NCI Drug Dictionary

The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials.

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384 results found for: S
sodium thiosulfate
A water soluble salt and reducing agent that reacts with oxidizing agents. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, thiosulfate likely provides an exogenous source of sulfur, thereby hastening the detoxification of cyanide through the enzyme rhodanese (thiosulfate cyanide sulfurtransferase) which converts cyanide to the relatively nontoxic, excretable thiocyanate ion. In addition, this agent neutralizes the reactive alkylating species of nitrogen mustard, thereby decreasing skin toxicity related to nitrogen mustard extravasation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor RX108
A small-molecule, inhibitor of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, RX108 inhibits the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase, which prevents the activation of various signal transduction pathways that play a key role in tumor proliferation. This may lead to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. Na+/K+-ATPase is overexpressed in certain tumor types and may serve as a scaffold for the assembly of multiple-protein signaling complexes that regulate cell proliferation and motility. In normal, healthy cells, the Na+/K+-ATPase controls transportation of Na+ and K+ across the cell membrane and is essential for electrochemical gradient maintenance, osmotic balance, and cellular pH. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sodothiol
(Other name for: sodium thiosulfate)
sofosbuvir
An orally available nucleotide prodrug and a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor with potential HCV inhibiting activity. Upon oral administration, sofosbuvir is metabolized to 2'-deoxy-2'-alpha-fluoro-beta-C-methyluridine-5'-monophosphate, which is then converted into the active triphosphate nucleotide that inhibits the NS5B polymerase, thereby preventing viral replication. The HCV NS5B protein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is essential for the replication of the viral HCV RNA genome. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Solaraze
(Other name for: diclofenac sodium gel)
Solatene
(Other name for: beta carotene)
Soliris
(Other name for: eculizumab)
solitomab
A recombinant bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against both CD3 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Solitomab attaches to both CD3-expressing T lymphocytes and EpCAM-expressing tumor cells, thereby selectively cross-linking tumor and T lymphocytes; this may result in the recruitment of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) to T lymphocyte/tumor cell aggregates and the CTL-mediated death of EpCAM-expressing tumor cells. CD3 is an antigen expressed on mature T cells; EpCAM, a cell surface protein, is expressed by a variety of tumor cells and is frequently found in head and neck cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator IW-1701
An orally bioavailable stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), with potential anti-inflammatory and vasodilating activities. Upon oral administration, sGC stimulator IW-1701 targets, allosterically binds to and enhances the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent catalytic activity of sGC. This enhances NO-sGC signaling and increases the formation of the intracellular second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). This enhances NO/cGMP-mediated muscle relaxation, suppresses leukocyte-endothelial interactions and promotes vascular anti-inflammatory effects. The NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway plays an important role in vasodilation, blood flow and inflammatory processes. sGC, a heme-containing cytoplasmic signaling enzyme, catalyzes the formation of cGMP from GTP in response to NO binding to heme. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Solu-Cortef
(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)
somatotropin
A recombinant form of endogenous human growth hormone (GH), a polypeptide produced by the anterior lobe of the human pituitary gland. GH exhibits growth-promoting effects and metabolic effects on carbohydrate, fat, protein and bone metabolism. GH stimulates protein synthesis and the uptake of amino acids into cells, and induces lipolysis in adipose tissues. The secretion of GH increases with sexual maturation and then declines steadily. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Somatuline Depot
(Other name for: lanreotide acetate)
Somavert
(Other name for: pegvisomant)
Somophyllin-CRT
(Other name for: theophylline)
Somophyllin-T
(Other name for: theophylline)
sonepcizumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, sonepcizumab binds S1P, which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. S1P is the extracellular ligand for the G protein-coupled lysophospholipid receptor EDG-1 (endothelial differentiation gene-1). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sonidegib
An orally bioavailable small-molecule smoothened (Smo) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Sonidegib selectively binds to the hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor Smo, which may result in the suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and, so, the inhibition of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Inappropriate activation of Hh pathway signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation, as is observed in a variety of cancers, may be associated with mutations in the Hh-ligand cell surface receptor Smo. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sorafenib tosylate
The tosylate salt of sorafenib, a synthetic compound targeting growth signaling and angiogenesis. Sorafenib blocks the enzyme RAF kinase, a critical component of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that controls cell division and proliferation; in addition, sorafenib inhibits the VEGFR-2/PDGFR-beta signaling cascade, thereby blocking tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sorghum bicolor supplement
An herbal-based nutritional supplement containing the leaf sheaths of the plant Sorghum bicolor, with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities. Sorghum bicolor supplement contains various phytochemicals, including phenolic acids and polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins. Sorghum bicolor supplement is particularly rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanins, such as luteolinidin and apigeninidin, and appears to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells through the stimulation of various apoptosis promoter genes and the downregulation of certain apoptosis inhibitor genes. In addition, due to the strong antioxidant nature of the phytochemicals, these compounds are able to scavenge free radicals and prevent tissue damage. Also, intake of this supplement modulates the immune system by both increasing the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and initiating the activation of macrophages.
Soriatane
(Other name for: acitretin)
sotagliflozin
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the sodium-glucose co-transporter subtypes 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), with potential antihyperglycemic activity. Upon oral administration, sotagliflozin binds to and blocks both SGLT1 in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and SGLT2 in the kidneys, thereby suppressing the absorption of glucose from the GI tract and the reabsorption of glucose by the proximal tubule into the bloodstream, respectively. This decreases glucose uptake and enhances the urinary excretion of glucose, which lowers and/or normalizes blood glucose levels. SGLT1 is the primary transporter responsible for glucose absorption from the GI tract. SGLT2, a transport protein exclusively expressed in the proximal renal tubules, mediates approximately 90% of renal glucose reabsorption from tubular fluid. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sotatercept
A soluble fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1 with anabolic bone activity. Sotatercept selectively binds to activin, inhibiting its binding to ActRIIA and ActRIIA signaling, resulting in the stimulation of osteoblast activity and the inhibition of osteoclast activity and so normal bone formation and increased bone mineral density and strength. The Fc moiety of this fusion protein binds to the salvage receptor FcRN, preventing its lysosomal degradation and so extending its half-life in the circulatory system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sotrastaurin acetate
The acetate salt form of sotrastaurin, an orally available pan-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor with potential immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. Sotrastaurin inhibits both T- and B-cell activations via PKC theta and beta isozymes, respectively. Both PKCs are important in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). Inhibition of PKC beta in B-cells results in prevention of NF-kB-mediated signaling and down regulation of NF-kB target genes. This may eventually lead to an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. This agent may act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic agents. PKC, a family of serine/threonine protein kinases overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, is involved in cell differentiation, mitogenesis, inflammation, and the activation and survival of lymphocytes.
