NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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314 results found for: L
L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester
A 2-amino acid compound with immunomodulatory activity. L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLME) is a lysosomotropic agent entering cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. LLME undergoes a condensation process catalyzed by dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) in lysosomes. Condensation of LLME leads to lysosomal rupture and DNA fragmentation in DPPI-expressing immune cells such as cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells. Therefore, this agent may be able to decrease the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) via cytotoxic T-cell depletion. Furthermore, LLME has the potential for augmenting antibody production when used in pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), possibly by interfering with gene expression of inflammatory factors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
L-lysine
A nutritional supplement containing the biologically active L-isomer of the essential amino acid lysine, with potential anti-mucositis activity. Upon oral intake, L-lysine promotes healthy tissue function, growth and healing and improves the immune system. L-Lysine promotes calcium uptake, is essential for carnitine production and collagen formation. As collagen is essential for connective tissue maintenance, this agent may also help heal mucosal wounds. This may help decrease and prevent mucositis induced by radiation or chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
L-lysine/L-arginine-containing amino acid solution
An intravenous (IV) amino acid (AA) solution containing the cationic amino acids L-lysine and L-arginine, with radioprotective activity. Upon IV administration of the AA solution, L-lysine and L-arginine are specifically taken up by the kidneys. This protects the kidneys from toxicity by certain co-administered radio-labeled peptides as they compete with radio-labeled peptides for renal uptake. This reduces uptake of the radio-labeled peptides by the kidneys and decreases their renal retention. It also increases the target-to-kidney ratio of the radio-labeled peptides, thereby reducing radiation exposure to the kidneys and preventing nephrotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMB-1 immunotoxin
A chimeric protein consisting of the Fv portion of a monoclonal antibody attached to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A without its cell-binding region. LMB-1 immunotoxin targets B3, a Lewis Y-related carbohydrate epitope found on some solid tumors. The antibody attaches to the tumor cell and the exotoxin stops protein synthesis by inactivating elongation factor 2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMB-2 immunotoxin
A fusion protein consisting of the Fv portion of a monoclonal antibody attached to a 38-kDa fragment of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (with amino acids 365-380 deleted). LMB-2 immunotoxin targets the interleukin 2 receptor (also known as IL-2R or CD25) which is expressed on activated normal T and B cells and macrophages and on the cells of various hematologic malignancies. The antibody attaches to the IL-2R on the cell membrane, facilitating the entry of the exotoxin. The exotoxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMB-7 immunotoxin
A single chain chimeric protein consisting of a monoclonal antibody fragment attached to a portion of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A. LMB-7 immunotoxin attaches to B3, a Lewis Y-related carbohydrate epitope on some solid tumor cells. The antibody attaches to the cell and the exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating elongation factor 2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMB-9 immunotoxin
A recombinant disulfide stabilized anti-Lewis Y IgG immunotoxin containing a 38 KD toxic element derived from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and a monoclonal antibody fragment, designed to target adenocarcinomas expressing Lewis Y. LMB-9 immunotoxin attaches to tumor cells, facilitating he entry of the exotoxin. The exotoxin moiety induces caspase-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via a mechanism involving mitochondrial damage; it also catalyzes the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, thereby inactivating elongation factor 2 and inhibiting protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LmddA-LLO-chHER2 fusion protein-secreting live-attenuated Listeria cancer vaccine ADXS31-164
A cancer vaccine containing a live, highly attenuated strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (LmddA) encoding a fusion protein composed of a chimeric peptide comprised of three highly immunogenic epitopes of the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) HER2/neu (chHER2) fused to a non-hemolytic fragment of the immunostimulant listeriolysin O (LLO) protein, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the LmddA-LLO-chHER2 vaccine ADXS31-142, the LmddA is taken up by phagocytic cells; then the listeriolysin portion of the expressed LLO-chHER2 can form pores in the phagolysosomes and the fusion protein can escape into the cytosol. In turn, the LLO-chHER2 is processed and presented to the immune system by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I on the phagocytic cells. Antigen presentation activates the immune system to exert an immune response involving the recruitment and activation of T lymphocytes against HER2-expressing tumor cells, and inhibits tumor-infiltrating T regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). This eventually results in tumor cell lysis. HER2/neu, a tyrosine kinase receptor belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is overexpressed in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
L-menthol preparation NPO-11
A preparation containing L-menthol with potential anti-peristaltic activity. Upon spraying directly onto the gastric mucosa, L-menthol preparation NPO-11 may relax gastrointestinal smooth muscle. This may result in a suppression of gastric peristalsis and may be beneficial during upper GI endoscopic procedures. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
L-methylfolate
