prednisolone)
Cort-Dome
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortef
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortenema
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
corticorelin acetate
A synthetic therapeutic agent which is chemically identical to or similar to the endogenous human corticotropin-releasing factor (hCRF). Synthesized in the hypothalamus, hCRF stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In cerebral edema, hCRF acts by impeding the flow of fluid from blood vessels into brain tissue, thereby decreasing edema and stabilizing intracranial pressure. This agent possesses anti-edema properties independent of adrenal gland function. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
corticotropin-releasing hormone
A hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and regulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cortispray
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Cortril
(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)
Corynebacterium granulosum P40
An insoluble fraction isolated from the bacterium Corynebacterium granulosum with potential cancer immunotherapeutic activity. As a non-specific immunostimulant, Corynebacterium granulosum P40 activates the reticulo-endothelial system; induces the production of certain cytokines; enhances macrophage activity; and potentiates a delayed-type hypersensitivity response when co-administered with an antigen. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cosmegen
(Other name for: dactinomycin)
Cotara
(Other name for: iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody TNT-1/B)
Cotellic
(Other name for: cobimetinib fumarate)
Cotrim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Coumadin
(Other name for: warfarin sodium)
coumarin
O hydroxycinnamic acid. Pleasant smelling compound found in many plants and released on wilting. Has anticoagulant activity by competing with Vitamin K. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Coversin
(Other name for: recombinant Ornithodoros moubata saliva-derived small protein complement C5 inhibitor)
coxsackievirus A21
A naturally occurring enterovirus with potential antitumor activity. Upon intratumoral administration, coxsackievirus A21 targets and binds to intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and decay acceleration factor (DAF), both cell surface molecules that are both overexpressed on certain malignant cells. After entering the cells, coxsackievirus A21 replicates in these cancer cells, thereby causing cancer cell lysis. This results in a reduction of tumor cell growth. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cozaar
(Other name for: losartan potassium)
CP-724,714
An orally bioavailable quinazoline with potential antineoplastic activity. CP-724,714 selectively binds to the intracellular domain of HER2, reversibly inhibiting its tyrosine kinase activity and resulting in suppression of tumor cell growth. HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is overexpressed in many adenocarcinomas, particularly breast cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CpG oligodeoxynucleotide
A synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide, containing unmethylated CpG motifs derived from bacterial DNA, with immunostimulatory activities. A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) binds to and activates a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines. Through activation of TLR9, a CpG ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and NK cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Additionally, a CpG ODN can indirectly modulate T-cell responses, through the release of cytokines (IL-12 and IFN gamma), to induce a preferential shift to the Th1 (helper) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ cellular cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168
A synthetic, 21-mer, unmethylated CpG motif-based oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), with immunostimulatory activity. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide GNKG168 binds to and activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and is taken up into cells by endocytosis; once internalized, it may activate numerous signaling transduction pathways resulting in the release of multiple cytokines, such as immunoglobulins (Igs), interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Through activation of TLR9, this ODN can directly stimulate B-lymphocytes, dendritic and natural killer (NK) cells, resulting in an increase in innate immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, through the release of IL-12 and IFN, this agent may induce a preferential shift to the T-helper 1(Th1) phenotype resulting in enhanced CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CpG oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonist DV281
A proprietary synthetic, aerosolized C-class CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-based (ODN) agonist of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon inhalation, CpG ODN TLR9 agonist DV281 specifically targets, binds to and activates TLR9 expressed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and B-cells. This initiates immune signaling pathways and induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against antigens expressed by lung cancer cells. TLR9, a member of the TLR family, plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CR2-fH fusion protein TT30
A recombinant, chimeric human fusion protein consisting of the iC3b/C3d-binding region of human complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) linked to the alternative complement pathway (ACP) inhibitory domain of human factor H (fH) (CR2-fH), with potential complement system inhibiting activity. Via its C3 binding domain, TT30 selectively binds to complement-activated cell surfaces and via its fH binding domain regulates ACP activity. This suppresses excessive complement activity and may result in an inhibition of ACP-mediated hemolysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) red blood cells (RBCs) as well as preventing ACP-induced tissue damage. Factor H is a key regulator in the activation of ACP.