Sotret
(Other name for: isotretinoin)
soy isoflavones
A dietary supplement isolated from soybeans containing phytoestrogen isoflavones. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, soy isoflavones mimic estrogen action mediated through estrogen receptors. In addition, this agent also modulates estrogen metabolism. As a result, soy isoflavones have been shown to reduce tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis, as well as to be able to regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral spray
An oral spray containing soy phospholipid and glycerol dioleate, with protective, analgesic and anti-mucositic activities. Upon spraying onto the oral mucosal surface and contact with saliva, the soy lecithin/glycerol dioleate-based oral spray forms a gel and adheres to the mucosal surfaces thereby forming a lipid film. This provides a protective barrier and an analgesic effect within the oral cavity. In addition, the lipid barrier prevents bacterial growth at affected areas thereby decreasing infection risk. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
soy protein isolate
A dietary protein isolated from soybeans that contains isoflavone phytoestrogens. Soy protein isolate has been shown to reduce tumor incidence and growth in some animal studies, possibly by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing tumor cell proliferation, and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Soy protein isolate may also inhibit endothelial cell proliferation. Isoflavone phytoestrogens display mild estrogen-like activities which may regulate hormone balance and reduce the risks of breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spanlecortemlocel
A preparation of allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) expanded in culture with the stimulatory cytokines stem cell factor (SCF; Kit ligand; mast cell growth factor; MGF), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and thrombopoietin, in the presence of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist LHD221 (StemRegenin-1; SR-1), with potential to improve hematopoietic recovery following myeloablative conditioning. Upon administration of spanlecortemlocel, these cells increase and restore the number of HSPCs, which may prevent or decrease the risk of infection and other complications of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) or cord blood transplantation. LHD221, an AHR antagonist facilitates the expansion of CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitors and impedes HSPC differentiation during cytokine-driven expansion in culture. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sparfosic acid
A stable transition state analogue for an aspartate transcarbamylase- cartalyzed reaction with antineoplastic activity. Sparfosic acid is a stable transition analogue of the activated complex for the reaction catalyzed by aspartate transcarbamylase, the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. This agent inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and increases the extent to which fluorouracil metabolites are incorporated into RNA. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spartalizumab
A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1, PCD-1), with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, spartalizumab binds to PD-1 expressed on activated T-cells and blocks the interaction with its ligands, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, PD-1L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2, PD-1L2). The inhibition of ligand binding prevents PD-1-mediated signaling and results in both T-cell activation and the induction of T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily transmembrane protein and inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates T-cell activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle NU-0129
A spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle formulation composed of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the Bcl-2-like protein 12 (BCL2L12) sequence and conjugated to gold nanoparticles, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of SNA NU-0129, the siRNA prevents the translation of the BCL2L12 gene. Inhibiting the expression of BCL2L12 by NU-0129 induces tumor cell apoptosis. Bcl2L12, a protein belonging to the Bcl-2 protein family, is overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and plays a role in tumor cell progression and tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. NU-0129 is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Spiriva
(Other name for: tiotropium bromide monohydrate)
spirogermanium
A synthetic organometallic compound containing the element germanium with possible antineoplastic activity. Spirogermanium exhibits significant toxicity, particularly neurotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spiromustine
A bifunctional nitrogen alkylating agent with antineoplastic activity and lipophilic properties. Containing a lipophilic hydantoin group that serves as a carrier to cross the blood brain barrier, spiromustine forms covalent linkages with nucleophilic centers in DNA, causing depurination, base-pair miscoding, strand scission, and DNA-DNA cross-linking, which may result in cytotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spironolactone
A synthetic 17-spironolactone corticosteroid with potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive, and antiandrogen activities. Spironolactone competitively inhibits adrenocortical hormone aldosterone activity in the distal renal tubules, myocardium, and vasculature. This agent may inhibit the pathophysiologic effects of aldosterone produced in excess by various types of malignant and benign tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spiroplatin
A synthetic derivative of cyclohexane sulfatoplatinum with antineoplastic properties. Spiroplatin induces DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Similar to other platinum compounds, this agent has been shown to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spirulina-based dietary supplement
A nutritional supplement composed of the blue-green microalgae spirulina. Spirulina is high in protein and contains significant amounts of calcium, niacin, potassium, magnesium, B vitamins, vitamin E, iodine, iron, beta-carotene, phycocyanin and chlorophyll. The spirulina dietary supplement may affect the cardiovascular, digestive and immune systems and may improve diabetes and high cholesterol. In addition, spirulina contains antioxidants and may protect against cellular DNA damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). As spirulina has a high concentration of iodine and contains the amino acid tyrosine, it may improve thyroid function, and ameliorate the size of benign thyroid nodules. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659
An inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (syk), with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and antineoplastic activities. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor TAK-659 may inhibit the activity of syk, which abrogates downstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and leads to an inhibition of B-cell activation, chemotaxis, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a BCR-associated non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
splicing inhibitor H3B-8800
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, H3B-8800 binds to and blocks the activity of SF3B1, a core spliceosome protein that is mutated in various cancer cells. This modulates RNA splicing by preventing aberrant mRNA splicing by the spliceosome, blocks RNA mis-splicing, enhances proper RNA splicing and prevents the expression of certain tumor-associated genes. This leads to an induction of apoptosis and prevents tumor cell proliferation. In many cancer cells, core spliceosome proteins, including SF3B1, U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1), serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor subunit-related protein 2 (ZRSR2), are mutated and aberrantly activated leading to a dysregulation of mRNA splicing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sporanox
(Other name for: itraconazole)
Sprycel
(Other name for: dasatinib)
spyrine
(Other name for: trientine hydrochloride)
SR31747A
A synthetic peripheral sigma receptor ligand with immunomodulatory and potential antitumor activities. Although the exact mechanism by which SR31747A exerts its antitumor effects has not been fully established, SR31747A binds to and inhibits the sigma1 receptor (SR31747A-binding protein-1 or SR-BP1), human sterol isomerase (emopamil-binding protein) and the sigma2 receptor, which may result in a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Upregulated in various cancers, the sigma1 and sigma2 receptors and human sterol isomerase are proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391
An orally bioavailable small molecule Src kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 specifically binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase; inhibition of kinase activity may result in the inhibition of primary tumor growth and the suppression of metastasis. Src tyrosine kinases are upregulated in many tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 ointment
An ointment containing an inhibitor for both Src tyrosine kinase and tubulin polymerization, with potential antineoplastic activity. Unlike other Src kinase inhibitors which bind to the ATP-binding site, Src kinase inhibitor KX2-391 binds to the peptide substrate binding site of Src kinase, upon topical application. This inhibits both downstream signaling and the proliferation of tumor cells overexpressing Src. Src tyrosine kinase, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, motility, invasiveness and survival. KX2-391 also binds to tubulin heterodimers and inhibits microtubule polymerization, which disrupts microtubule formation and mitosis, leading to further inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, KX2-391 inhibits T-cell migration. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0424
An orally bioavailable small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets both Abl and Src kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AZD0424 selectively inhibits both Src and Abl kinase activity which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth in susceptible tumor cells. Src and Abl kinases are upregulated in certain tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
src/tubulin inhibitor KX02