A nutritional supplement containing the biologically active form of the B9 vitamin folate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-methylfolate), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, L-methylfolate is able to provide methyl groups allowing an increase in the level of DNA methylation in the promoter regions of certain tumor-promoting genes, thereby reversing the DNA hypomethylation of these genes and inactivating them. This may result in a decrease of both tumor cell proliferation and tumor progression. In addition, administration of L-methylfolate may sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of other chemotherapeutic agents. Unlike folic acid, L-methylfolate is able to cross the blood brain barrier and could be beneficial in the treatment of brain tumors. DNA hypomethylation of certain genes leads to chromosome instability and contributes to tumor development. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP/BARF1/ EBNA1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A preparation of allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) made specifically reactive to three Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins, latent membrane protein (LMP) 1, BamH1-A rightward frame-1 (BARF1) and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Administration of LMP1/BARF1/ EBNA1-specific CTLs to patients with LMP1/BARF1/EBNA1-positive tumors may result in a specific CTL response against the tumor cells expressing these antigens, which can result in both cell lysis and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP1, BARF1 and EBNA1 are expressed in various, EBV-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP1-specific chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T lymphocytes
A preparation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) transfected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specifically recognizing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1; LMP-1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the LMP1-specific CAR-expressing T lymphocytes to patients with LMP1-positive tumors, the CTLs specifically target and lyse tumor cells expressing LMP1, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The tumor-associated antigen (TAA) LMP1 is expressed in various malignancies, including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP-2:340-349 peptide vaccine
A peptide cancer vaccine containing amino acid residues 340-349 of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-2 (LMP-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with LMP-2:340-349 peptide may boost the immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against LMP-2-expressing tumor cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP-2, an EBV transmembrane protein, is expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP-2:419-427 peptide vaccine
A peptide cancer vaccine containing amino acid residues 419-427 of the latent membrane protein-2 (LMP-2) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with the LMP-2:49-427 peptide vaccine may boost the immune system to mount a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against LMP-2-expressing tumor cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. LMP-2, an EBV transmembrane protein, is expressed in various malignancies including nasopharyngeal cancer and EBV-positive Hodgkin disease. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP2a-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
A preparation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), specifically reactive to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-2A (LMP2A), with potential antineoplastic activity. T-lymphocytes are exposed ex vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding EBV LMP2A. Subsequently, LMP2A-specific CTLs are exposed to EBV infected cells transfected with adenovirus encoding LMP2A, thereby further stimulating CTLs. Administered to patients with EBV-positive tumors, LMP2A-specific CTLs target LMP2A-positive cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. EBV LMP2A may be expressed in various malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LMP7 inhibitor M3258
An orally bioavailable, potent, selective, reversible inhibitor of the large multifunctional peptidase 7 (LMP7, Beta5i, PSMB8), a chymotrypsin-like, proteolytic subunit of the immunoproteasome, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, LMP7 inhibitor M3258 targets and inhibits the proteolytic activity of the LMP7 subunit of immunoproteasome, thereby blocking its deubiquitylating activity. This blocks the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway, prevents the degradation of defective proteins, and leads to an accumulation of poly-ubiquitylated proteins. This induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) and results in both the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor cell growth. Proteasomes are large multi-subunit protease complexes that degrade unneeded or damaged proteins that have been ubiquitinated, thereby restoring protein homeostasis. Unlike the constitutive proteasome, which is expressed in most tissues, immunoproteasome is specifically present in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, including multiple myeloma. Immunoproteasome degrades ubiquitinated proteins, generates peptides for presentation on MHC class I, and plays a key role in the adaptive immune response and inflammatory diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lm-tLLO-neoantigens vaccine ADXS-NEO
A proprietary, personalized plasmid DNA-based cancer vaccine composed of a live-attenuated strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) carrying a proprietary plasmid vector encoding multiple, patient-specific, immunogenic neoepitopes fused to a truncated form of the immunostimulant listeriolysin O (tLLO), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the Lm-tLLO-neoantigens vaccine ADXS-NEO, the ADXS-NEO is taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs), and the expressed tLLO-neoantigens fusion protein is processed and presented to the immune system by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II molecules. This activates the immune system to exert both innate and adaptive immune responses involving the recruitment and activation of T lymphocytes against the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) specifically expressed by the patient's tumor cells, and inhibits the immunosuppressive tumor-infiltrating T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME). This results in tumor cell lysis. The various unique mutation-derived TAAs that are used in ADXS-NEO are identified from a biopsy of the patient's tumor. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lobaplatin
A third-generation, water-soluble platinum compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Lobaplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes that bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC- and AG-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand DNA cross-links. These cross-links will ultimately result in induction of apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Compared to first and second generation platinum compounds, lobaplatin appears to be more stable, less toxic, have a better therapeutic index and may overcome tumor resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lobradimil
A synthetic analog of bradykinin. Lobradimil is a potent, specific bradykinin B-2 receptor agonist that stimulates B-2 receptors expressed on the surface of brain capillary endothelial cells, thereby reversibly increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Compared to bradykinin, this agent possesses enhanced receptor selectivity, greater plasma stability, and a longer half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lodine