creatine monohydrate
The monohydrate form of creatine similar or identical to endogenous creatine produced in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine, in phosphate form, helps supply energy to muscle cells for contraction. After intense effort, when ATP deposits are depleted, creatine phosphate donates phosphate groups toward the fast synthesis of ATP. Dietary supplementation with creatine may improve muscle wasting associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crenolanib
An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Crenolanib binds to and inhibits PDGFR, which may result in the inhibition of PDGFR-related signal transduction pathways, and, so, the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. PDGFR, up-regulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crenolanib besylate
The besylate salt form of crenolanib, an orally bioavailable benzimidazole targeting the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) subtypes alpha and beta and FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, crenolanib binds to and inhibits both wild-type and mutated forms of PDGFR and Flt3, which may result in the inhibition of PDGFR- and Flt3-related signal transduction pathways. This results in inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in PDGFR and/or Flt3 overexpressing tumor cells. PDGFR and Flt3, class III receptor tyrosine kinases, are upregulated or mutated in many tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Creon
(Other name for: pancrelipase)
Cresemba
(Other name for: isavuconazonium sulfate)
Crestor
(Other name for: rosuvastatin calcium)
cridanimod sodium
The sodium salt form of cridanimod, a small molecule that can increase progesterone receptor (PR) expression, with potential antineoplastic adjuvant activity. Upon intramuscular administration, cridanimod is able to induce the expression of PR in endometrial cancer. This could increase the sensitivity of endometrial cancer cells to progestin monotherapy. In combination with a progestin, cancer cells could be eradicated through increased PR-mediated signaling, leading to an inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary gland, via a negative feedback mechanism, and, eventually, an inhibition of estrogen release from the ovaries. This leads to an inhibition of cellular growth in estrogen-dependent tumor cells. In addition, this agent is able to increase the production and release of interferon (IFN) alpha and beta. PR is often downregulated in endometrial cancer and makes it resistant to progestin-mediated hormone therapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CRISPR/Cas9-edited HPV16/18 E6/E7 plasmid
A plasmid encoding for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) targeting the promoters for the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) epitopes E6 and E7, and coupled to the endonuclease cas9, with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon administration and transfection of the CRISPR/Cas9-edited HPV16/18 E6/E7 plasmid, the guide RNA (gRNA) of the CRISPR moiety specifically targets and binds to complementary sites on the HPV 16/18 promoter regions for E6 and E7. Cas9 cleaves these specific DNA sites, thereby disrupting HPV16/18 E6/E7 transcription. Decreased expression of E6 and E7 induces apoptosis and decreases tumor cell proliferation in HPV-driven tumor cells. This induces the expression of certain tumor suppressor genes, such as p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which induces tumor cell apoptosis and inhibits tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 and TCR gene-deleted anti-mesothelin CAR-T cells
A preparation of human T lymphocytes transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) mesothelin and gene-edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease complex to eliminate endogenous TCR and programmed death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed cell death-1) expression, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA) specifically targets and binds to complementary sites on TCRalpha, TCRbeta and PD-1. In turn, Cas9 cleaves these specific DNA sites, thereby disrupting transcription. Upon isolation, transduction, electroporation with TCRalpha, TCRbeta and PD-1 gRNAs, which are complexed to Cas9 RNA to disrupt expression of endogenous TCRalpha, TCRbeta and PD-1, expansion ex vivo, and introduction into the patient, the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated PD-1 and TCR gene-deleted anti-mesothelin CAR T cells recognize and bind to mesothelin-overexpressing tumor cells. This may result in a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of mesothelin-positive tumor cells. PD-1, an immune checkpoint receptor expressed on T cells, plays a key role in tumor immune evasion by binding to its ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274; programmed cell death-1 ligand 1) expressed on tumor cells. By removing PD-1 from T cells, PD-1-mediated signaling is halted which may decrease T-cell exhaustion and may enhance T-cell activity against the mesothelin-expressing tumor cells. Removal of endogenous TCR reduces TCR competition for expression, increases the persistence and function of the expressed transgenic TCR, enhances resistance to T-cell exhaustion and increases T-cell activity. Mesothelin is upregulated on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Crixivan
(Other name for: indinavir sulfate)
crizanlizumab
A humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 anti-P-selectin antibody with vaso-protective and anti-vaso-occlusive properties. Upon administration, crizanlizumab binds to P-selectin and blocks its interaction with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1; SELPLG) on neutrophils and monocytes. P-selectin, a glycoprotein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM), translocates to the surface of activated endothelial cells and platelets, upon stimulation, where it binds to its ligand and mediates the rolling of platelets and neutrophils on activated endothelial cells. Therefore, blockade of p-selectin may inhibit platelet aggregation, maintain blood flow and minimize sickle cell-related pain crises (SCPC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crizotinib
An orally available aminopyridine-based inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) with antineoplastic activity. Crizotinib, in an ATP-competitive manner, binds to and inhibits ALK kinase and ALK fusion proteins. In addition, crizotinib inhibits c-Met kinase, and disrupts the c-Met signaling pathway. Altogether, this agent inhibits tumor cell growth. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development. ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crofelemer