A lipophilic, orally available inhibitor of both Src kinase activity and tubulin polymerization, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, src/tubulin inhibitor KX02 binds to and inhibits the activity of Src kinase. This inhibits both downstream signaling and the proliferation of Src kinase-expressing tumor cells. KX02 also binds to tubulin heterodimers and inhibits microtubule polymerization, thereby disrupting microtubule formation, mitosis, and further proliferation. Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SR-T100 gel
A cutaneous gel preparation containing an extract from Solanum incanum with potential antineoplastic activity. SR-T100 gel contains high amounts of the steroidal alkaloid glycoside solamargine. Solamargine is able to upregulate expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 6 (TNFRSF6 or Fas), and their signaling adaptors TNFR1-associated death domain, and Fas-associated death domain. In addition, this agent is able to upregulate expression of apoptosis promoter Bax, and suppress the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Altogether, this induces apoptosis in tumor cells and may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SS1(dsFv)-PE38 immunotoxin
A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of the single chain anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody SS1(dsFv) linked to Pseudomonas exotoxin PE-38. The monoclonal antibody moiety of the agent binds to cells that express mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer, mesotheliomas, and some squamous cell carcinomas; after internalization, the exotoxin moiety inactivates eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, thereby disrupting tumor cell protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SSD
(Other name for: silver sulfadiazine)
ssRNA-based immunomodulator CV8102
A 547 nucleotide (nt), noncoding, uncapped single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) containing several polyU-repeats complexed with a polymeric carrier formed by disulfide-crosslinked cationic peptides, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon intratumoral injection, the ssRNA in CV8102 activates toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG I; RIG-I; DDX58). This stimulates a T-helper type 1 cell (Th1) response, the production of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and activates a systemic cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the tumor cells when simultaneously exposed to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The cationic carrier peptides protect the ssRNA from RNase degradation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SSTR2-targeting protein/DM1 conjugate PEN-221
A miniaturized drug conjugate composed of a peptide analog of somatostatin that targets the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and is conjugated, through a cleavable linker, to the microtubule-binding cytotoxic maytansinoid DM1 (mertansine), with potential anti-tumor activity. Upon administration, the peptide ligand moiety of PEN-221 targets and binds to SSTR2, which is overexpressed on certain tumor cell types. Binding stimulates SSTR2-mediated endocytosis of the agent; upon internalization, the DM1 moiety is released and binds to tubulin, thereby disrupting microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics. This inhibits both cell division and the proliferation of SSTR2-expressing cancer cells. Compared to antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), miniaturized drug conjugates are much smaller and can more easily penetrate and distribute in dense tumor tissue. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
St. John's wort
An herbal extract prepared from the plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) with photodynamic, antineoplastic, and antidepressant activities. Hypericin, one of the active compounds found in Hypericum perforatum, is a photosensitizer that, when exposed to a particular wavelength and intensity of light, may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Another compound, hyperforin, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in certain tumor cell lines. Hypericum perforatum preparations may also stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters, resulting in increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents and other drugs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent
An injectable ultrasound contrast media formulation composed of microbubbles of stabilized sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in sodium chloride solution. With stabilized sulphur hexafluoride microbubble-based contrast agent, ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microbubble-blood interface during ultrasound imaging, thereby enhancing blood vessel visualization and the contrast between blood vessels and adjacent tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stakel
(Other name for: padeliporfin)
standardized freeze-dried table grape powder
A standardized freeze-dried preparation of desiccated table grapes containing polyphenols (including flavanols, anthocyanins, flavonols, and stilbenes such as resveratrol) and other unidentified compounds with antioxidant activity. Standardized freeze-dried table grape powder increases serum antioxidant activity and reduces the macrophage-mediated oxidation and uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This agent has been shown to inhibit genes linked to the development of sporadic colorectal cancer and may exhibit chemopreventive activity for other human cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stanford V regimen
A chemotherapy regimen consisting of mechlorethamine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide and prednisone, administered on a compressed schedule and used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma; it may be followed by consolidative radiation therapy. (NCI Thesaurus)
staphylococcus aureus protein A
A protein that resides in the microbial wall of staphylococcus aureus and interferes with opsonization by binding to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin. The protein has a deleterious effect on the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract, and plays a role in the induction of pneumonia. Protein A also initiates polymorphonuclear cell migration into airway passages via TNFR1 activation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Starlix
(Other name for: nateglinide)
STAT inhibitor OPB-111077
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of one or more signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein(s), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, OPB-111077 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of STATs. This prevents binding of STATs to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT-responsive gene promoters, which may result in the inhibition of both STAT-mediated transcription and tumor cell proliferation. STATs are constitutively activated in a variety of cancers and play a key role in tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide
A double-stranded 15-mer oligonucleotide, corresponding closely to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) response element within the c-fos promoter, with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide binds specifically to activated STAT3 and blocks binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters, which results in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor C188-9
An orally bioavailable, binaphthol-sulfonamide-based inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the STAT3 inhibitor C188-9 specifically targets and binds to the phosphotyrosyl peptide binding site within the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT3. This inhibits the Janus kinase (JAK)-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of STAT3. This impedes nuclear translocation of STAT3, prevents STAT3 binding to responsive gene promoters and blocks STAT3-mediated regulation of gene expression. STAT3 regulates the transcription of genes involved in several cellular functions. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers and plays a key role in neoplastic transformation, uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, metastasis, immune evasion, tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the Warburg effect. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor DSP-0337
An orally administered prodrug of napabucasin, a small molecule cancer stemness inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, DSP-0337 is converted to its active form, napabucasin. Napabucasin targets and inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing STAT-3-mediated signaling. The STAT3 pathway is overly active in many cancer types and is implicated in cancer stem cell-mediated growth, recurrence and resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor OPB-31121
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. OPB-31121 inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3, which prevents binding of STAT3 to DNA sequences on a variety of STAT3-responsive promoters and may result in the inhibition of STAT3-mediated transcription and, potentially, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of cancers, contributing to the loss of cell growth control and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602
An orally bioavailable inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. STAT3 inhibitor OPB-51602 inhibits the phosphorylation and thus the activation of STAT3 protein, impeding STAT3 protein from translocating from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and thereby blocking STAT3's regulation of gene expression through direct binding to the promoters of responsive genes. STAT3 regulates the cellular functions that lead to the cancer phenotype, and constitutive activation of STAT3 is observed in a wide range of human cancers, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STAT3 inhibitor TTI-101
An orally bioavailable, binaphthol-sulfonamide-based inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the STAT3 inhibitor TTI-101 specifically targets and binds to the phosphotyrosyl peptide binding site within the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT3. This inhibits the Janus kinase (JAK)-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of STAT3. This impedes nuclear translocation of STAT3, prevents STAT3 binding to responsive gene promoters and blocks STAT3-mediated regulation of gene expression. STAT3 regulates the transcription of genes involved in several cellular functions. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers and plays a key role in neoplastic transformation, uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, metastasis, immune evasion, tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the Warburg effect. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Statex SR
(Other name for: morphine sulfate)
stavudine