(Other name for: etodolac)
lometrexol
A folate analog antimetabolite with antineoplastic activity. As the 6R diastereomer of 5,10-dideazatetrahydrofolate, lometrexol inhibits glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis, arresting cells in the S phase of the cell cycle, and inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. The agent has been shown to be active against tumors that are resistant to the folate antagonist methotrexate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lomustine
A nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Lomustine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent also carbamoylates DNA and proteins, resulting in inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and disruption of RNA processing. Lomustine is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lonafarnib
A synthetic tricyclic derivative of carboxamide with antineoplastic properties. Lonarfanib binds to and inhibits farnesyl transferase, an enzyme involved in the post-translational modification and activation of Ras proteins. Ras proteins participate in numerous signalling pathways (proliferation, cytoskeletal organization), and play an important role in oncogenesis. Mutated ras proteins have been found in a wide range of human cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lonaprisan
An orally bioavailable pentafluoroethyl derivative of a mifepristone-related steroid with antiprogestagenic activity. Lonaprisan is a pure, highly receptor-selective progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist; binding of this agent to PRs inhibits PR activation and the associated proliferative effects. Unlike many other antiprogestins such as mifepristone, this agent does not appear to convert to an agonist in the presence of protein kinase A (PKA) activators and shows high antiprogestagenic activity on both progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PR-A and PR-B. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
loncastuximab tesirine
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of an anti-CD19 humanized monoclonal antibody conjugated, via a cleavable linker comprised of valine-alanine and maleimide, to a cytotoxic, cross-linking agent pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, which targets DNA minor grooves, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody portion of loncastuximab tesirine targets the cell surface antigen CD19 on various cancer cells. Upon antibody/antigen binding and internalization, the cytotoxic PBD moiety is released. The imine groups of the PBD moiety bind to the N2 positions of guanines on opposite strands of DNA. This induces interstrand cross-links in the minor groove of DNA and inhibits DNA replication, which inhibits the proliferation of CD19-overexpressing tumor cells. CD19, a transmembrane receptor and tumor-associated antigen (TAA), is expressed on a number of B-cell-derived cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
long peptide vaccine 7
A peptide vaccine consisting of a combination of seven synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are each about 30 amino acids in size, and derived from cancer-testis antigens (CTA) and melanocytic differentiation proteins (MDP), with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, long peptide vaccine 7 may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these peptides. CTA and MDP are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
long-acting release pasireotide
A long-acting release (LAR) formulation containing pasireotide, a synthetic long-acting cyclohexapeptide, with somatostatin-like activity. Upon intramuscular administration of the LAR formulation of pasireotide, this somatostatin analog strongly binds to and activates somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 1, 2, 3, and 5. This leads to an inhibition in the secretion of human growth hormone (hGH) and results in decreased production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which may inhibit IGF-1-mediated cell signaling pathways. This may lead to an inhibition in tumor cell growth and an increase in apoptosis in IGF-1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent causes a reduction in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which leads to an inhibition of cortisol secretion. ACTH-producing tumors cause hypersecretion of cortisol which results in many unwanted symptoms. This agent may also block other key survival pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Pasireotide also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, thereby decreasing angiogenesis and tumor cell growth in VEGF-overexpressing tumor cells. The long-acting form of pasireotide allows for less frequent administration as compared to the original form of this agent. SSTRs are overexpressed by some neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lonsurf
(Other name for: trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride)
loperamide hydrochloride
The hydrochloride salt form of loperamide, a synthetic, piperidine derivative and opioid agonist with antidiarrheal activity. Loperamide acts on the mu-receptors in the intestinal mucosa. This leads to a decrease in gastrointestinal motility by decreasing the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle activity of the intestinal wall. This slows intestinal transit and allows for more water and electrolyte absorption from the intestines. Loperamide is not significantly absorbed from the gut and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore it has no central nervous system effects. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lopid
(Other name for: gemfibrozil)
lopinavir
A protease inhibitor used against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lopinavir competitively inhibits the HIV-1 protease, an enzyme that mediates the cleavage of Gag, Gag-Pol and Nef precursor polypeptides into their mature proteins, including protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. Inhibition of HIV-1 protease prevents cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursor and results in the release of immature, noninfectious virions. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Loprox Lotion
(Other name for: ciclopirox olamine lotion)
Lopurin
(Other name for: allopurinol sodium)
loratadine
A piperidine histamine H1-receptor antagonist with anti-allergic properties and without sedative effects. Loratadine blocks the H1 histamine receptor and prevents the symptoms that are caused by histamine activity on capillaries, bronchial smooth muscle, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including vasodilatation, increased capillary permeability, bronchoconstriction, and spasmodic contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Loratadine does not cross the blood-brain barrier and does not cause central nervous system effects.