An oligomeric proanthocyanidin extracted from the latex produced by the tree Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae), with antidiarrheal, and potential antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Upon oral administration, crofelemer acts locally within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by inhibiting both the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride ion (Cl-) channel and the calcium-activated Cl- channel (CaCC) expressed on the luminal surface of enterocytes. This inhibits the secretion of chloride ions into the intestinal lumen and prevents high volume water loss. By normalizing Cl- and water balance in the intestines, crofelemer relieves secretory diarrhea. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crolibulin
A small molecule tubulin polymerization inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Crolibulin binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, which may result in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. As a vascular disruption agent (VDA), this agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, which may result in a reduction in tumor blood flow and tumor hypoxia and ischemic necrosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cromolyn sodium inhalant PA101
A solution containing a high concentration of cromolyn sodium, with potential mast cell stabilizing, anti-tussive and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon inhalation of PA101 via a nebulizer, cromolyn blocks calcium ion influx into mast cells, thereby preventing the degranulation of mast cells in the lungs. This blocks the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from mast cells, such as histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), and prevents both bronchoconstriction and an inflammatory response. In indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM), PA101 may be able to reduce the symptoms associated with this disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crotoxin
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CRTH2 antagonist ACT-774312
An orally bioavailable, selective antagonist of the chemoattractant receptor‐homologous molecule expressed on T-helper (Th) 2 cells (CRTH2; prostaglandin D2 receptor 2; G-protein coupled receptor 44), with potential anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon administration, CRTH2 antagonist ACT-774312 selectively binds to and prevents the activation of CRTH2 by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). This may inhibit the recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), and Th2 cells, thereby reducing the number of inflammatory cells within the affected tissue. Additionally, this may reduce the release of cytokines at the site of allergen entry and block type 2 cytokine-mediated effects such as tissue remodeling. CRTH2, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is mainly expressed on eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, monocytes, mast cells, Th2 cells, ILC2 and dendritic cells (DCs). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11
An orally available crystalline formulation of genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone and phytoestrogen with potential antineoplastic, chemosensitizing, and antioxidant activities. Similar to genistein, crystalline genistein formulation AXP107-11 increases expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which deactivates protein kinase Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK1 and 3; ERK2 and 1), thereby disrupting PI3K/Akt signal transduction and inducing apoptosis. This agent also induces antioxidant enzymes through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibits NF-kB activation and decreases inflammation response, thereby sensitizing tumors to chemotherapy. Compared to genistein itself, this crystalline formulation shows improved solubility and bioavailability.
CSF-1R inhibitor BLZ945
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R; CSF1R), with potential antineoplastic activity. CSF1R inhibitor BLZ945 selectively binds to CSF1R expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), blocks the activity of CSF1R, and inhibits CSF1R-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits the activity and proliferation of TAMs, and reprograms the immunosuppressive nature of existing TAMs. Altogether, this reduces TAM-mediated immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment, re-activates the immune system, and improves anti-tumor cell responses mediated by T-cells. CSF1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), is a cell-surface receptor for its ligand, colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1); this receptor is overexpressed by TAMs in the tumor microenvironment, and plays a major role in both immune suppression and the induction of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CSF1R inhibitor DCC-3014
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptor colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R; CSF-1R; C-FMS; CD115; M-CSFR), with potential antineoplastic, macrophage checkpoint-inhibitory and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, CSF1R inhibitor DCC-3014 targets and binds to CSF1R expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts and inhibits the binding of the CSF1R ligands colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34), to CSF1R. This prevents CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling in these cells. This blocks the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages and monocytes and reduces inflammation. By blocking the recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and activity of CSF1R-dependent tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), DCC-3014 inhibits the immunomodulating activity by macrophages and enhances T-cell infiltration and antitumor T-cell immune responses, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells. TAMs play key roles in the tumor microenvironment and allow for immune suppression; TAMs promote inflammation, tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CTLA-4-directed probody BMS-986249
A probody composed of ipilimumab, a recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the human T-cell receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4; CTLA-4), linked to a proprietary masking peptide that covers the active antigen-binding site of the antibody through a protease-cleavable linker, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of CTLA-4-directed probody BMS-986249, the masking peptide is cleaved by tumor-associated proteases upon extravasation into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Protease-mediated removal of the linker enables binding of the unmasked monoclonal antibody moiety to CTLA-4, which is expressed on certain T cells. This inhibits the CTLA4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation, and leads to both activation of tumor infiltrating T-effector cells and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. CTLA4, an inhibitory receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on activated effector T cells (Teffs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays a key role in the inhibition of T-cell activity and downregulation of the immune system. The peptide masking of BMS-986249 minimizes binding to CTLA-4 in normal tissues and may reduce systemic toxicity, when compared to ipilimumab. Tumor-associated proteases are present in high concentrations and aberrantly activated in the TME. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CTP-37-DT vaccine