A synthetic nucleoside, analog of didehydro-3-deoxythymidine with potent antiretroviral activity. In vivo, stavudine is phosphorylated by cellular kinases to the active metabolite stavudine triphosphate; this metabolite inhibits the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase both by competing with the natural substrate deoxythymidine triphosphate and by incorporation into viral DNA causing a termination of DNA chain elongation (due to the lack the essential 3'-OH group). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stelara
(Other name for: ustekinumab)
Stelazine
(Other name for: trifluoperazine hydrochloride)
Sterile Talc Powder
(Other name for: talc)
Steritalc
(Other name for: talc)
steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495
An orally bioavailable tricyclic coumarin-based sulfamate with potential antineoplastic activity. Steroid sulfatase inhibitor BN 83495 selectively binds to and inhibits steroid sulfatase (STS), which may inhibit the production of locally active estrogens and so inhibit estrogen-dependent cell growth in tumor cells, such as those of the breast, ovary, and endometrium. STS is a cytoplasmic enzyme responsible for the conversion of circulating inactive estrone sulfate and estradiol sulfate to biologically active unconjugated estrone and estradiol, respectively. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stilbestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilbetin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilboestroform
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stilboestrol
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Stimate
(Other name for: desmopressin acetate)
Stimuvax
(Other name for: emepepimut-S)
STING agonist BMS-986301
An agonist of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, STING agonist BMS-986301 targets and binds to STING and activates the STING pathway, which promotes IKK-related kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). Specifically, expression of IFN-beta (IFNb) enhances the cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dendritic cells (DCs) to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This results in a CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the TME, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING agonist GSK3745417
An agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING; transmembrane protein 173; TMEM173), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, STING agonist GSK3745417 targets and binds to STING and activates the STING pathway in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferons (IFNs), enhances the cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by dendritic cells (DCs), and induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against cancer cells. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the TME, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING agonist IMSA101
A small molecule analogue of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) that acts as an agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING; transmembrane protein 173; TMEM173) with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, STING agonist IMSA101 binds to STING and activates STING-mediated pathways. This activates the immune response through the activation of certain immune cells which induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, promotes tumor-associated antigen (TAA) processing and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) and leads to an antigen-specific T-cell mediated immune response against cancer cells. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING agonist MK-1454
A synthetic cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and agonist of stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral (IT) administration, STING agonist MK-1454 binds to STING and activates the STING pathway, which promotes IKK-related kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment; this leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). Specifically, expression of IFN-beta (IFNb) enhances the cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens by CD8alpha-positive and CD103-positive dendritic cells (DCs) to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This results in a CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING agonist SB 11285
An agonist of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, STING agonist SB 11285 targets and binds to STING and activates the STING pathway, which promotes IKK-related kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). Specifically, expression of IFN-beta (IFNb) enhances the cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) by CD8alpha-positive and CD103-positive dendritic cells (DCs) to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This results in a CTL-mediated immune response against tumor cells and causes tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING-activating cyclic dinucleotide agonist ADU-S100
A synthetic, cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and agonist of stimulator of interferon genes protein (STING; transmembrane protein 173; TMEM173), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, the STING agonist MIW815 binds to STING and stimulates STING-mediated pathways. This activates the immune response through the activation of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), which induces the expression of cytokines and chemokines, and leads to an antigen-specific T-cell mediated immune response against cancer cells. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
STING-expressing E. coli SYNB1891
A non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria that has been engineered to express stimulator of interferon genes (STING; transmembrane protein 173; TMEM173) protein, with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, STING-expressing E. coli SYNB1891 are engulfed by antigen presenting cells (APCs) within the tumor. STING-mediated pathways within the APCs are then activated resulting in a type I interferon (IFN) response which promotes initiation and propagation of tumor-specific T-cell responses. In addition, the bacterial component of SYNB1891 may further stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which may enhance the magnitude of the overall immune response. STING, a transmembrane protein that activates immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), plays a key role in the activation of the innate immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stivarga
(Other name for: regorafenib)
Stoxil
(Other name for: idoxuridine)
Strattera
(Other name for: atomoxetine hydrochloride)
strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixture
A dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of strawberries, blackberries, black raspberries and blueberries with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action through which berries may exert their anti-tumor effect has yet to be elucidated, in vivo studies suggest that the ingestion of a mixture of berries seems to result in a reduction in tumor growth and tumor development. As berries are rich in phytonutrients, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, ellagitannins, galltannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, the antineoplastic effects of strawberry-blackberry-black raspberry-blueberry berry mixture on cancer cells may be attributable to phytonutrient antioxidant and apoptotic activities. In addition, phytoestrogens in berries may be protective against estrogen-sensitive tumors. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptavidin
An extracellular protein that has four high affinity binding sites for biotin. Streptavidin is widely utilized in fluorescence microscopy applications due to the ease with which a conjugate fluorescent moiety can be coupled to the protein. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptonigrin
An aminoquinone antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces flocculus. Streptonigrin complexes with DNA and topoisomerase II, resulting in DNA cleavage and inhibition of DNA replication and RNA synthesis. This agent also acts as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor and causes free radical-mediated cellular damage. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
streptozocin
A methylnitrosourea antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes. Streptozocin alkylates DNA, forming inter-strand DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA synthesis. Due to its glucose moiety, this agent is readily taken up by pancreatic beta cells, inducing diabetes mellitus at high concentrations. Unlike other nitrosoureas, streptozocin causes little myelosuppression. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Stromagen
(Other name for: autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010)
Stromectol
(Other name for: ivermectin)
strontium chloride Sr 89
The chloride salt of a radioactive isotope of strontium. Strontium chloride Sr 89 is taken up and incorporated preferentially in metastatic lesions in bone where it emits cytotoxic beta radiation, resulting in an inhibition and/or reduction of tumor growth and so tumor-related bone pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SU014813
An orally-active, tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. SU014813 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha and beta, c-Kit and Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt-3). This leads to an inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and an induction of apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sublimaze
(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)
submicron particle paclitaxel sterile suspension
A suspension composed of uncoated, stable, submicron particles of the water-insoluble taxane paclitaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intra-tumoral administration of the submicron particle paclitaxel sterile suspension, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, which leads to the inhibition of cell division, thereby halting the proliferation of rapidly-dividing tumor cells. The submicron particle paclitaxel is produced through a specific proprietary method of submicron particle production without the need for coating agents or carriers and allows for prolonged retention and sustained release at the tumor site. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
substance P-saporin
An agent composed of substance P (SP) conjugated to the ribosome-inactivating protein and neurotoxin saporin (SAP), isolated from the seeds of the plant Saponaria officinalis (SP-SAP), with potential analgesic activity. Upon administration, SP-SAP targets the SP receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), located on neurons. When SP-SAP binds NK-1R and the receptor/conjugate complex internalizes, the saporin moiety inactivates ribosomes and prevents protein synthesis, which causes cell death, destroys NK-1R-expressing nerves and decreases pain perception. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