lorazepam
A benzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, anti-emetic and sedative properties. Lorazepam enhances the effect of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid on the GABA receptors by binding to a site that is distinct from the GABA binding site in the central nervous system. This leads to an increase in chloride channel opening events, a facilitation of chloride ion conductance, membrane hyperpolarization, and eventually inhibition of the transmission of nerve signals, thereby decreasing nervous excitation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lorbrena
(Other name for: lorlatinib)
Lorcet
(Other name for: hydrocodone/acetaminophen)
lorlatinib
An orally available, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and C-ros oncogene 1 (Ros1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, lorlatinib binds to and inhibits both ALK and ROS1 kinases. The kinase inhibition leads to disruption of ALK- and ROS1-mediated signaling and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK- and ROS1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, lorlatinib is able to cross the blood brain barrier. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. ROS1, overexpressed in certain cancer cells, plays a key role in cell growth and survival of cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lorvotuzumab mertansine
An immunoconjugate of a humanized murine monoclonal antibody (huN-901) and DMI, a semi-synthetic derivative of the plant-derived ansa macrolide maytansine. The antibody moiety of lorvotuzumab mertansine selectively attaches to CD56 antigen, a neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)) expressed on the surface of cells of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and other neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Thus, the DMI conjugate is targeted specifically to CD56-expressing tumor cells, where it inhibits tubulin polymerization and assembly, resulting in inhibition of mitosis and cell cycle arrest in the S phase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
losartan potassium
The potassium salt of losartan, a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist with antihypertensive activity. Losartan selectively and competitively binds to the angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) and blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the receptor, thus promoting vasodilatation and counteracting the effects of aldosterone. Converted from angiotensin I by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete aldosterone, decreasing sodium excretion and increasing potassium excretion, and acts as a vasoconstrictor in vascular smooth muscle. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lotensin
(Other name for: benazepril hydrochloride)
Lotrimin
(Other name for: clotrimazole)
lovastatin
A lactone metabolite isolated from the fungus Aspergillus terreus with cholesterol-lowering and potential antineoplastic activities. Lovastatin is hydrolyzed to the active beta-hydroxyacid form, which competitively inhibits 3-hydroxyl-3-methylgutarylcoenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, this agent may induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell invasiveness, possibly by inhibiting protein farnesylation and protein geranylgeranylation, and may arrest cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The latter effect sensitizes tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lovaxin C
(Other name for: live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes cancer vaccine ADXS11-001)
Lovaza
(Other name for: omega-3-acid ethyl esters)
Lovenox
(Other name for: enoxaparin sodium)
LOXL2 inhibitor PAT-1251
An orally available, small-molecule, irreversible inhibitor of lysyl oxidase homolog 2 (lysyl oxidase-like protein 2; LOXL2) with potential antifibrotic activity. Upon oral administration, the aminomethyl pyridine moiety of LOXL2 inhibitor PAT-1251 interacts with the active site of LOXL2 to form a pseudo-irreversible inhibitory complex, thereby inhibiting the catalytic activity of LOXL2. LOXL2, a secreted glycoprotein, catalyzes the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins, including collagen and elastin, leading to the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine). Condensation with other allysines or lysines drives the formation of inter- and intramolecular cross-linkages that impact remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), potentially leading to fibrosis. Inhibition of LOXL2, which is often upregulated in fibrotic tissue, may reduce fibrosis in certain chronic fibrotic diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lozanoc
(Other name for: itraconazole)
LRP-1-targeted peptide-drug conjugate GRN1005
A peptide-drug conjugate containing the taxane paclitaxel covalently linked to the proprietary 19 amino acid peptide angiopep-2, in a 3:1 ratio, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LRP-1-targeted peptide-drug conjugate GRN1005, via angiopep-2 moiety, binds to LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), which is highly expressed in blood brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells. This binding allows the transcytosis of the agent across the BBB and the delivery of the cytotoxic agent paclitaxel. Compared to paclitaxel alone, GRN1005 is able to increase the concentration of paclitaxel in the brain and is also able to specifically deliver paclitaxel to LRP-1-overexpressing tumor cells, both in the brain and in the periphery. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LRP5/6 antagonist BI 905677
A humanized biparatopic nanobody composed of two blocking domains for the Wnt ligand co-receptors lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP) 5 and 6, with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, BI 905677 targets and binds to LRP5 and LRP6, thereby blocking the binding of Wnt ligands to LRP5/6. This prevents the activation of the Frizzled (FZD)-Wnt-LRP5/6 trimeric complex and prevents the inactivation of the beta-catenin degradation complex, which leads to beta-catenin degradation. This inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, prevents the beta-catenin-mediated activation of Wnt target genes, and inhibits the proliferation and survival of Wnt-driven tumor cells. In addition, inhibition of Wnt signaling by BI 905677 prevents Wnt-mediated immune escape, thereby re-activating the immune system, specifically inducing the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and activation as well as infiltration of cytotoxic T cells into the tumor tissue. The FZD-Wnt-LRP5/6 trimeric complex induces phosphorylation of LRP5 or LRP6 intracellular domains leading to inactivation of the beta-catenin degradation complex, allowing beta-catenin accumulation; stabilized beta-catenin enters the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional activator of Wnt target genes. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a key role in tumorigenesis and resistance to immunotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LSD1 inhibitor CC-90011
An orally available inhibitor of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CC-90011 binds to and inhibits LSD1, a demethylase that suppresses the expression of target genes by converting the di- and mono-methylated forms of lysine at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) to mono- and unmethylated H3K4, respectively. LSD1 inhibition enhances H3K4 methylation and increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes. This may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in LSD1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, LSD1 demethylates mono- or di-methylated H3K9 which increases gene expression of tumor promoting genes; inhibition of LSD1 promotes H3K9 methylation and decreases transcription of these genes. LSD1, an enzyme belonging to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase family that is overexpressed in certain tumor cells, plays a key role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LSD1 inhibitor GSK2879552