A vaccine composed of synthetic peptides derived from beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid. Vaccination with this peptide may elicit the host immune response against hCG-producing cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Cubicin
(Other name for: daptomycin)
Culturelle
(Other name for: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG)
Cuprenil
(Other name for: penicillamine)
Cuprimine
(Other name for: penicillamine)
Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil
The oil extracted from the root tuber of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil is used primarily in skincare preparations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
curcumin
A phytopolylphenol pigment isolated from the plant Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric, with a variety of pharmacologic properties. Curcumin blocks the formation of reactive-oxygen species, possesses anti-inflammatory properties as a result of inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX) and other enzymes involved in inflammation; and disrupts cell signal transduction by various mechanisms including inhibition of protein kinase C. These effects may play a role in the agent's observed antineoplastic properties, which include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of chemically induced carcinogenesis and tumor growth in animal models of cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
curcumin/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid/quercetin soft gels
An orally available preparation containing curcumin, quercetin, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin sulfate with potential radioprotective activity. Upon administration, the glycosaminoglycans may improve barrier function and reduce inflammation and irritation in the genitourinary tract caused by radiotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
curcumin/doxorubicin-encapsulating nanoparticle IMX-110
A water-soluble, nano-sized formulation composed of nanoparticles encapsulating the poorly water-soluble curcumin, a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-kB) and poly-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the curcumin/doxorubicin-encapsulating nanoparticle IMX-110, the curcumin moiety targets and inhibits the activation of STAT3 and NF-kB and prevents STAT3- and NF-kB-mediated signaling pathways, both of which are activated in a variety of human cancers and plays a key role in neoplastic transformation, uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation, tumor resistance to apoptosis, metastasis and immune evasion. The doxorubicin moiety intercalates into DNA and interferes with topoisomerase II activity. This inhibits DNA replication and RNA synthesis, leading to tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. This agent also interacts with cell membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Delivery of doxorubicin in nanoparticles may improve drug penetration into tumors and curcumin, by inhibiting NFkB and STAT3 activity, may circumvent the tumor cells multidrug resistance mechanisms and may therefore be effective in chemoresistant tumor cells. Chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, upregulate the expression of NF-kB in tumor cells which generates chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsule
An oral capsule containing curcumin, green tea extract, Polygonum cuspidatum extract, and soybean extract, with antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. The antioxidants in curcumin/green tea extract/Polygonum cuspidatum extract/soybean extract capsule bind to and neutraliize free-radicals, which may prevent their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
curcumin-based gel
A proprietary topical gel formulation containing an extract of curcumin, the polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound healing activities. Upon topical administration to the affected areas, curcumin inhibits a variety of pro-inflammatory enzymes and reduces the production of certain pro-inflammatory mediators. Curcumin also blocks the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neutralizes free radicals and prevents oxidative stress and DNA damage. In addition, curcumin inhibits phosphorylase kinase (PhK) in the skin, which prevents multiple PhK-mediated signal transduction pathways that are induced upon skin injury. This further prevents inflammation, promotes healing and reduces scar tissue formation. The proprietary curcumin-based gel also provides moisture to the skin and contains tetrahydropiperine (THP), which is derived from black pepper fruit and increases skin uptake of curcumin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
cusatuzumab
A defucosylated, humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of the human CD70 molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, cusatuzumab selectively binds to, and neutralizes the activity of CD70, which may also induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response against CD70-expressing tumor cells. CD70, the ligand for the costimulatory receptor CD27 and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is found on a number of solid and hematological tumors. Its overexpression may play an important role in evasion of immune surveillance.
custirsen sodium
The eicosasodium salt of a mixed-backbone antisense oligodeoxynucleotide with chemosensitizing properties. Custirsen inhibits testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 (TRPM-2). Administration of custirsen abrogates the anti-apoptotic effect of TRPM-2, thereby sensitizing cells to chemotherapy and resulting in tumor cell death. TRPM-2 is an anti-apoptotic clusterin that is overexpressed by prostate cancer cells and is associated with chemoresistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
CUX1 wt allele
Human CUX1 wild-type allele is located in the vicinity of 7q22.1 and is approximately 468 kb in length. This allele, which encodes homeobox protein cut-like 1 and protein CASP, plays a role in both the regulation of transcription and intra-Golgi vesicle transport. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)