succimer
An orally active mercaptodicarboxylic acid, with heavy metal chelating activity. As a strong chelator, succimer is able to bind to heavy metals, such as lead, in the bloodstream, thereby forming a water-soluble complex that can be eliminated via urinary excretion. This prevents heavy metal poisoning. In addition, succimer is able to chelate the alpha particle emitter and radionuclide polonium Po 210 ((Po-210), thereby increasing its excretion and reducing the toxic effects of Po-210. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
succinylcholine chloride
The chloride salt form of succinylcholine, a quaternary ammonium compound and depolarizing agent with short-term muscle relaxant properties. Succinylcholine chloride binds to nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction and opening the ligand-gated channels in the same way as acetylcholine, resulting in depolarization and inhibition of neuromuscular transmission. Depolarization may be prolonged due to succinylcholine's resistance to acetylcholinesterases thereby leading to disorganized muscle contraction followed by skeletal muscle relaxation and flaccid paralysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sufenta
(Other name for: sufentanil citrate)
sufentanil citrate
The citrate salt form of sufentanil, a synthetic congener of fentanyl and related to the phenylpieridines, with analgesic property. Sufentanil citrate binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor, thereby producing analgesia, respiratory depression, miosis, reduced gastrointestinal motility, and euphoria. In addition, this agent has a more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of action compared to fentanyl. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sufentanil transdermal system
A transdermal matrix patch formulation containing the synthetic opioid sufentanil with analgesic activity. Sufentanil binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), thereby mimicking the effects of the endogenous opioids. Binding of sufentanil to opioid receptors stimulates exchange of GTP for GDP, inhibits adenylate cyclase, and decreases intracellular cAMP. This inhibits the release of various nociceptive neurotransmitters, such as substance P, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and somatostatin. In addition, sufentanil closes N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and opens calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels, which results in hyperpolarization of neuronal membranes and a reduction in neuronal excitability, and, subsequently, analgesia and sedation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sufortan
(Other name for: penicillamine)
sugammadex sodium
The sodium salt form of the biologically inert, selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) sugammadex, a modified, anionic gamma cyclodextrin derivative containing a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic core, with neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) reversal activity. Upon administration, the negatively charged carboxyl-thio-ether groups of sugammadex selectively and reversibly bind to the positively charged quaternary nitrogen of a steroidal NMBD, which was administered at an earlier time for anesthetic purposes. The encapsulation of the NMBD by sugammadex blocks its ability to bind to nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction and thereby reverses the NMBD-induced neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex binds rocuronium, vecuronium, and to a lesser extent pancuronium. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulfamethoprim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
sulfasalazine
A synthetic salicylic acid derivative with affinity for connective tissues containing elastin and formulated as a prodrug, antiinflammatory sulfasalazine acts locally in the intestine through its active metabolites, sulfamide 5-aminosalicylic acid and salicylic acid, by a mechanism that is not clear. It appears inhibit cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin production and is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulfatinib
An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1), with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon oral administration, sulfatinib binds to and inhibits VEGFRs and FGFR1 thereby inhibiting VEGFR- and FGFR1-mediated signal transduction pathways. This leads to a reduction of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in VEGFR/FGFR1-overexpressing tumor cells. Expression of VEGFRs and FGFR1 may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulfatrim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Sulforadex
(Other name for: sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01)
sulforaphane
A naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates. As the aglycone metabolite of glucosinolate glucoraphanin (sulforaphane glucosinolate), sulforaphane acts as an antioxidant and potent stimulator of endogenous detoxifying enzymes. This agent displays anticarcinogenic properties due to its ability to induce phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, thereby providing protection against certain carcinogens and toxic, reactive oxygen species. Broccoli sprouts contain large amounts of sulforaphane, which is also found in other cruciferous vegetables including cabbage and kale. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01
An orally available, stable powder formulation composed of sulforaphane, a naturally-occurring phytochemical belonging to the class of isothiocyanates, encapsulated within alpha-cyclodextrin, with chemopreventive activity. Upon administration of sulforaphane/alpha-cyclodextrin complex SFX-01, sulforaphane activates the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; NFE2L2), a member of the basic leucine zipper family, which binds to and activates antioxidant-response elements (AREs). Subsequently, activated AREs mediate the transcription of various cytoprotective genes and antioxidant enzymes, particularly phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone oxidoreductase, resulting in the detoxification of highly reactive carcinogens. Cyclodextrin is able to prevent sulforaphane's rapid breakdown, which improves its stability and half-life. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulfur hexafluoride
A contrast agent composed of an inorganic fluorinated inert gas comprised of six fluoride atoms bound to one sulfur atom, with potential diagnostic activity upon imaging. Upon inhalation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas is distributed throughout the lungs. Upon subsequent ultrasound imaging, the lung vasculature can be imaged and pulmonary perfusion can be assessed. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sulindac
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug with potential antineoplastic activity. Converted in vivo to an active metabolite, sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), blocks cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE), an enzyme that inhibits the normal apoptosis signal pathway; this inhibition permits the apoptotic signal pathway to proceed unopposed, resulting in apoptotic cell death. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sulmeprim
(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
sulofenur
A diarylsulfonylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Sulofenur's antineoplastic mechanism of action is unknown. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sumac/black cumin powder
An Iranian traditional herbal medicine composed of powder derived from sumac and Bunium persicum (black cumin, black zira), with potential anti-emetic activity. Upon oral administration, sumac/black cumin powder may inhibit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The powder may also have some anti-oxidant activities. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sumatriptan succinate
The succinate salt form of sumatriptan, a member of the triptan class of compounds with anti-migraine property. Sumatriptan succinate selectively binds to and activates serotonin 5-HT1 receptors. This results in constriction of meningeal, dural, cerebral or pial blood vessels via stimulation of the 5-HT1B receptors, thereby reducing the vascular pulsation and may provide relief in migraine headaches. Furthermore, agonistic action of this agent through presynaptic stimulation of 5-HT1D and/or 5-HT1F receptors prevents release of vasoactive and pro-inflammatory neuropeptide (calcitonin gene-related peptide), thereby may also relieve migraine headaches. In addition, central inhibition of pain transmission via the inhibition of trigeminal neurons in the brain stems and upper spinal cord mediated by 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D or 5-HT 1F receptors also aides in the alleviation of migraine pain. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sumoylation inhibitor TAK-981
A small molecule inhibitor of sumoylation, with potential immune-activating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, TAK-981 targets and covalently binds to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO; small ubiquitin-related modifier) protein, forming an adduct with SUMO protein (TAK-981-SUMO adduct). This prevents the transfer of SUMO from the SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE) to SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9. This prevents SUMO conjugation to lysine residues on target proteins and abrogates many sumoylated protein-mediated cellular processes that play key roles in tumor cells, including proliferation, DNA repair, metastasis and survival. In addition, by preventing sumoylation, TAK-981 is able to increase the production of type 1 interferon (IFN), thereby increasing type 1 IFN-mediated signaling, activating innate effector cells and enhancing the antitumor innate immune responses. This may further increase tumor cell killing. Sumoylation, a post-translational modification that attaches the SUMO protein to target proteins, plays a key role in regulating their activity, function, subcellular localization and stability. Sumoylation also plays a key role in inhibiting innate immune responses, specifically by inhibiting the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway and preventing type 1 IFN expression. Abnormal sumoylation of target proteins is associated with many cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sunitinib malate