An orally available, irreversible, inhibitor of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GSK2879552 binds to and inhibits LSD1, a demethylase that suppresses the expression of target genes by converting the dimethylated form of lysine at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) to mono- and unmethylated H3K4. LSD1 inhibition enhances H3K4 methylation and increases the expression of tumor-suppressor genes. This may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in LSD1-overexpressing tumor cells. LSD1, overexpressed in certain tumor cells, plays a key role in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LSD1 inhibitor IMG-7289
An orally-available, irreversible inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, IMG-7289 binds to and inhibits LSD1, a demethylase that suppresses the expression of target genes by converting the di- and mono-methylated forms of lysine at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) to mono- and unmethylated H3K4. LSD1 inhibition enhances H3K4 methylation and increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes. In addition, LSD1 demethylates mono- or di-methylated H3K9 which increases gene expression of tumor promoting genes; thus, inhibition of LSD1 also promotes H3K9 methylation and decreases transcription of these genes. Altogether, this may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in LSD1-overexpressing tumor cells. LSD1, an enzyme belonging to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase family is overexpressed in certain tumor cells and plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression, tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LSD1 inhibitor RO7051790
An orally available inhibitor of lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (KDM1A; LSD1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, RO7051790 binds to and inhibits LSD1, a demethylase that suppresses the expression of target genes by converting the di- and mono-methylated forms of lysine at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) to mono- and unmethylated H3K4, respectively. LSD1 inhibition enhances H3K4 methylation and increases the expression of tumor suppressor genes. This may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in LSD1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, LSD1 demethylates mono- or di-methylated H3K9, which increases gene expression of tumor promoting genes; inhibition of LSD1 promotes H3K9 methylation and decreases transcription of these genes. LSD1, an enzyme belonging to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase family, is overexpressed in certain tumor cells and plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression, tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lubiprostone
A bicyclic fatty acid derived from prostaglandin E1 and a chloride channel activator with laxative activity. Upon intake, lubiprostone specifically binds to and activates the type 2 chloride channel (ClC-2) in the apical membrane of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This produces an efflux of chloride ions, thereby drawing water into the gastrointestinal lumen. The resulting increased amounts of intestinal fluid soften the stool, increase motility, and improve bowel movements. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lucanix
(Other name for: belagenpumatucel-L)
lucanthone
An orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1 or APE1), with anti-schistosomal and potential antineoplastic activity. Lucanthone intercalates DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerases I and II during replication and transcription, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of macromolecules. In addition, this agent specifically inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity, resulting in unrepaired DNA strand breaks which may induce apoptosis. Therefore, lucanthone may sensitize tumor cells to radiation and chemotherapy. Furthermore, lucanthone inhibits autophagy through the disruption of lysosomal function. The multifunctional nuclease APE1 is a key component for DNA repair; its expression is often correlated with tumor cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lucatumumab
A monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell surface antigen CD40 with potential antineoplastic activity. Lucatumumab binds to and inhibits CD40, thereby inhibiting CD40 ligand-induced cell proliferation and triggering cell lysis via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cells overexpressing CD40. CD40, an integral membrane protein found on the surface of B lymphocytes, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is highly expressed in a number of B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lucentis
(Other name for: ranibizumab)
lucitanib
A novel dual inhibitor targeting human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with antiangiogenic activity. Lucitanib inhibits VEGFR-1, -2, -3 and FGFR-1, -2 kinases in the nM range, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. Both VEGFRs and FGFRs belong to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases that may be upregulated in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lucorteum Sol
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
Lugol's solution
A solution composed of iodine and potassium iodide, which can be used as a reagent and antiseptic, with potential use in cancer diagnosis. The iodine in Lugol’s solution selectively binds to alpha-1,4 glucans found in polysaccharides, such as glycogen. Lugol’s solution reacts with glycogen in normal, healthy non-keratinized, squamous epithelium and the iodine-glucan complex stains the glycogen-containing cells dark brown. Cancer cells are devoid of glycogen, so these cells will stay unstained. The presence of cancer cells can be detected by the degree of staining and the neoplastic cells can be surgically removed. High-grade intraepitheial neoplasia has almost no glycogen-containing epithelium. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lumirem
(Other name for: ferumoxsil oral suspension)
Lumitene
(Other name for: beta carotene)
Lumoxiti
(Other name for: moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk)
Lunesta
(Other name for: eszopiclone)
lung tumor-associated antigen
A tumor-associated antigen derived from the cell surface antigen of lung cancer cells. Lung tumor-associated antigen could be used as a diagnostic marker or as a form of immunotherapy targeted against lung cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lung-targeted immunomodulator QBKPN
A proprietary, lung-targeted, site specific immunomodulator (SSI), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact type and composition of the lung-targeted immunomodulator QBKPN has yet to be fully disclosed, upon subcutaneous administration, this agent is able to activate a local innate immune response in the lung tissue. This results in an increased number of M1 macrophages, which induces a shift from M2 to M1 macrophage dominance in the tumor microenvironment, and stimulates the recruitment of other immune cells. The M1 macrophages exert antitumor activity and eradicate lung cancer cells through phagocytosis. QBKPN does not induce a systemic immune response or affect other organs or tissues. Altogether, this SSI may decrease tumor cell growth in the lungs. SSIs contain specific, inactivated components of pathogens, such as bacteria and/or viruses, which normally cause an acute infection in the specific organ or tissue of interest. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lupron