The orally bioavailable malate salt of an indolinone-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Sunitinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFRb), and c-kit, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits the phosphorylation of Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), another receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by some leukemic cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sunscreen
A substance that helps protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays. Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation. Using lotions, creams, or gels that contain sunscreens can help protect the skin from premature aging and damage that may lead to skin cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Supect
(Other name for: radotinib hydrochloride)
super enhancer inhibitor GZ17-6.02
A synthetic formulation of the Arum palaestinum plant that has been fortified with the already naturally occurring constituents of isovanillin, linolenic acid, and beta-sitosterol, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, GZ17-6.02 may induce apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, inhibit tumor cell progression by attenuating macrophage infiltration, and inhibit the phosphorylation of several mediators of tumor cell proliferation including Src kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 (ERK1) and 2 (ERK2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B), signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT-2), and serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2 (Chk-2). GZ17-6.02 may also inhibit certain super enhancers (SEs) that play an important role in the regulation of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway and cancer stem cell activity. Super enhancers (SEs) are unique areas of the genome that are densely bound by numerous transcription factors and play a pivotal role in the cell, including tissue specification, identity and maintenance. SEs are known to regulate the expression of associated genes and often drive high-level transcription. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803
A fusion protein complex composed of a mutated form of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 (IL-15N72D) and a soluble, dimeric IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ra) Fc fusion protein (IL-15Ra-Fc) (IL-15N72D/IL-15Ra-Fc), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, superagonist interleukin-15:interleukin-15 receptor alphaSu/Fc fusion complex ALT-803 binds to the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta-common gamma chain (IL-2Rbetagamma) receptor on natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which activates and increases the levels of NK cells and memory CD8+(CD44high) T-cells. The memory T-cells enhance the secretion of the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-g), which further potentiates the immune response against tumor cells. This may increase tumor cell killing and decrease tumor cell proliferation. IL-15 regulates CD8+ T and NK cell development, activation and proliferation. By coupling IL-15 to IL15Ra-Fc, this agent has a prolonged drug half-life and shows an increased ability to bind IL-2Rbetagamma, which enhances its immune stimulatory activity as compared to IL-15 alone. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse
An aqueous oral rinse composed of an electrolyte solution supersaturated with phosphate and calcium ions with antimucositis and analgesic activities. This solution may help relieve mucositis and mucositis-induced pain by restoring the natural electrolyte and pH balance of human saliva and lubricating mucosal tissues of the mouth, tongue and oropharynx. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
supinoxin
(Other name for: P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902)
Supprelin
(Other name for: histrelin acetate)
Suprane
(Other name for: desflurane)
Suprax
(Other name for: cefixime)
Suprep®
(Other name for: sodium sulfate/potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate-based laxative)
suramin sodium
A sodium salt form of suramin, a polysulphonated naphthylurea with potential antineoplastic activity. Suramin blocks the binding of various growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), to their receptors, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. This agent also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis; retroviral reverse transcriptase; uncoupling of G-proteins from receptors; topoisomerases; cellular folate transport; and steroidogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin antigen
A tumor-associated antigen. Vaccination with survivin antigen may result in a cytotoxic T-cell response against survivin antigen-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. Overexpressed in many tumors, endogenous survivin inhibits tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin antigen vaccine DPX-Survivac
A lipid depot-based therapeutic cancer vaccine composed of survivin epitopes, a universal T Helper peptide and a polynucleotide adjuvant encapsulated in liposomes and then formulated in the hydrophobic carrier Montanide ISA51 VG, with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon injection of the survivin antigen vaccine DPX-Survivac, a depot is created at the injection site from which the antigens and adjuvant are released. This vaccine may elicit a long lasting cellular response against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an induction of tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin mRNA antagonist EZN-3042
A locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense oligonucleotide targeting survivin mRNA, with potential antineoplastic activity. EZN-3042 hybridizes to survivin mRNA, thereby blocking translation of survivin protein and inhibiting survivin-induced anti-apoptotic activity and promoting tumor cell apoptosis in survivin-overexpressing tumor cells. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. LNAs contain a methylene bridge linking 2'-oxygen and 4'-carbon of ribose sugar rings, thereby increasing their stability and decreasing degradation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccine
A modified recombinant nonapeptide (LMLGEFLKL) derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, survivin Sur1M2 peptide vaccine may elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against survivin-expressing cancers, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. The survivin protein inhibits caspase activation and apoptosis; it is undetectable in normal adult tissues but is expressed by several human cancers including lung, colon, breast, pancreas, and prostate cancer as well as hematopoietic malignancies and skin cancers. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin/p53/HER2 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cell vaccine
An autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) derived from survivin, p53 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ERBB2), with immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, this DC vaccine may elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these TAAs, resulting in tumor cell death. Survivin, p53 and HER2 are essential in neoplastic growth, and are considered to be universal tumor antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
survivin-expressing CVD908ssb-TXSVN vaccine
An orally bioavailable Salmonella-based survivin vaccine composed of a weakened form of a live strain of Salmonella bacteria (CVD908ssb strain) that has been genetically modified to produce the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) survivin, with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the CVD908ssb-TXSVN vaccine, the expressed survivin stimulates the immune response to elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against survivin-expressing cancer cells, resulting in a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an induction of tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family expressed during embryonic development, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers while absent in most normal adult cells; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sustained-exposure dexamethasone formulation OTO-104
A sustained-release (SR) poloxamer hydrogel formulation containing the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DXM), with potential otoprotective and anti-apoptotic activities. Prior to the administration of an ototoxic drug and upon intratympanic (IT) injection of the DXM sustained-exposure formulation OTO-104, DXM is slowly released from the hydrogel over time; DMX then binds to glucocorticoid nuclear receptors, and activates cell survival pathways. This prevents ototoxic drug-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating anti-oxidant enzymes, blocking the activation of inflammatory cytokines and inducing stress signaling pathways, which ultimately prevents apoptosis of auditory hair cells in the inner ear compartment. This prevents or reduces drug-induced ototoxicity caused by certain therapeutic agents, such as platinum-based anticancer agents. This may reduce or prevent hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The SR formulation provides increased concentrations of DXM in the inner ear and maintains the elevated levels for a longer time without the need of the multiple IT injections needed when using non-SR DXM formulations. This agent also reduces the symptoms of certain ear-related disorders. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sustained-release mitomycin C hydrogel formulation UGN-101
A sustained-release (SR) hydrogel polymer-based formulation containing the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C (MMC), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon local administration of the SR MMC hydrogel formulation to the upper urinary tract via a ureteral catheter, the gel solidifies and deposits MMC locally to prevent the excretion of this chemotherapeutic agent via urinary flow. In turn, MMC alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Due to its reverse thermal-gelation properties, this gel is able to stay in a liquid state at cold temperatures and solidifies at body temperature. This allows for increased accumulation of MMC locally in the upper urinary tract which leads to increased efficacy compared to standard intravesical delivery of MMC for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
sustained-release mitomycin C hydrogel formulation UGN-102
A sustained-release (SR) reverse thermal (RT) hydrogel formulation containing the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C (MMC), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravesical instillation of the SR MMC hydrogel formulation UGN-102, the liquid converts into gel form and conforms to the bladder wall, allowing MMC to be deposited locally in the bladder to prevent the excretion of this chemotherapeutic agent via urinary flow. In turn, MMC alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Due to its reverse thermal-gelation properties, this gel is able to stay in a liquid state at cold temperatures, at 4 degrees Celsius, and transition to a water-soluble gel at body temperature. This allows for increased accumulation of MMC locally in the upper urinary tract which leads to increased efficacy compared to standard intravesical delivery of MMC for bladder cancer. Compared to UGN-101, in UGN-102 the strength of MMC is lower. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sustiva
(Other name for: efavirenz)
Sustol
(Other name for: granisetron)
Sustol
(Other name for: extended-release granisetron polymer formulation)
Sutent
(Other name for: sunitinib malate)
sutimlimab
A preparation of autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes targeting SLC45A2, a melanoma-associated antigen, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Following peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) collection and ex vivo expansion of SLC45A2-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), sutimlimab is re-infused into the patient, where they target and lyse SLC45A2-expressing tumor cells. While SLC45A2 is expressed by approximately 80% of cutaneous melanomas, its expression is limited in mature normal melanocytes, allowing high tumor selectivity and reduced potential for autoimmune toxicity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccine
A peptide vaccine containing a 15-mer peptide (DLAQMFFCFKELEGW), with C to M alteration at amino acid position 57, derived from the anti-apoptosis protein survivin, and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration of SVN53-67/M57-KLH peptide vaccine, this peptide is able to bind both HMC class I and II molecules and may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as well as a T-helper cell response against survivin-expressing cancer cells. This may result in decreased tumor cell proliferation and ultimately tumor cell death. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family, expressed during embryonic development while absent in most normal adult cells, is upregulated in a variety of human cancers; its expression in tumors is associated with a more aggressive phenotype, decreased survival, and increased resistance to chemotherapy. KLH may enhance immune recognition and may promote an enhanced response. As SVN53-67 is weakly immunogenic in humans, the M57 alteration may lead to greater affinity towards HLA-A*0201 and thus an enhanced antitumor immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Syk inhibitor HMPL-523
An orally available inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration of Syk inhibitor HMPL-523, this agent binds to and inhibits the activity of Syk. This inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, which leads to the inhibition of B-cell activation, and prevents tumor cell activation, migration, adhesion and proliferation. Syk, a non-receptor cytoplasmic, BCR-associated tyrosine kinase, is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and is often overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies; it plays a key role in B-cell receptor signaling. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070
An orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus-associated kinases (JAK), with potential anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, Syk-JAK inhibitor PRT062070 specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of Syk, JAK1, and JAK3 with preferential inhibition of JAK1 and JAK3-dependent cytokine-mediated signaling and functional responses. This negatively affects the downstream JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, and leads to both reduced inflammation in various animal models and enhanced antiproliferative activity towards non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cell lines. Syk is a non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction in cells of hematopoietic origin including B cells, macrophages, basophils and neutrophils. Abnormal function of Syk has been implicated in several hematopoietic malignancies including NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in the signaling of many cytokines and growth factors and is involved in cellular proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and the immune response; JAK kinases may be upregulated in inflammatory diseases, myeloproliferative disorders, and various malignancies. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Sylatron
(Other name for: peginterferon alfa-2b)
Sylvant
(Other name for: siltuximab)
Symadine
(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
Symbicort
(Other name for: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate inhalation aerosol)
Symmetrel
(Other name for: amantadine hydrochloride)
Sympt-X
(Other name for: glutamine)
Sympt-X G.I.
(Other name for: glutamine)
synbiotic supplement
A nutritional supplement comprised of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients, with potential immunomodulating and gastrointestinal (GI) flora-restoring activity. Upon ingestion of the synbiotic supplement, the prebiotics and probiotics work synergistically in the GI tract, thereby modulating the GI flora ecosystem and may improve the functions of the intestinal barrier. In addition, synbiotics may have a beneficial effect on the immune system. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Syndros
(Other name for: dronabinol)
Synestrin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Synribo
(Other name for: omacetaxine mepesuccinate)
synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine
A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synthetic brain tumor peptides with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, synthetic brain tumor peptides-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)l and antibody responses against glioma tumor cells, resulting in glioma tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-Montanide ISA-51 vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of multiple synthetic breast cancer peptides and the adjuvant tetanus toxoid helper peptide emulsified in the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with immunopotentiation activity. Vaccination with this cancer vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against breast cancer cells. Synthetic breast cancer peptides may stimulate the immune response against cells that produce breast cancer markers such as erbB2 (HER2/neu) while tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC molecules as a nonspecific vaccine helper epitope, resulting in a long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic breast cancer peptides-tetanus toxoid-poly ICLC vaccine
A cancer vaccine comprised of nine class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted breast cancer associated peptides, the tetanus toxoid helper peptide and the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly ICLC, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. The nine peptides derived from six cancer associated proteins are epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and four cancer/testis antigens (CTAs: MAGE-A1, -A3, -A10, and NY-ESO-1). Vaccination with this vaccine may elicit a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells overexpressing these tumor associated antigens TAAs). As a nonspecific T-helper epitope, tetanus toxoid helper peptide binds to class II MHC and results in long-term immunopotentiation by increasing the helper T-cell response. Poly ICLC, the double-stranded RNA molecules of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with poly L-lysine in carboxymethylcellulose, binds to TLR3 and induces the release of cytokines which may help boost the immune response against the TAAs. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910
A synthetic tumor-associated peptide (TUMAP)-based cancer vaccine directed against colorectal cancer with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Synthetic colorectal tumor-associated peptides vaccine IMA910 contains 13 different synthetic tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs), each of which represents a tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific for colorectal cancer. Upon administration, this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against colorectal tumors expressing these TAAs, which may result in a reduction in colorectal tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic glioblastoma mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2
A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of one or two de novo synthesized patient-specific tumor-mutated peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB mutated tumor-specific peptides vaccine therapy APVAC2 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the selected mutated tumor-associated peptides, which results in decreased GB growth. These peptides are specifically selected and synthesized based on the expression of the patient’s own mutated tumor-associated antigens, which were detected during individual tumor genome sequencing. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic glioblastoma tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1
A personalized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of five to ten peptides associated with glioblastoma (GB), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with synthetic GB tumor-associated peptides vaccine therapy APVAC1 stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the tumor associated peptides, and results in decreased GB growth. The peptides are derived from a glioma actively-personalized vaccine consortium (GAPVAC) warehouse and are specifically selected based on the patient's expression of tumor-associated antigens. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic hTERT DNA vaccine INO-1400
A DNA vaccine consisting of a plasmid encoding the full-length sequence of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), which is the catalytic subunit of human telomerase and synthesizes telomeric DNA at the chromosome ends, containing two immunogenic mutations, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal vaccination of the hTERT-encoding DNA vaccine INO-1400 in combination with electroporation, hTERT protein is expressed and activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against telomerase-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. Telomerase prolongs the functional lifespan of cells via the restoration and maintenance of telomere length. Abnormally activated in tumorigenesis, telomerase is expressed in the majority of human cancer cells, but its expression is low or non-existent in normal cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic human papillomavirus 16 E6 peptide