(Other name for: leuprolide acetate)
Lupron Depot
(Other name for: leuprolide acetate)
lurbinectedin
A synthetic tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one alkaloid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Lurbinectedin covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lurtotecan
A semisynthetic analogue of camptothecin with antineoplastic activity. Lurtotecan selectively stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex and forms an enzyme-drug-DNA ternary complex. As a consequence of the formation of this complex, both the initial cleavage reaction and religation steps are inhibited and subsequent collision of the replication fork with the cleaved strand of DNA results in inhibition of DNA replication, double strand DNA breakage and triggering of apoptosis. Independent from DNA replication inhibition, lurtotecan also inhibits RNA synthesis, multi-ubiquitination and degradation of topoisomerase I and chromatin reorganization. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
luspatercept-aamt
A soluble, recombinant fusion protein composed of a modified form of the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIb (ActRIIb) and linked to the human IgG1 Fc domain, with red blood cell stimulating activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, luspatercept inhibits several ligands in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily. This prevents activation of a variety of TGF-beta superfamily members involved in late stage erythropoiesis and results in an increased differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitors. Luspatercept acts at a different, later stage than erythropoietin. This agent ultimately enhances red blood cell production and prevents anemia. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lutathera
(Other name for: lutetium Lu 177-dotatate)
Luteohormone
(Other name for: therapeutic progesterone)
luteolin
A naturally-occurring flavonoid, with potential anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptosis-inducing and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration, luteolin scavenges free radicals, protects cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage and induces direct cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation and suppresses metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody 5B1
A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of a human monoclonal antibody (huMAb-5B1) against the carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis A (carbohydrate antigen 19-9; CA19-9) that is conjugated to the chelator 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-cyclohexyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA) and labeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177 (Lu 177), with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an antineoplastic radiotherapeutic and an imaging agent in both planar imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The antibody moiety of Lu 177 anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody 5B1 targets and binds to CA19-9-expressing tumor cells. This may promote killing of CA19-9-expressing tumor cells through the local induction of both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Additionally, upon binding and internalization, the Lu 177 moiety can deliver a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to the CA19-9-expressing tumor cells. Furthermore, the radioisotope moiety may be imaged using planar imaging and SPECT, thus allowing evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profile of the agent, and the imaging and quantification of CA19-9-expressing tumor cells, respectively. CA19-9, a Lewis-type carbohydrate antigen overexpressed on a number of different tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell survival and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 DOTA-biotin
A radioconjugate of biotin conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with the beta-emitting isotope lutetium Lu 177 (Lu-177) that can be used for radioimmunotherapeutic purposes. Lutetium Lu 177 DOTA-biotin could be used in pre-targeting radioimmunotherapy, which pretreats the lesion with oxidized avidin that binds to protein amino groups on cells. As avidin binds to biotin, the radioisotope can be selectively delivered to cancer cells leading to tumor cell eradication. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 DOTA-N3-CTT1403
A radioconjucate consisting of CTT1403, a phosphoramidate-based irreversible inhibitor of human prostate-specific membrane antigen with an albumin binding moiety, connected via click chemistry to lutetium Lu 177-dodecanetetraacetic acid-azide (177Lu-DOTA-N3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-N3-CTT1403 targets and binds to PSMA expressed on tumor cells via its CTT1403 moiety, and upon internalization, delivers cytotoxic beta radiation directly to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and overexpressed on most prostate tumor cells. The albumin binding motif extends circulation half-life thereby improving tumor cell uptake of the radioconjugate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 DOTA-tetulomab
A radioimmunoconjugate, which consists of a monoclonal antibody against the cell-surface antigen CD37 covalently linked, via the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA), to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of lutetium Lu 177 DOTA-tetulomab binds to CD37 on tumor B-cells. Upon internalization, the radioisotope moiety delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to CD37-expressing tumor cells. CD37, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 monoclonal antibody J591
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen linked to a beta-emitting radioisotope (lutetium-177). This radioimmunoconjugate binds to tumor cells that express the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, delivering beta particle radiation selectively to tumor cells expressing this antigen and so limiting the exposure of normal tissues to ionizing radiation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 PP-F11N
A radioconjugate composed of PP-F11N, a gastrin analog, conjugated to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential antineoplastic activity and potential use as an imaging agent for scintigraphy. Following intravenous administration, the PP-F11N moiety binds to the cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor. Subsequently, the CCK-2 receptor-expressing tumor cells can be visualized scintigraphically. In addition, the radioisotope moiety delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to CCK-2 receptor-expressing tumor cells. CCK-2 receptors are expressed on a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177 satoreotide tetraxetan
A radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin antagonistic peptide satoreotide tetraxetan (JR11) that is linked, via the chelating agent dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA), to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential antineoplastic activity and imaging activity during positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Upon administration, lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-JR11 binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), with high affinity for SSTR2, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR-positive cells. SSTRs have been shown to be present in large numbers on NETs and their metastases, while most normal tissues express low levels of SSTRs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-capromab