A synthetic peptide sequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E6. The E6 oncoprotein is implicated in the tumorigenesis of cervical carcinoma. Vaccination with HPV 16 E6 peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing the E6 oncoprotein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic human secretin
A synthetic human therapeutic agent which is chemically identical or similar to endogenous secretin, a peptide hormone found in the mucosal S-cells of the proximal small intestine. Secretin stimulates the pancreatic acinar cells and ductal epithelial cells to emit bicarbonate rich digestive fluids, thereby increases duodenal bicarbonate level. Bicarbonate neutralizes acidity of the intestines, consequently increasing the pH and facilitating the action of intestinal digestive enzymes. In addition, secretin stimulates the stomach and the liver to produce pepsin and bile, respectively. Both pepsin and bile aide the digestive action of the duodenum, which resulting in the prevention of gastric inflammation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic hypericin
A topical ointment formulation containing a synthetic form of hypericin, an anthraquinone derivative that is naturally found in the yellow flower of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), with potential antineoplastic and photosensitizing activities. Upon topical administration of the ointment to the tumor site, hypericin becomes activated through the application of visible fluorescent light. During photoactivation, hypericin generates singlet oxygen, which induces DNA damage, necrosis and apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth. The use of visible light for activation avoids the risk of developing secondary malignancies, which are frequently associated with other photodynamic therapies that are dependent on ultraviolet A exposure. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic long E6 peptide-Toll-like receptor ligand conjugate vaccine ISA201
A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of two highly immunogenic synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are 25-35 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV)-type 16 oncoprotein E6, and conjugated to a proprietary toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand (TLR2-L) immunoadjuvant, with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, the TLR2-L moiety of the synthetic long E6 peptides TLR ligand conjugate vaccine targets and binds to TLRs expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), particularly dendritic cells (DCs). This increases the direct targeting of, binding to, uptake by, and processing of the SLPs into small pieces by the DCs. The processed viral epitopes are presented by DCs, which activate and stimulate the host immune system to mount specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T (Th) cell responses against HPV E6-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased growth of HPV E6-expressing tumor cells. The E6 oncoprotein is implicated in tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. The TLR2-L improves antigen processing and presentation by, and activation of APCs, thereby improving the immunostimulatory effect of the vaccine. The two peptides cover the most immunodominant regions of the HPV16 E6 oncogenic protein and contain both Th and CTL epitopes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01
A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of thirteen synthetic long peptides (SLPs), which are 25-35 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins E6 and E7, with potential immunostimulating and antitumor activities. Upon administration, synthetic long E6/E7 peptides vaccine HPV-01 is taken up and degraded into small pieces by dendritic cells. The processed viral epitopes are presented by dendritic cells, which may stimulate the host immune system to mount both cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) and helper T cell responses against HPV E6/E7-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased tumor growth. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are implicated in the tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. The SLPs allow for optimal presentation by antigen-presenting cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic long HPV16 E6/E7 peptides vaccine ISA101b
A therapeutic peptide vaccine consisting of nine overlapping synthetic long peptides (SLPs), 25 to 32 amino acids in size, derived from the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) oncoprotein E6 and three SLPs, each 35 amino acids in size, derived from HPV16 E7, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, the synthetic long HPV16 E6/E7 peptides vaccine ISA101b is taken up and the long peptides are proteolytically degraded to form shorter peptide epitopes by dendritic cells (DCs). The processed viral epitopes are presented by DCs, which stimulate the host immune system to mount helper T-cell and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells. This results in the destruction of tumor cells and leads to decreased tumor growth. The HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins are implicated in the tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. The SLPs allow optimal presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Compared to ISA101, the E6 SLPs in ISA101b are identical, overlap by ten to eighteen residues and cover the complete sequence of HPV16 E6. However, ISA101 has four overlapping SLPs E7 peptides while ISA101b has three E7 SLPs, which leaves seven amino acids of the E7 SLPs uncovered in ISA101b but this modification is not likely to alter the immunogenicity of ISA101b. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccine
A cancer vaccine containing synthetic epitope peptides derived from melanoma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including melanoma-melanocyte antigen gp100(280-288), melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase(1-9), and melanoma-associated antigen melan-A(27-35). Upon administration, synthetic melanoma-associated antigens vaccine may stimulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response against melanoma cells that express TAAs which share epitopes with the vaccine epitope peptides, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent
A synthetic, non-recombinant, pegylated, peptidic erythropoiesis stimulating agent. Synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent binds to and activates the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor on erythroid progenitor cells, thereby inducing their proliferation and differentiation into mature erythrocytes. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccine
A cancer vaccine consisting of E-PRA and E-PSM, two synthetic peptide analogs of PRAME (PReferential Antigen MElanoma) and PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen), with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon direct administration into lymph nodes, synthetic peptides E-PRA and E-PSM vaccine may sitmulate a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PRAME- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PRAME and PSMA are tumor-associated antigens upregulated and expressed on the cell surfaces of certain tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic plumbagin PCUR-101
A synthetic form of the plant-derived medicinal agent, plumbagin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Plumbagin may act by inhibiting the expression of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCe), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation (Stat3), protein kinase B (AKT), and certain epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, including vimentin and slug. This results in possible inhibition of proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. PKCe, Stat3, AKT, and the EMT markers vimentin and slug have been linked to the induction and progression of prostate cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic TERT DNA vaccine INO-1401
A DNA vaccine consisting of a plasmid encoding a synthetic, full-length sequence of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which was derived from the consensus sequence from humans and primates and contains two immunogenic mutations (SynCon TERT), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration of INO-1401 in combination with electroporation, TERT protein is expressed and activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against telomerase-expressing tumor cells, which may result in tumor cell death. TERT is the catalytic subunit of telomerase and synthesizes telomeric DNA at the chromosome ends. Telomerase prolongs the functional lifespan of cells via the restoration and maintenance of telomere length. Abnormally activated in tumorigenesis, TERT is expressed by many types of human cancer cells, but its expression is low or non-existent in normal cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
synthetic vaccine particles-rapamycin
A proprietary, biodegradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-based formulation composed of synthetic vaccine particles (SVP) encapsulating the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin (SVP-R), with immunosuppressant and drug-protective activities. Upon administration of SVP-R, the SVP moiety is selectively and preferentially taken up through endocytosis by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), located in the spleen and lymph nodes, specifically dendritic cells (DCs). Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, prevents DC maturation, induces tolerogenic DCs, induces regulatory T cells (Tregs), blocks activation of effector T cells, induces B-cell tolerance, reduces B-cell activation, and prevents antibody formation, thereby inducing immune tolerance. When co-administered with a biological immunogenic drug known to induce the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), SVP-R is able to prevent ADA formation, which prevents the unwanted neutralizing effects of ADAs, increases efficacy of the biological drug, and permits sustained therapeutic activity and repeated administration of the biological drug. In the presence of a specific target antigen, SVP-R is able to prevent an antigen-specific immune response and induces antigen-specific immune tolerance. Compared to the administration of free rapamycin, SVP-R induces long-lasting immunological tolerance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Synthoestrin
(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)
Synthroid
(Other name for: levothyroxine sodium)
Synthroid
(Other name for: levothyroxine sodium)
Syntocinon
(Other name for: recombinant oxytocin)