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of capromab linked to lutetium Lu 177 via the bifunctional macrocyclic chelator methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (MeO-DOTA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Lutetium Lu 177-capromab binds to human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expressed on tumor cell surfaces via its capromab moiety and, upon internalization, delivers cytotoxic beta radiation directly to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA is a cell surface glycoprotein abundantly expressed by prostate epithelium and is typically overexpressed by prostate cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-di-HSG peptide IMP-288
A radiolabeled divalent histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG) hapten-peptide linked with the macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to the radionuclide lutetium (Lu) 177. After pretargeting with a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiMoAB) directed against both a tumor associated antigen (TAA) and the HSG hapten-peptide, the HSG portion of administered Lu-177-labeled di-HSG-DOTA peptide IMP-288 binds the anti-HSG portion of the BiMoAB; Lu-177 radioisotopic activity localized to tumor cells bearing the TAA can then be visualized scintigraphically. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-EB-TATE
A radioconjugate consisting of Evans blue (EB) modified, tyrosine-containing somatostatin analog, Tyr3-octreotate (TATE), conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA), and radiolabeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential imaging and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, Lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-EB-TATE binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), with high affinity to type 2 SSTRs (SSTR2s), present on the cell membranes of many neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR2-positive cells. The incorporation of an albumin-binding moiety through EB modification allows Lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-EB-TATE to reversibly bind to endogenous albumin, potentially extending half-life and increasing targeted accumulation of the drug in tumors. SSTRs, especially SSTR2s, are expressed at relatively higher levels in many tumor cell types and tumor blood vessels, compared to normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-IPN01087
A radioconjugate consisting of the neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTR1) antagonist, IPN01087 (3BP-227), that is linked, via the chelating agent, dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA), to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential antineoplastic activity and imaging activity during positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Upon administration, lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-IPN01087 binds to NTR1 expressed on certain tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to NTR1-expressing cells. NTR1, a G-protein coupled receptor, is highly expressed in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma but not in normal pancreatic tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-octreotate
A radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin analog octreotate labeled with lutetium Lu 177 with receptor ligand, beta-emitting radioisotope, and potential antineoplastic activities. Lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-octreotate binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), especially type 2 receptors, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR-positive cells. Lutetium Lu 177-DOTA-octreotate is produced by substituting the natural amino acid Thr for the alcohol Thr(ol) at the C terminus of the somatostatin analog octreotide and chelating the octreotate to Lu 177 via dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-dotatate
A radioconjugate consisting of the tyrosine-containing somatostatin analog Tyr3-octreotate (TATE) conjugated with the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177 with potential antineoplastic activities. Lutetium Lu 177 dotatate binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), with high affinity to type 2 SSTR, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR-positive cells. Tyr3-octreotate (TATE) is an octreotide derivative in which phenylalanine at position 3 is substituted by tyrosine and position 8 threoninol is replaced with threonine. SSTRs have been shown to be present in large numbers on NET and their metastases, while most other normal tissues express low levels of SSTRs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium LU 177-edotreotide
A radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin analogue edotreotide labeled with lutetium Lu 177 with potential antineoplastic activities. Lutetium Lu 177-edotreotide binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), with high affinity to type 2 SSTR, present on the cell membranes of many types of neuroendocrine tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to SSTR-positive cells. Edotreotide is produced by substituting tyrosine for phenylalanine at the 3 position of the somatostatin analogue octreotide (Tyr3-octreotide or TOC) and chelated by the bifunctional, macrocyclic chelating agent dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-NeoB
A radioconjugate consisting of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist, NeoB, linked via the chelating agent, dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA), to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, lutetium Lu 177 NeoB targets and binds to GRPRs present on certain tumor cells. Upon binding and internalization, this radioconjugate specifically delivers a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation to GRPR-expressing cells. GRPR, also known as bombesin receptor subtype 2, is a G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in some cancer types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu 177-PSMA-617
A radioconjugate composed of PSMA-617, a human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting ligand, conjugated to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177 (177Lu), with potential antineoplastic activity against PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Upon intravenous administration of 177Lu-PSMA-617, the PSMA-617 moiety targets and binds to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding, PSMA-expressing tumor cells are destroyed by 177Lu through the specific delivery of beta particle radiation. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and overexpressed on prostate tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu-177 girentuximab
A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 linked to the low energy beta-emitting radioisotope Lutetium 177, via the bifunctional macrocyclic chelating agent tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid (DOTA), with potential antineoplastic activity. The antibody moiety of lutetium Lu-177 girentuximab binds to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells expressing the RCC-associated antigen G250; a cytotoxic dose of beta radiation is selectively delivered to G250-expressing RCC cells upon internalization of the radioimmunoconjugate. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lutetium Lu-177 PSMA-R2
A radioconjugate composed of PSMA-R2, a human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting ligand, conjugated to the beta-emitting radioisotope lutetium Lu 177 (177Lu), with potential antineoplastic activity against PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Upon intravenous administration of 177Lu-PSMA-R2, the PSMA-R2 moiety targets and binds to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. Upon binding, PSMA-expressing tumor cells are destroyed by 177Lu through the specific delivery of beta particle radiation. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and overexpressed on the majority of prostate tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lutex
(Other name for: motexafin lutetium)
Lutrin
(Other name for: motexafin lutetium)
Luvox
(Other name for: fluvoxamine maleate)
LV.IL-2/B7.1-transduced AML blast vaccine
A whole-cell cancer vaccine, containing human acute myeloid leukemic (AML) blasts that have been genetically engineered to express a B7.1/IIL-2 fusion protein encoded by a self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon administration, LV.IL-2/B7.1-transduced AML blast vaccine may stimulate a host cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against AML cells. The single fusion protein encoded by the LV is postsynthetically cleaved to produce biologically active membrane-anchored B7.1 and secreted IL-2 in AML blasts; combined expression of IL-2 and the co-stimulatory molecule B7.1 by AML blasts may increase stimulation of both allogeneic and autologous cytotoxic T cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
LY6K/VEGFR1/VEGFR2 multipeptide vaccine
A multipeptide vaccine consisting of peptides derived from lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus K (LY6K) and type I and II vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY6K/VEGFR1/VEGFR2 multipeptide vaccine may elicit an antitumor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against LY6K-expressing tumor cells and/or VEGFR-expressing vascular endothelial cells involved in tumor angiogenesis. LY6K is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that occurs singly in glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked cell-surface glycoproteins or as three-fold repeated domain in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; VEGFRs are cell surface receptors that stimulate endothelial cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis upon ligand binding and receptor activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lyc-O-Mato
(Other name for: lycopene)
lycopene
A linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major red pigment in fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. As a class, carotenoids are pigment compounds found in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and some types of fungus), and are chemically characterized by a large polyene chain containing 35-40 carbon atoms; some carotenoid polyene chains are terminated by two 6-carbon rings. In animals, carotenoids such as lycopene may possess antioxidant properties which may retard ageing and many degenerative diseases. As an essential nutrient, lycopene is required in the animal diet. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lymphazurin
(Other name for: isosulfan blue)
LymphoCide
(Other name for: epratuzumab)
lymphokine-activated killer cells
Killer cell lymphocytes activated in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAKs) are cytotoxic effector cells with an exceptionally wide target cell spectrum including normal and malignant cells of different origins. LAK cells exhibit a profound heterogeneity with regard to phenotype surface marker expression; it remains to be determined if they represent a unique cell lineage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lymphoma TAA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
A population of autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. White blood cells are grown ex-vivo and are exposed to dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with lymphoma tumor associated antigens (TAAs); the TAA-specific CTLs are further expanded ex-vivo before being introduced into the patient. Upon infusion with TAA-specific CTLs, these CTLs may help activate tumor-specific CTL responses in the patient, thereby specifically killing TAA-expressing cancer cells and eventually inhibiting tumor cell proliferation.
Lymphoseek
(Other name for: technetium Tc 99m-labeled tilmanocept)
LymphoStat-B antibody
(Other name for: belimumab)
Lynparza
(Other name for: olaparib)
lyophilized black raspberry lozenge
A lozenge containing lyophilized black raspberry with potential antioxidant, pro-apoptotic and chemopreventive activities. In addition to vitamins, minerals, and phytosterols, black raspberries are rich in flavonols. Of the flavonols present in this agent, the anthocyanins appear to contribute significantly to this agent’s chemopreventive effects by inhibiting the activation of several signal transduction pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathways, and certain transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, and nuclear factor in activated T-cells (NFAT). This in turn modulates the expression of downstream target genes that are upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
lyophilized black raspberry saliva substitute
A saliva substitute (or artificial saliva) containing lyophilized black raspberry with potential antioxidant, pro-apoptotic and chemopreventive activities. In addition to vitamins, minerals and phytosterols, black raspberries are rich in flavonols of which the anthocyanins appear to contribute significantly to this agent’s chemopreventive effects. Anthocyanins inhibit the activation of several signal transduction pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathways, and certain transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, and nuclear factor in activated T-cells (NFAT). This in turn modulates the expression of downstream target genes that are upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lyrica
(Other name for: pregabalin)
lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor INCB059872
An orally available inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1; lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A; KDM1A), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, INCB059872 binds to and inhibits LSD1, a demethylase that suppresses the expression of target genes by converting the di- and mono-methylated forms of lysine at position 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) to mono- and unmethylated H3K4, respectively, through amine oxidation. LSD1 inhibition enhances H3K4 methylation and increases the expression of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition, LSD1 demethylates mono- or di-methylated H3K9 which increases gene expression of tumor promoting genes; inhibition of LSD1 promotes H3K9 methylation and decreases transcription of these genes. Altogether, this may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in LSD1-overexpressing tumor cells. LSD1, an enzyme belonging to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase family, is overexpressed in certain tumor cells and plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and in tumor cell growth and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Lysodren
(Other name for: mitotane)
lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin
A temperature-sensitive liposomal formulation of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, circulating thermosensitive liposomes are activated locally by increasing the tumor temperature to 40-41 degrees Celsius using an external heat source. The elevated temperature causes compositional changes in the liposomes, creating openings that allow for the release of encapsulated doxorubicin. Compared to non-thermosensitive liposomes, lyso-thermosensitive liposomes deliver higher concentrations of a cytotoxic agent to a heat-treated tumor site while sparing normal tissues unexposed to heat treatment. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)